INFLUENCE OF RATIONAL SELF INQUIRY AND COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING COUNSELLING METHODS ON BULLYING BEHAVIOUR AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL PUPILS IN LOKOJA, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

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INFLUENCE OF RATIONAL SELF INQUIRY AND COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING COUNSELLING METHODS ON BULLYING BEHAVIOUR AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL  PUPILS  IN LOKOJA, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA  

ABSTRACT

This study examined the Effects of Rational Self Analysis (RSA) and Cognitive Restructuring (CR) Counselling Techniques on Bullying Behaviour among Secondary School Students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria. It has six stated objectives to carry out the study upon which six research questions, hypotheses and basic assumptions were respectively or correspondingly formulated. The research design used for this study was quasi experimental design using pre-test post-test. 164 secondary school students formed the population out of which 20 are quasi experimental groups that constituted the sample size of the study using purposive, simple and stratified sampling techniques. Data for the study were collected using tudents‟ Bullying Behaviour Scale (SBBS). The study had two treatment groups namely: Rational Self Analysis and Cognitive Restructuring counselling techniques. The participants were assigned into these two groups and exposed to treatment.

Validity and reliability of the Students‟ Bullying Behaviour Scale was established with r = 0.85 which was considered reliable for the study. The results of the study showed that there was significant effect of rational self analysis counselling technique on physical bullying behaviour among secondary school students with (p = 0.000). There was significant effect of cognitive restructuring counselling technique on physical bullying behaviour among secondary school students with (p = 0.000); amongst others. Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made: Since there was significant effect of RSA counselling technique on physical bullying behaviour of secondary school students, professional guidance counsellors, psychologists and other care providers in the secondary schools should utilised rational self analysis counselling technique in treating and reducing physical bullying behaviour among secondary school students. Since there was significant effect of CR counselling technique on physical bullying behaviour of secondary school students, professional guidance counsellors, psychologists and other care providers operating within and outside the secondary school environment should used cognitive restructuring counselling technique in treating and reducing physical bullying behaviour among secondary school students.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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CHAPTER ONE

 

INTRODUCTION

 

1.1 Background to the Study

 

Bullying behaviour is a persistent and repeated negative action which is intended to intimidate, hurt another person in a weaker position, or the systematic abuse of power (Smith     et al as cited in Owoyemi, 2012).

Townsend, Alan, Chikobvu, Carl and Gary (2012), said that bullying is generally defined as largely unprovoked, negative physical or psychological actions perpetrated repeatedly over time between bullies and victims. They said bullying can lead to fear of school, absenteeism, and stunted academic progress, which in turn are precursors to dropping out of school.

Owuamanam (2015) opined that bullying is a form of aggressive behaviour manifested by the use of force or coercion to affect others particularly when the behaviour is habitual and involves imbalance of power.

Eweniyi, Adeoye, Ayodele and Adebayo (2013), opined that bullying constitutes a

significant threat to the mental, social and physical well being of school children. That it is an old phenomenon and worldwide problem, and has defied several efforts to curt it.

Thus, school bullying behaviour is a serious problem which has received considerable media attention. A National Survey in 2011 carried out at USA; found that twenty three percent (23%) of public school students (aged 12 – 18) reported bullying victimization (Roberts, Kemp, and Truman, 2013).  Another National Survey in USA found that twenty eight percent (28%) of students (aged 12 – 18)  reported being bullied on school property, and an estimated sixteen percent (16%) reported being  bullied electronically in 2011 (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention, 2012).

Bullying victims frequently experience depression, anxiety, low self esteem, school adjustment problems, academic difficulties, and suicidal behaviour (Duckworth and Follette, 2012; Albayrak, 2012). Being victimized or bullied generates psychosocial distress in children and adolescents, and victimization can be a precursor to emotional and behavioural disorders, low academic achievement, dropping out of school, and subsequently substance misuse. There has been increasing research interest in USA in the relationship between victimization and substance misuse   (Radliff, Wheaton, Robinson, and Morris, 2012).

