DEVELOPMENT OF EFFICIENT MATERNITY ATTIRES FROM COMMERCIAL BLOCKS PATTERNS, FASTENERS AND REMOVAL OF FULLNESS IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY ABUJA, NIGERIA.

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DEVELOPMENT OF EFFICIENT MATERNITY ATTIRES FROM COMMERCIAL BLOCKS PATTERNS, FASTENERS AND REMOVAL OF FULLNESS IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY ABUJA, NIGERIA.
ABSTRACT

The study focused on theuse ofFasteners and Disposal of Fullness in the Development of Functional Maternity Apparels from Commercial Block Patterns, in Federal Capital TerritoryAbuja, Nigeria. The major objective was to develop maternity apparels from commercial block patterns, fasteners and disposal of fullness in FCT Abuja. Eight objectives, eight research questions and four research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The research design used for the study was Research and development (R&D) design. The population of the study was one hundred and twelve thousand; four hundred and thirty(112,430) pregnant women.The sample size was 399 calculated withTaro Yamane sampling method: n= N/ (1+N (e) ^2).Instrumentused for the collection of primary data for this study, was questionnaires. The research questions were analyzed with descriptive statistics usingmean and cumulative mean, the decision rulewas put at 3.00. The research null hypothesis one was tested with the independent ttest statistic while Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses two, three and four at 0.05 levelof significance to determine, if significance differences exist.The findingsrevealed that there is no significant difference in the mean ratings of users and judges on the requirements (needs) of pregnant women in F.C.T. Abuja with calculated p-value of 0.461that was higher than the 0.05 alpha level of significance. The findingsrevealed that significant difference exist among the mean rating of users on fit of functional apparels for first, second and third trimesters calculated p-value of 0.004that was lower than the 0.05 alpha value or table value. The findingsrevealed that there is no significant difference among the mean rating of users (first, second and third trimesters) on the aesthetic attributes of the garmentscalculated p-value of 0.560that was higher than the 0.05 alpha value.The findingsrevealedthat there is no significant difference among the mean responses of judges on the aesthetic attributes of the functional apparels by pregnant women calculated p-value of 0.090 that was higher than the 0.05 alpha value.It was recommended that the pregnant women should use the functional maternity apparels designed from commercial block patterns with fasteners and disposal of fullness techniques for adjustment to first, second and third trimester stages during pregnancy.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1      Background to the Study

Pregnant women are female carrying unborn babies in their womb right from fertilization to birth. Pregnancy normally last for nine months or ranging from seven months to ten months depending on the individual physiological conditions and types of the offspring in the womb, that is one, twin, triplet or more. When a woman becomes pregnant, dressing can be a major challenge because the body begins to change; it becomes difficult to know which clothes in the closet are best for the growing tummy till delivery date.Pregnancy is known as gestation time during which one or more offspring develop inside a woman. It is also the state or period from conception to birth, when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus and maternity, gestation, fetal movement motion of a fetus within the uterus as suchthis requires special clothing. Pregnancy according to Hornby (2002) is the state of having a baby developing inside a woman’s womb.There are three stages in pregnancy such as first trimester stage, second, trimester stage and third trimester stage. The first trimester stage is a period of the pregnancy from day one of fertilization to the end of third month while the second trimester stage begin with the fourth month to the end of six month and the third trimester stagebegin with the seventh months to the ninth months or delivery date.

The course of pregnancy involves a lot of psychological, emotional and physical changes in women. These changes are as a result of hormones (oestrogen and progesterone) produced in the bodies which help in the maintenance of pregnancy in a woman. The changes affect the body size, enlargement of the stomach, every tissue and organ reacts to the stimulus of pregnancy and the metabolic, chemical and endocrine balance of the body is altered (Myles, 2005). Pregnancy period is also characterized by changes in physical shape, appearance, body weight or size. Owing to pregnancy, the woman’s sitting and standing postures as well as her walking position are altered. However, these physical changes which occur in pregnant women need special clothes usually known as maternity apparels for comfort and easy movement. Blunin (2001) also notes that pregnancy is a beautiful time to be comfortable and fashionable. Pregnancy does not mean that the comfort or stylish days are over, and so one should offer oneself the perfect means of comfort, fit, style (Annette, 2001). The need for comfortable maternity apparels to accommodate increase in body size and still function from pre-natal through the three trimesters to after birth(post-natal) therefore becomes important and pertinent. A pregnant woman’s clothing standard should not be over looked because the pregnant woman also needs to be fashionable with different styles and comfortable maternity apparels during pregnancy. When dressed in comfortable maternity garments, the pregnant woman has a feeling of assurance and satisfaction.

