This study entitled principals‟ instructional supervision and teachers‟ performance is presented as a result of a study conducted in secondary school in Aba South LGA of Abia State Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to determine principal instructional supervision, to assess teachers‟ performance, and to establish the relationship between principals‟ instructional supervision and teachers‟ performance. The researcher employed descriptive correlational design. The correlational design was used to find the relationships of the two variables principals‟ instructional supervision and teachers‟ performance. A thirty-item questionnaire was design based on 4-point linkert’s scale was distributed to principals and teachers to obtain the primary data. Frequencies and percentages were calculated for descriptive statistics while

Pearson’s coefficient correlation was used to measure the relationship between variables, using (SPSS version 16.0) the findings of the study indicated on principals‟ instructional supervision with an overall mean was (2.78)which indicated that principals of the secondary school perform their instructional supervision and the findings of the study on teachers‟ performance indicated an overall mean of (2.57) which imply that teachers perform their school responsibilities. The findings on the relationship between principals‟ instructional supervision and teachers „performance was indicated by the R and sig value (R-Value=0.000 and sig=0.01),this was so because the sig-value was less than 0.05 which is the required level of significance in order to declare a significant relationship, the null hypothesis was therefore rejected and this implies that improvement on principal instructional supervision through monitoring of teachers attendance on daily bases, ensuring the professional development of teachers and assisting of teachers when they have problems in their lessons .while teachers performance will increase when teachers‟ fill in their weekly scheme of work on the first day of the term ,prepare the scheme of work using the curriculum . The researcher concluded that the principals should intensify more effort in their instructional supervision in term of inspecting student note books to ascertain the level of coverage of topics and supporting teachers in their lesson, in terms of scheme of work, lesson plan and lesson note this will help to improve teachers‟ performance. The study also recommend that Government and professional bodies in the education sector should organize periodic capacity development workshops for teachers of secondary schools on teachers‟ performance in terms of how to prepare their scheme of work, preparation of lesson plan and lesson notes, various methods of lesson delivery which can help them to improve in their teachers‟ performance as well as teaching and learning processes in secondary schools.




This chapter presents the background to the study, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives, research questions, hypothesis, and scope of the study and significance of the study.

1.1. Background of the study

The background of the study includes historical, theoretical, conceptual and contextual perspectives.

1.1.1Historical Perspective

Education is aimed at imparting knowledge and skill, and inculcating human values which help in personal and professional growth.  It is  the  „education‟  which constitutes  an  essential  prerequisite  for  achieving national goal of inclusive development and equitable justice  to  the  society  at  large.  Giving quality education is the priority of each and every nation, it forms the basis  of  socio  economic  and  personal  growth,  an indicator  of  national  progress.  Of  late,  there  have been  high  expectations  from  schools  in  terms  of transparency  and  accountability  to  improve  the quality  of  education. This demand has augmented the need for better supervision of in house activities of schools. Shilpa, (2015) Emphasizing  the  role  of  supervision  for teachers, observed that the quality education partly depends on how well teachers are trained and supervised since they are one of the key inputs to educational delivery.

Verspoor (1991)

Organizations  supervise  and  evaluate  employee  performance  for  a  variety  of  reasons including retention, promotion and accountability for completing job related tasks. Education is not different as it requires supervision of classroom instruction to evaluate teachers‟ effectiveness.  Also, education aimed at bringing about a positive change in behaviour of the learner. The behavioural change can only occur in learners based on the amount of instruction given to them at any level of education  vis-a-vis how  such  instruction  is  been delivered  during  the  teaching  and  learning  process.  However,  well  packaged instruction at  any  level  of  education  without  effective  supervision  during  the  delivery  period, such instruction may fail to achieve its desired results. In Nigeria, education is on the concurrent list of government and this makes the issue of instructional supervision to vary from one state to another.  However, some states have adequate arrangement in place to effectively supervise instruction at all level of education, particularly in secondary schools while some states failed to put necessary machineries in place to effectively supervise instruction in their secondary schools, (Nwaogu, 1980).