Tambawal and Umar (2017) were of the views in their study that bullying has effects on secondary school students in Nigeria. That bullying in schools in Nigeria was a phenomenon that has serious psychological conseque221 nces for victims and these include; low psychological well – being, poor school adjustment, psychological distress and physical illness. They opined that some of the major causes of bullying identified are; defective or wrong – upbringing of children, peer group influence among others. Again, they identified some of the effects of bullying as; fear and tension in victims, refusing to go to the school on the part of the victims amongst others. Thus, they recommended that every secondary school should have anti – bullying policies and to take appropriate measure to stamp it out.

Adegboyega, Jacob, Uyanne and Jacob (2016), reported that bullying behaviour was the most common form of violence in schools among secondary school students in Yagba West,

Kogi State, Nigeria; That the school management should create conducive environment for       students to feel safe and that victim of bullying should be encouraged to report and not to be     stereotyped; and that cases of bullying should be referred to the school counsellors for proper,   adequate and appropriate handling.

A growing body of National and International research in USA suggests that all types of bullying behaviour or victimization create a proximal risk for substance misuse among adolescents (Fekkes, 2016). In other words, youth who are bullied by their peers are at a heightened risk of  alcohol, tobacco and drug use, although these associations vary, depending on gender, types of  victimization or bullying behaviour (such as physical, mental) and types of substances (Mistral,  2016). Bullying victims suffer from internalizing problems more frequently than non – victims (Kaur, 2014). Victims can display internalizing problems because of a perceived lack of ability to change or improve their situation that reinforces feelings of depression, anxiety or hopelessness (Hong, Dallis, Sterzing, Choi and Smith, 2014).

  1. S. Department of Health and Human Services (2017) said that there are two sources of federally collected data on youth bullying, namely: The 2014 – 2015 school crime supplement –   PDF (National Centre for Education Statistics and Bureau of Justice Statistics) indicates that Nationwide, about 21% of students ages 12 – 18 experienced bullying. The 2015 Youth Risk Behaviour Surveillance System (Centre for Disease Control and Prevention) indicates that   nationwide, 20% of students in grades 9 – 12 report being bullied on school property in the 12 months preceding the survey.

Omoniyi (2013), reported that bullying behaviour was no doubt becoming a common feature and a nightmare in schools both in and outside Nigeria. It was a worrisome practice in schools because it infringes on the child‟s right to human dignity, privacy, freedom and security.

That the physical, emotional and educational consequences of bullying behaviour can never be  underestimated; he further opined that bullying behaviour in schools have manifested  characteristics on both the bullies and their victims as well as the psychosocial and psychological  effects on the victims. That educators and other stakeholders should begin to address the problems of bullying and may encouraged a zero bullying tolerance within and outside the   school community.

In Katsina State of Nigeria, it was reported by Isiaku (2016) that bullies usually threaten the teachers and other victims with dangerous weapons; and are normally involved in taking intoxicant substances which subsequently make them to exhibit unwanted behaviours and carried out nefarious or evil or immoral social ill acts.

In Lagos State of Nigeria, it was reported by Adeosun, Adegbohun, Jejeloye, Oyekule, Ogunlowo and Pedro (2015) that bullying victimization among students in the secondary schools    resulted to a lot of emotional, behavioural and mental health problems. This was why Fareo

(2015), said that bullying was a serious problem for people in the society and Nigeria at large.  That it was a threat no school disregards or dismisses. That it can have negative consequences on the general school climate and on the right of students to learn in a safe environment without   fear. That it can also have negative lifelong consequences both for students who bully and for their victims.

Rational Self Analysis which is a counselling technique helps in correcting cognitive errors emanating from psychological problems which ultimately affects perception of oneself, the world and future; and Cognitive Restructuring Counselling Techniques which helps in reshaping, reorienting and reorganizing one‟s thinking based on his or her emotions and   behaviours; shall be employed to solving adequately, the problem of bullying behaviour among secondary school students. Therefore, the effectiveness of the rational self analysis and cognitive restructuring counselling techniques to this study cannot be overestimated since both techniques    have been used by respective researchers to treat various cases of aggression, conduct disorder, addiction, anger, bullying, to mention but few of them.  This is why Pierce (2016), said the main   assumption of rational self analysis technique is that people contribute to their psychological problems by the way they interpret events. That their emotions stem mainly from their beliefs,   evaluations, interpretations and reactions to life situations; rational self analysis technique assumes that cognitions (thoughts), emotions and behaviours interact significantly and have a reciprocal cause – and – effect relationship.