Pregnant women clothing is functional when it meets the required standard such as comfort, protection, safely and aesthetics (Zicgal and Blarcom, 1992). The comfort of maternity apparels depends on the fabric and style, which were part of the area of consideration in this study that is thedevelopment of functional maternity apparels from commercial block patterns, fasteners and disposal of fullness in Federal Capital TerritoryAbuja, Nigeria. Ziegal and Blarcom (1992) observe that maternity apparels should be comfortable and attractive to enhance physical appearance. It should be light, loose and non-constricting to the body for psychological satisfaction. Whenever a pregnant woman is happy most especially with the apparels on the growing body, there appears to be peace of mind which brings about psychological stability.

However, these physical changes, in pregnant women need special clothes usually known as maternity apparels these can be met through either ready-made garments or custom garments and by developing comfortable adjustable maternity apparel for the pregnant women.

Clothing has been discovered to be one of the earliest primary needs of the people of the universe including pregnant women. Clothing is like a second skin to man; according to Abraham Maslow‟s (1943) hierarchy of needs, laws and recorded history, doming along with food and shelter have been recognized among the primary needs of mankind, which includes physiological need that is proper functioning; Clothing encompasses wide variety of materials that cover the body. Anyakoha and Eluwa (2008) state that good basic clothing is for protection and adornment therefore each member of the family requires good basic Clothing, including pregnant women. Clothing is anything that an individual puts on the body in order to protect or beautify them as noted by (Igbo, 2001). Clothing therefore includes garments, body decorations such as cosmetics, tattoos, hair colour and arrangements, ornament of jewelry, badges and insignia of office rank, extensions of the body in the form of working canes, bags, umbrella, handkerchiefs and maternity apparels, gowns among others. Clothing is generally accepted as one of the fundamental needs of individual and family all over the world owing to its functional and aesthetic roles which include protection from environmental hazards, enhancement, and comfort. Clothes act as a means of personal communication by expressing individual unique personalities for modesty, attraction, self- identification, social status and psychological expression. Proper wearing of garments by the pregnant woman commands respect on the part of an individual (Shailong and Igbo, 2009).

The clothing needs of pregnant women include soft fabric like cottons, light, loose and

non-constricting to the body for the purposeof airing, comfortable and attractive to enhance the aesthetics, psychological feelings and satisfactions. The pregnant women equally need apparels that will cut across the three trimester‟s stages up to post-natal. These pregnant women clothing needs, can be met through careful selection of fabric, styles, designs, patternsand techniquesto achieve comfortable and psychological stability of pregnant women. Patterns are integral part of development and constructions which can never be dispensed as such serve as the foundation of designs and development in clothing constructions.

Adaptation of patterns is the process of adjusting the already existing patterns to the new or relevant body measurements taken to suit the desired designs and styles needed for particular figures. Through the use of pattern adaptations on block patterns, functional maternity garments can be achieved with the use of fasteners and disposal of fullness techniques. This adaptation of patterns is necessary for the following reasons among others forpregnantwomen in F.C.T. Abuja: inability to still wear the garment they wore before pregnancy,unavailability offunctional maternity garments/ apparels,unavailability of commercial maternity garments patterns due to ban of importation of garments patterns in the country.Hence the need to adapt the block commercial patterns to maternity apparels using fasteners and disposal of fullness techniques become a necessity.

Patterns can be defined as required styles and designs adapted from basics blocks to meet the individual, groups, association, institution or organization and family apparel desires for proper development and constructions. These patterns can be commercial or drafted;the commercial patterns can be purchased with the figure size and used directly if available; if not available the basic blocks can be drafted and adapted to fit the style in need. According to Igbo (2003), there are two stages in pattern drafting: the making of a set of five basic patterns known as ‘block patterns’ or ‘blocks’, and secondly the adaptation of the blocks to the style required. The five blocks are-front and back bodice, sleeve, front and back skirt. The advantage of cutting from blocks is that the blocks provide a permanent record of the correct fit while dart movements, additional seams, fullness, etc., are planned on them. Cutting from blocks has the added advantage of being quicker than any other system. The method of using the same set of blocks to adapt to any style shows that all styles, no matter how different they may appear, must be related since they are all developed from the same basic shape and will thus fit the same figure. These basic blocks can be converted to functional maternity garments through the process of pattern adaptation, use of fasteners and disposal of fullness.Disposal of Fullness is a technique used in clothing construction for creating comfort and variations which can be functional as well as decorative in other to get rid of excess fabric.

Fastenersare used tojoin and close opening in order to make it easier to put on and take off clothes. Fasteners are also use in pockets to prevent items from falling out. Fasteners also have decorative purposes and help to convey a certain style. Common fasteners include snap fasteners, Velcro, hook and loop fasteners, buttons, and zip fasteners. Each type of fastener has its benefits and application method therefore, choosing the right one for the clothing item requires some background information in order to make the best choice (Watkins, 1995). A carefully chosen fastener thus contributes to the overall look of the clothes. The fastener should also be easy enough to apply either manually or with a sewing machine while Fasteners can be bought from crafts shops or Markets.