The broad goals of secondary education include, among others, the preparation of the individual for useful living within the society. Thus, in order to achieve the stated goals, there is need for effective supervision of instruction in secondary schools. In general, instructional supervision is geared towards the improvement of the teaching and learning situation for the benefit of both the teacher and the learners. Evidence from previous studies conducted by scholars (Handal & Lauvas, 1987; Gregory, 2005 & Bilesanmi, 2006) showed that instructional supervision has always been regarded as an essential and integral part of school administration and basically geared towards the improvement of all factors in teaching and learning.

Blumberg (1985) notes that at this time supervision began to focus on improving instruction. He offers the following quote from an 1845 document titles the annual report of the superintendent of common schools of the state of common schools of the state of New York. “Too much reliance ought not to be placed upon visitation to the schools, to give methods to the teacher and efficacy to his instructions. Instruction is the primary object of visitation, and more instruction can be given to teachers of a town when assembled together in one day” Blumberg asserts that although supervisors were no longer clergy, that were no less evangelical. Within a given country, Superintendent stated. “The only salvation for the republic is to be sought for in our school”.

Supervision  of  instruction  in  present  day  Nigeria  could  be  traced  to  the  1982  Education  Ordinance.  It  was  the  first  attempt  by  the  colonial  administration  to  establish  any  form  of control  over  the  development  and  growth  of  schools. The ordinance provided for the Establishment of a general board of education which was to appoint an inspector of schools in West Africa. This appointment marked the beginning of the recognition of the need for a form of supervisory service in the educational system.  The  Federal  Republic  of  Nigeria,  (2013)  identified  management  of  curriculum  and  instruction,  supervision  of  classroom  instruction,  monitoring  and  evaluating  students‟  progress  and  achievement,  promoting  and  enhancing  learning environment, establishing and supporting continuous staff development and procuring  instructional materials for teaching and learning as major supervisory functions of secondary school principals. The educational policy also makes it clear that one of the cardinal objectives  of  administration  in  education  is  to  ensure  quality  control  through  regular  and  continuous  Supervision of instruction and other educational services.

1.1.2Theoretical perspective

This study adopted the psychological theory of supervision which was explored in education by planturroot (2006), according to this theory ,organization stands as a body where it has other parts of the body that work together and it has a head that delegate duties to other parts of the organization, this head serve as an overseer who supervises the function of each part of the organization, This theory is in line with my study in which the principal stands as the instructional supervisor who delegate and supervises the performance of teachers in the organization.

According to this psychological theory the growth and management of an organization is carried out by the use of the three advocated philosophers namely, essentialism, experimentalism and existentialism. The supervisor will determine and direct the parts of the organization according to these three philosophers.

1.1.3. Conceptual perspectives

(Marecho, 2012). View supervision as a coinage that was derived from two Latin words:  ‘super’ and ‘video’.  Super means „over‟ or ‘above’, while video means ‘to see’.  Therefore, taken together, super-video simply means ‘to see from above’ or to ‘oversee’. According to  Mohanty  (2008),  education supervision  carries  the  same  general  concept  and  is applied  to  both  academic  and  administrative  tasks. Administrative functions  of  supervision  included providing physical facilities to the teachers, checking the  safety  and  security  of  the  school  plant, maintaining proper service conditions and redressing grievances of teachers in time, checking the accounts and  records  of  the  school  and  maintaining  proper distribution  of  work  load.  The  academic  tasks included  monitoring  of  instruction,  providing guidance  to  teachers  for  improving  teaching evaluation and assessment of pupil’s achievement.

According to Okumbe (1998), supervision is considered as that phase of educational administration that helps in the effectiveness of instruction. Glathorn (1990), stress out in his view point, sees supervision as the comprehensive setoff services and processes that is used to help teachers in facilitating their professional development so that teachers can attain their goals. Supervision is divided into two; there is general supervision and the instructional supervision.

Ijaiya (1991) is of the view that school supervision is all the legitimate efforts made by designate professionals to assist the classroom teachers to improve on his competence so that he became a staff propelling practitioner as well as ensuring favorable setting for effective teaching and learning. Similarly, Glickman et al.  (2004)  shared  the  above  idea  as  supervision denotes  a  common  vision  of  what  teaching  and learning which can and should be, developed collaboratively by  formally  designated  supervisors,  teachers,  and other members of the school community. According to Igwe,  (cited in Enaigbe, 2009) indicated that  to  supervise  means  to  direct,  oversee;  guide  to make sure that  expected standards are met. Durotulu (2002) also supported the above statement that supervision  is a “the  day -to-day guidance  of  all  educational  operations,  coordination of the detailed work and cultivation of good working interpersonal relations among all people involved in the  teaching-learning  process”.