Rational self analysis postulates that people are born with a potential for both rational and irrational thinking. Therefore, humans have an inborn tendency toward growth and actualization; yet they often sabotage their movement toward growth due to self – defeating patterns they have    learned. Thus, they originally learn irrational beliefs from significant others during childhood,   and they actively reinforce these self – defeating beliefs by repetition, and by behaving as if they are useful. But it is not useful to blame themselves and others; instead, it is important that they   learn how to accept themselves despite their imperfections. So, a major goal of rational self   analysis technique is to achieve unconditional self – acceptance and unconditional acceptance of    others; the more one is able to accept his or her self, the more likely he or she is to accept others.   The therapeutic process of rational self analysis technique involves identifying irrational beliefs, and replacing such levels with more rational and effective ways of thinking. Hence, changing one‟s thinking results in changing one‟s emotional reactions to situations (Pierce, 2016).

Cognitive Behavioural Therapy Association of Los Angeles (2017), viewed cognitive restructuring as a useful tool for understanding and reacting differently to the thinking patterns  that negatively influence ones mood and behaviour. Consequently, the effectiveness of cognitive restructuring counselling technique cannot be underestimated because there are numerous methods of identifying and altering dysfunctional thought pattern. Generally, they all begin with   identifying automatic thoughts, those thoughts which provide a running commentary to their   experience. Instead of accepting all of these thoughts as accurate reflections of reality, the cognitive restructuring therapist helps the client to learn to think of these thoughts as guesses    about what was really going on and consider alternate points of view. In this way, the client is able to develop a more balanced way of thinking about whatever is causing him or her distress.

Owuamanam (2015) was of the view that there are many cases of bullying among   students in Nigeria secondary schools and other school levels. That school administrators in their meetings with parents, for example at Parent – Teacher Association (PTA) meetings and other   occasions opined that bullying was on the increase and warned that parents should cautioned their children. He went further to state that, bullying was a significant problem that can have    impact on the physical and psychological health of those who are bullied. That there may be a  commonality between delinquency and bullying in so much as many physical aggressive  manifestations of bullying characterized delinquent behaviour. That the students who bully their peers at an early age may gain undue boldness and confidence to engaged in more anti – social acts. He concluded by saying that school bullying can interfere with students concentration in their studies which can lead to failure and eventual drop out. School bullying (2012) as cited in

Owuamanam (2015) reviewed the statistics of bullying according to the American Psychological

Association (APA) that approximately 40% to 80% of school age children experienced bullying

at some point during their school careers. The following statistics illustrate the severity of bullying within classroom (School bullying as cited in Owuamanam, 2015). 20% to 40% of   bullying victims actually reported being bullied. 70% of middle school and high school students    experience bullying in school. 7% – 12% of bullies is habitual and poses a serious threat. 23% of 9th graders have carried a weapon to school recently. 5% – 15% of students are constantly   bullied. 27% of students are bullied because of their refusal to engaged in common sexual  practices; 25% of students encouraged bullying if not given proper education and support in anti   – bullying techniques.

 1.2Statement of the Problem

It was keenly or intensely observed by the researcher that the issue of bullying behaviour among students in the secondary schools and the society at large was a serious one which extensively draws the attention of guidance counsellors, psychologists, psychotherapists, educationists, parents and other care providers on how it could be resolved. A lot of negative consequences have happen due to bullying behaviour. Surprisingly and alarmingly, students were the ones mostly involved in the perpetration of the social ill act at large. The social ill acts of bullying behaviour was so common and pronounced these days in the society, according to media reports of students using deadly weapons to intimidate or injure others, threatening of teachers, rape, victimization, to mention but few. In Lokoja the Kogi State Capital in the year 2016, there was a violent killing among youth who are cultists and bullies and who were later discovered to be    secondary school students following the arrest of some of them by the Nigeria Police Force.

Furthermore, secondary school students have experienced series of psychosocial, physical and academic performance issues as a result of bullying behaviour. Such issues as depression, anxiety, low self esteem, low or poor academic performance, drop out of school, suicide amongst others; which are attributed to cultural, institutional, sccial, family, having power over peers, aggressive personality, lack of adult supervision, jealousy, and revenge causes differently.