Disposal of Fullness is a technique in clothing construction that creates the fitness with allowance for free movement in garments thereby can be used for different styles in clothing construction. Fullness can be used to solve figure problems or create illusion to enhance the figure wearing a garment been devised from the fourteenth century onwards, which include: darts, tucks, pleats, gathers, ease and shirring. Geetha and Rajitha (2005) view fullness as an important feature of style as well as a necessity for ease of movement in a well fitted garment, whereas fashion changes the basic methods of controlling fullness that frequently recur, though adapted to enhance the current style. Development of functional maternity apparels from commercial block patterns, using fasteners and disposal of fullness becomes very important for pregnant women.If properly developed, and beautified. It is due to this background that this study sets to experiment the use of fasteners in the development of functionally designed maternity apparels for pregnant women.

1.2      Statement of the Problem

Married women generally pass through two conditions in life especially when pregnant and when they are not pregnant. Central to these including the issue of clothing‟s such as skirt and top, gown, wrappers skirt and top among others. It is also important to note that these clothes can be mostly fitted and some could be flared out. The question is that how these rhythms apply to women who are in different stages of pregnancy especially at the first, second and third trimesters?

Women generally are confronted with limited choice of clothing when they are pregnant. This is because when pregnancy occurs, pregnant women increase in size from first trimester, second trimester to the last trimester. The problem then is, how could women be helped in terms of their clothing to accommodate the stages of change in pregnancy and the issue of comfort.

Among Tailors and seamstress fashion garments are designed separately for these two conditions of women. The implication is that a woman at pregnancy will have to put aside or abandon her clothing for better sizeable ones due to the new condition. With professionalism in place, the researcher therefore intends to develop garment that will accommodate the two conditions (non-pregnant and pregnant conditions). The garment will serve dual purpose which can be converted to before pregnant women clothing condition and during pregnancy clothing condition.

Clothing is a second skin to man, so everybody needs clothing including pregnant women; but for pregnant women wearing of garments from their closet before pregnancy become difficult and a challenge. The reason is that the stomach grows with baby, according to the developmental stage of the pregnancy. To contain these stages, a beautiful, comfortable, adjustable garment is needed by the pregnant women. The pregnant women therefore need designed maternity apparels with suitable fasteners and disposal of fullness techniques. The developed maternity apparels may solve the problems of abandoning or set aside clothes from non-pregnant condition of married women when pregnant.   Hence, this study adapted patterns from existing commercial pattern and designed maternity apparels with fasteners and disposal of fullness techniques which uses will cut across pre-natal, three trimester‟s stages of pregnancy and may proceed into postnatal period.

The pregnant women apparels do not adjust correspondingly to the different trimesters stages of pregnancy, hence, the need to develop styles of clothing using fasteners (Hook & Eye, Button, Zip & Velcro) and to eradicate the issue of abandoning apparels in the closet for a better sizeable one, and sewing different garment for pregnant and non-pregnant women condition.

It is based on the above problems that the study set out to experiment with the use of fasteners and disposal of fullness techniques to develop designfunctional maternity apparels for pregnant women named ‘converter’ that will be multipurpose in terms of use as: pre-natal, first, second and third trimester as well as post-natal apparels for pregnant women‟s acceptability in

F.C.T Abuja. In addition, the Nigeria problem of banning commercial patterns of various sizes coming into the country also give rise to pattern adaptation from commercial block patterns for the study.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The major objective of the study was to develop Maternity apparels from commercial blocks patterns, fasteners and disposal of fullness in F.C.T. Abuja, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to:

  1. determine the functional apparels requirements (needs)of pregnant women in F.C.T

Abuja.

  1. determine the design features (functional, aesthetics and expressive) need for adapting the patterns for pregnant women apparels in F. C. T. Abuja.
  2. determine the functional apparels design preferences using fasteners and disposal of fullness techniques in F.C. T Abuja.
  3. establish average body measurements of different sizes of pregnant women and group them into trimesters {first, second, third trimesters}.
  4. develop apparel patterns through adaptation of commercial block patterns.
  5. construct maternity apparels based on the adaptation of commercial block patterns
  6. determine theuser‟s ratings of the appropriateness of the use of the apparels in terms of fit, comfort, aesthetics and expressive variables.
  7. determine the judge‟s ratings of appropriateness of the apparels in terms of fit, comfort, aesthetics and expressive variables.

 

1.4 Research Questions

This study will provide answers to the following research questions:

  1. What are the functional apparels requirements (needs) of pregnant women in F.C.T

Abuja?