Furthermore, according  to  Chiovere  (1995)  supervision  involves the assessment  of  proper  implementation  of  policy, correction  of  identified  weaknesses,  direction  and redirection  of  defects  attainment  of  stated  aims, objectives  and  goals  of  an  education  system  at  a given level. It is therefore evident that a principal as a supervisor should  be  a  leader  with  requisite  skills  for  effective discharge  of  his/her  supervisory  role.  Similarly,  the definitions  of  supervision  highlighted  above  imply that  the  focus  of  supervision  in  a  school  is  mainly related  with  providing  professional  assistance  for teachers,  the  improvement  of  instruction  and increasing of students‟ learning performance.

Instructional supervision is concerned with the student learning in the classroom. It is also referred to as clinical supervision and plan to assist teacher in his/her classroom performance

(Sergiovanni $ Starratt, (1993). Okumbe (1998) as well view instructional supervision as a help in the formation and implementation of the scheme of work. It is also used in the evaluation of instructional program and how instructional resources are delivered. Instruction supervisor helps to conduct and coordinate staff in-service. He advice and assist the teachers that are involved in instructional activities.

The helping aspect of supervision involves facilitating, supporting, guiding and assisting teachers to improve their performance professionally. The purpose of this supervision is to see that teachers maintain and improve their classroom instruction, the principal play the overseeing function by offering advisory and consultancy services in the areas of subject specialization and giving policy direction and guidance which also helps to improve teachers performance, the principal who is the head of school ensures that classes are held, students work are marked and check ,teachers prepare and have the scheme of work and lesson plan ,punctuality of teachers and students, monitoring and fair appraisal of all teachers performance.

On the other hand principals and vice principals of schools who are the head teachers play an important role in assisting teachers to grow professionally through staff development training program. He also offers guidance on the principal instructional in classroom teaching so as to improve teacher performance.

Teacher Performance

Teachers‟  Performance  –  refers  to  lesson preparation, involvement of co-curricular activities of work, pupil discipline management, counselling  and  guidance,  participating  in  staff  meetings,  actual  teaching,  routine assessment of learners, maintenance of record of work covered and learners‟ records and time management. Performance implies a combination of doing a job effectively and efficiently, with a minimum degree of employee created disruptions

(Decenzo & Robbins, 1998). By  performance  therefore  the  researcher‟s  operational  definition  implied:   teacher‟s overall  classroom  management,  effective  teaching,  motivation  to  teach,  school  and classroom punctuality as well good team  work.

Katarasibwa (2006) looked at Teacher performance as the process by which the teacher is able to attain a maximum requirements level of their job in an effort to fulfill the school objectives. Teacher performance must be geared towards promoting the process of teaching and learning for the benefit of the pupils through proper use of lesson plan and lesson notes during the lesson. In this study,  teacher  performance is  conceptualized  as the  extent  to  which  the  teacher achieves school objectives through lesson preparations which involve making schemes of work,  lesson  plans,  record  of  work  done,  preparing  and  using  learners‟ registers,  actual classroom  teaching,  assessment  and  evaluation  of  the  learners,  attending  staff  meetings, management  of  learners‟ discipline,  involvement  in  co-curricular  activities,  counselling and guidance, are all means by which teachers‟ performance can also be achieved.

1.1.4. Contextual perspective

Danko-Wasagu Local Government is among the twenty one (21) Local Government Areas of Abia State, Nigeria. It covers a geographical land area of four thousand two hundred and eight