In line with the fore going, Fareo (2015) said that bullying was a serious problem for people in the society and Nigeria at large. That it was a threat no school disregards or dismisses. That it can have negative consequences on the general school climate and on the right of students to learn in a safe environment without fear. That it can also have negative lifelong consequences both for students who bully and for their victims.

Also, bullying behavior can have effect on learning: Stress and anxiety caused by bullying behaviour and harassment can make it more difficult for children or students to learn. It can cause difficulty in concentration and decrease their ability to focus, which affects their ability to remember things they have learned. Bullying can lead to more serious concerns: Bullying is painful and humiliating, and children or students who are bullied feel embarrassed, battered and shamed. If the pain is not relieved, bullying can even lead to consideration of suicide or violent behaviour (United States Department of Health and Human Services, 2017).

Many researchers have tried finding solutions to the issue and yet the problem keeps on increasing in some alarming proportions and diversifications in the state.

It was against the fore going backdrops that, this study seeks to find remedies to the issue by employing dual counselling techniques or strategies of rational self analysis and cognitive restructuring in handling it. Thus, Rational Self Analysis counselling is a technique based on the idea that many psychological problems are ultimately derived from cognitive errors especially regarding one self, the world and future (Boeree as cited in Abdu, 2015). While Cognitive

Restructuring counselling is a technique based on the assumption that peoples‟ emotions and behaviours are greatly affected by what they think (Gardner as cited in Abdu, 2015). It is a psychosocial therapy that assumes that faulty cognitive or thought pattern cause maladaptive behaviour and emotional responses. The treatment focuses on changing thoughts in order to adjust psychological and personality problems (Ford – Martin, 2014). Asikhia (2014) said that cognitive restructuring counselling technique was a short or long – term treatment designed to change clients thinking about events, in their lives; and that it also strive to change misconceptions, strengthen coping skills, increases self – control and encourage  self – reflection.      It was against this backgrounds that this study sought to investigate the Effects of Rational Self Analysis (RSA) and Cognitive Restructuring (CR) counselling techniques on bullying behaviour among secondary school students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

This study has the below listed objectives:

  1. To find out the effect of Rational Self Analysis Counselling Technique on Physical Bullying Behaviour among Secondary School Students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria.
  2. To find out the effect of Cognitive Restructuring Counselling Technique on Physical Bullying Behaviour among Secondary School Students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria.
  3. To determine the effect of Rational Self Analysis Counselling Technique on Verbal

Bullying Behaviour among Secondary School Students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria.

  1. To determine the effect of Cognitive Restructuring Counselling Technique on Verbal Bullying Behaviour among Secondary School Students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria.
  2. To investigate the differential effects of Rational Self Analysis and Cognitive

Restructuring Counselling Techniques on Physical Bullying Behaviour among Secondary School Students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria.

  1. To investigate the differential effects of Rational Self Analysis and Cognitive

Restructuring Counselling Techniques on Verbal Bullying Behaviour among Secondary School Students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

This study has the following stated research questions to guide it.

  1. What is the effect of Rational Self Analysis Counselling Technique on physical bullying behaviour among Secondary School Students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria?

2 What is the effect of Cognitive Restructuring Counselling Technique on physical bullying behaviour among Secondary School Students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria?

  1. What is the effect of Rational Self Analysis Counselling Technique on verbal bullying behaviour among Secondary School Students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria?

4 What is the effect of Cognitive Restructuring Counselling Technique on verbal bullying behaviour among Secondary School Students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria?

  1. What are the differential effects of Rational Self Analysis and Cognitive Restructuring Counselling Techniques on physical bullying behaviour among Secondary School Students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria?
  2. What are the differential effects of Rational Self Analysis and Cognitive Restructuring

Counselling Techniques on verbal bullying behaviour among Secondary School Students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria?

1.5 Hypotheses

This study has the below listed hypotheses to carry it out:

  1. There is no significant effect of Rational Self Analysis Counselling Technique on physical bullying behaviour of secondary school students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria; from their pretest and posttest scores.
  2. There is no significant effect of Cognitive Restructuring Counselling Technique on physical bullying behaviour of secondary school students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria; from their pretest and posttest scores.
  3. There is no significant effect of Rational Self Analysis Counselling Technique on verbal bullying behaviour of secondary school students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria; from their pretest and posttest scores.
  4. There is no significant effect of Cognitive Restructuring Counselling Technique on verbal bullying behaviour of secondary school students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria; from their pretest and posttest scores.
  5. There is no significant differential effect of Rational Self Analysis and Cognitive Restructuring counselling Techniques on physical bullying behaviour of students in Lokoja,

Kogi State, Nigeria; from their Post test scores.