  1. What are the design features (functional, aesthetics and expressive) needed for the adaptation of the patterns for functional apparels for pregnant women in F. C. T. Abuja?
  2. What are the functional apparels preferences of pregnant women using fasteners and disposal of fullness?
  3. What are the average body measurements of pregnant women in three sizescategories

(first, second, thirdtrimesters)?

  1. How can apparel patterns be developed through adaptation of commercial block patterns?
  2. How can maternity apparels be constructed based on the adaptation of commercial block patterns?
  3. What are the mean responses of pregnant women (users) on fit, comfort, aesthetics and expressive variables?
  4. What are the mean ratings of judges on fit, comfort, aesthetics and expressive variables of the apparels produces?

1.5 Hypotheses of the Study

The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance

  1. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of users and judges on the requirements (needs) of pregnant women.
  2. There is no significant difference among the mean rating of users on fit of functional apparels for first, second and third trimesters.
  3. There is no significant difference among the mean rating of users (first, second and third trimesters) on the aesthetic attributes of the garments.
  4. There is no significant difference among the mean responses of judges (nurses, clothing and textiles lecturers and garment members) on the aesthetic attributes of the functional apparels worn by pregnant women.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be of great importance to: pregnant women, tailors and seamstress, fasteners producer, fasteners wholesalers and retailers, future pregnant women, medical personnel and education in terms of its new skills and designs which will be taught in schools to students by clothing and textiles lecturers. This information will be disseminated to the use of people through seminar presentation, conference paper presentation and publications as well as public lectures.

The findings of this study will be of importance to the pregnant women as it will help them solve the problem of fashion challenges such as is inability to use pre-natal clothes in first, second, third trimesters during the period of pregnancy and post-natal, which will lead to psychological comfort and peace of mind.

The seamstresses, tailors and maternity apparels designers will be of great significance as it these will bring more patronages of customers on the new products which will lead to economic improvement since there will be more work and more money.

It will be of Economic benefit to fasteners producers, wholesalers and the retailers, as it will improve the sales and use of the product by the pregnant women, seamstress, tailoring and designers. The product that is fasteners will now be used to produce different styles of maternity apparels. It will also be of Economic benefit to pregnant women and clothing and textiles stake holders as it enables commercialization in this line thereby establishing their small scale industry which will also lead to national Economic development through entrepreneurship. It is another way of creating job opportunity for unemployment after training them to perform one skill or the other for example packaging of the garmentsand creation of awareness.

It will also be useful to future pregnant women (that is those that are yet to be pregnant) to be able to manage clothing adequately. Hence, it will help future pregnant women not to face the problem of fashion challenges such as inability to use pre-natal clothes in first, second, third trimesters during pregnant and, which will lead to psychological comfort and peace of mind with proper creation of awareness in hospitals and public lectures.

The new method of producing maternity apparels can be added to the school curriculum in other to impart the knowledge to students. It will also contribute to education in terms of its new skills and designs that will be taught to students in schools by the Clothing and Textiles lecturers through seminar presentations.

1.7       Basic Assumptions of the Study

The basic assumptions for this study are:

  1. It is assumed that the modified and developed maternity apparels with fasteners in this research work will take care of the pregnant women‟s fashion challenges.
  2. The produced maternity apparels with fasteners in this research work will take care of pre-natal stage of women preparing for pregnancy.
  3. The produced maternity apparels with fasteners in this research work will take care of first trimester stage of pregnant women.
  4. The produced maternity apparels with fasteners in this research work will take care of second trimester stage of pregnant women.
  5. The produced maternity apparels with fasteners in this research work will take care of third trimester stage of pregnant women.
  6. The produced maternity apparels with fasteners in this research work will take care of post-natal stage of pregnant women.
  7. It is assumed that maternity apparels produced with fasteners and disposal of fullness techniques will be accepted by the pregnant women.

1.8. Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to pregnant women F.C.T. Abuja and the registered government and private maternity centres. The study also focuses on federal capital territory, Abuja, the middle belt of Nigeria because is the geographical area of the study. The study also focused on first, second, and third trimester stages of pregnancy according to measurements utilized for the study, the design and the quality of apparels developed hence, trimester in this content are stages involved in pregnancy to which the apparels belong. The study also focused the appropriateness of the apparels by the users and the judges for the purpose of evaluating the constructed apparels.The study was also delimited to the adaptation of apparels to the use of fasteners like hooks and eyes, buttons, zips and velcro and disposal of fullness technique such as invited pleat for the purpose of adjusting the apparels to each of the three trimesters. The study also focused on the use of questionnaire for the purpose of primary data collection for the study.

DEVELOPMENT OF EFFICIENT MATERNITY ATTIRES FROM COMMERCIAL BLOCKS PATTERNS, FASTENERS AND REMOVAL OF FULLNESS IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY ABUJA, NIGERIA.

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