(4,208) square kilometers.  It  is boarded in the south by Sakaba Local Government area of Abia State, in the west by Zuru Local Government of  Kebbi  State, and  in the  North  – East  by  Bukkuyum Local  Government  of  Zamfara  State.  Danko/Wasagu lies between latitude 110 N and longitude 50 and 60E of the equator (Girma, 2008). The estimated population of the Local Government Area is about two hundred and sixty five thousand, two hundred and seventy one (265,271) people (NPC. 2006 as cited in Girma 2008). The topography of the local government is flat low land area with a fertile soil covered by sandy soil, sometimes coarse in texture with the several fadama and alluvial plain suitable for Agricultural activities.  The  local  government  is  made up  of  eight  administrative  districts  namely:  Danko, Wasagu,  Ribah,  Waje,  Kanya,  Bena,  Kyabu  and  Wari districts.  The  weather  is  marked  by  a  single  rainy season  and  long  dry  season.  The  average  rainfall  is 720mm,  the  rainy  season  period  is  between  May  to October and the length of rainy season is about four to five months. The mean temperature range is 310C and 380C respectively. Hence, the months of November to February are particularly cold due to dry harmattan and from March to May are generally hot and wet as in the tropics (Girma, 2008).

During this months of May to August this is the period which the external examinations are written nationwide. Most of the teachers in this area are farmers and consist a high level of indigenes of that area, which is also far from the state capital most teachers do not accept posting in this area except few. The teachers are more concern about their farming activities these are some the real problems on ground which could have attributed to high level of poor performance of principal supervisory activities in the school which affect the general performance of schools in the external examinations. The researcher intends to look at the relationship between principal instructional supervision and teachers‟ performance in secondary schools in Aba South LGA of Abia State.

1.2. Statement of the Problem        

The basic goal of secondary education in Nigeria is to develop the individual‟s mental capacity and character for higher education and useful living within the society (FRN, 2013). In spite of the societal demand for teacher performance  in education and the need for thorough supervision in schools, there is a growing concern about the realization of secondary education objectives due to doubt that many principals give little attention to supervision of instructional activities in secondary schools. The recent poor instructional competence and performance of teachers which  results  in  students‟  poor  academic  performance  has  been  a  subject  of  concern  to stakeholders of education in Abia State.

This development motivated the researcher to carry out a study to investigate the relationship between principals‟ instructional supervision and teacher‟s performance OF secondary schools in Aba South LGA of Abia State, Nigeria.

1.3 Purpose of the study      

The purpose of this study is to find out the relationship between principal instructional supervision and teachers‟ performance in secondary Schools in Aba South LGA of Abia State, Nigeria.

1.4 Specific Objectives

The following specific objectives were,

  1. To determine the level of principals‟ instructional supervision in secondary Schools in Aba South LGA, Abia State.
  2. To assess the level of teachers‟ performance in selected Government Secondary Schools in Aba South LGA, Abia State.
  • To establish the relationship between principals‟ instructional supervision and teachers‟ performance in secondary Schools in Aba South LGA., Abia State.

1.5. Research Questions

The study answers the following research questions,

  1. What is the level of principals‟ instructional supervision in secondary Schools in Aba South LGA, Abia State?
  2. What is the level of teachers‟ performance in secondary Schools in Aba South LGA., Abia State?
  • Is there a relationship between principals‟ instructional supervision and teachers‟ performance in secondary Schools in Aba South LGA, Abia State?
    • Null Hypothesis

Ho: There is no significant relationship between principals‟ instructional supervision and teachers‟ performance in secondary Schools in Aba South LGA., Abia State, Nigeria.

1.7 Significance of the Study

The study will be of importance to the following stalk holders in education:-

  1. Zonal Inspectorate Division of the Ministry of Education:-The study will provide relevant information to educational administrators on the relationship between principals‟ instructional supervision and teachers‟ performance. This information will serve as a basis for the educational administrators to strengthen the policy on principals‟ instructional supervision to improve teacher performance. It will assist the Zonal Inspectorate Division of the Ministry of Education in Aba South LGA and Abia State with new knowledge on the importance of principals‟ instructional supervision of schools to improve teacher performance.
  2. Principals and vice principals: –It will help principals of schools on various areas to supervise in schools so as to assess teachers‟ performance, and also to improve, prioritize, and re-strategize the process of principal instructional supervision.
  3. Teachers:-The outcome of this research study will provide teachers with new knowledge on the importance of preparing scheme of work, lesson plan and lesson notes and the relationship between principal instructional supervision and various factors that affect teachers‟ performance.
  4. Academic research:-The study will also serve as a source of information for other researchers who wish to carry out a study on a similar study in other parts of the state.


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