  1. There is no significant differential effect of Rational Self Analysis and Cognitive

Restructuring counselling Techniques on verbal bullying behaviour of students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria; from their Post test scores.

1.6 Basic Assumptions

This study was based on the below listed basic assumptions:

  1. That Rational Self Analysis counselling technique has effect on physical bullying behaviour of secondary school students.
  2. That Cognitive restructuring counselling technique has effect on physical bullying behaviour of secondary school students.
  3. That Rational Self Analysis counselling technique has effect on verbal bullying behaviour of secondary school students.
  4. That Cognitive restructuring counselling technique has effect on verbal bullying behaviour of secondary school students.
  5. That the physical bullying behaviour of students exposed to Rational Self Analysis counselling technique was different from those exposed to Cognitive Restructuring counselling technique.
  6. That the verbal bullying behaviour of students exposed to Rational Self Analysis counselling technique was different from those exposed to Cognitive Restructuring counselling technique.

1.7 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study shall be of immense contributions to solving the problem of bullying behaviour among secondary school students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria; which has defied previous efforts of tackling it in the following ways:

The findings of the study indicated the effects of utilizing rational self analysis and cognitive restructuring counselling techniques on bullying behaviour among secondary school students in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria; to the professional guidance counsellors, teachers, educationists, parents and other care Providers; thereby adding to their knowledge of using the interventions in handling bullying behaviour cases.

The findings of the study serves as a huge source of information to the professional guidance counsellors practicing in secondary schools and outside the school environment, by providing them with appropriate counselling techniques and how to use it that can adequately take care of the therapeutic sessions on bullying behaviour cases.

The findings of the study helps to induced the various levels of governments and particularly the Lokoja Local Government and Kogi State Government, to acknowledge and appreciate the significance of the professional guidance counsellors and their services rendered; thereby employing and posting them to secondary schools where their services are highly needed.

The findings of the study to the best of the knowledge of the researcher served as tremendous contributions to the educational policies formulators or planners, administrators, psychologists, psychotherapists and other care providers because, it shall add to their knowledge a new dimension of utilizing appropriate counselling techniques, interventions or strategies in handling the issue of bullying behaviour among secondary school students.

The findings of the study helps to bring about an excellent behaviour exhibition among secondary school students thereby enhancing their academic performances and personal – social relationship which shall consequently bring about the overall positive development of their personalities.

The reduction of harmful behaviours among secondary school students shall help stakeholders in the educational sector to concentrate more on the provision of an effective teaching and learning environment. Also, the time wasted on attending to issues relating to bullying behaviour and victim situations shall be utilized for an effective and efficient teaching and learning in addition to the provision of welfare services to the students.

The findings of the study to the best of the knowledge of the researcher shall serve as an empirical point of reference and then break novel or fresh grounds for further studies to the guidance counsellors, psychologists, teachers and other care providers in terms of using Rational Self Analysis and Cognitive Restructuring counselling techniques to resolve the issue of bullying behaviour and other bio – psycho – social issues.

1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The scope of the study was made up of the entire private secondary schools in Lokoja – Capital City of Kogi State, Nigeria; they numbered twenty five (25). But for the purpose of this study, it was delimited to two (2) private secondary schools in the area of study. These schools are Harmony Secondary School (HSS), Lokoja, and Michael Omonogun Memorial Secondary School (MOMSS), Lokoja. These schools were selected or chosen because one of them (HSS) was a boarding school where cases of bullying behaviours are usually more pronounced, common or prevalent and they have large number of students‟ population. There are a lot of common postulations about bullying behaviour and victim situations and their causes. One of it is the claim that bullying behaviour is as a result of large classes or school size (Olweus as cited in Isiaku, 2016). Quasi experimental research design was used to involve the pre-test post-test group.

INFLUENCE OF RATIONAL SELF INQUIRY AND COGNITIVE RESTRUCTURING COUNSELLING METHODS ON BULLYING BEHAVIOUR AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL  PUPILS  IN LOKOJA, KOGI STATE, NIGERIA  

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