EFFICIENCY OF LECTURERS` USE OF COMPUTER AND TYPEWRITER FOR TEACHING WORD PROCESSING IN BUSINESS EDUCATION AT FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, KANO-NIGERIA

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EFFICIENCY   OF LECTURERS` USE OF  COMPUTER AND TYPEWRITER FOR TEACHING  WORD PROCESSING IN BUSINESS EDUCATION AT FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, KANO-NIGERIA  

ABSTRACT

TheComparative Effectiveness of Using Computer and Typewriter for Teachingword processing in business education or instruction generally, has often been a serious area of discourse among business educators, teachers and students.   One of such areas of concerns has to do with the level of effectiveness in the various applications or skills of the computer by business education students.  The problem is that at Federal College of Education Kano, the conventional method of teaching and learning is still in use for word processing in business education.    This traditional method can no longer provide the students with the knowledge and skills needed to succeed in the contemporary world of works that exist in this 21st century.  Among the objectives includes to determine the relative effects of the levelof skills acquired by business education  students taught speed development in word processing using computer and those taught using manual typewriter  in Federal College of Education, Kano.   The theory adopted for this study is Bandura‟s Social Learning (Imitative) Theory.  This theory is adopted  to this study base on the fact that the students learn by observing the teacher demonstrating or performing certain tasks with the computer and the typewriter; and after watching how certain skills are used, students then duplicate the act.  The entire 160 NCE  III business education students of Federal College of Education, Kano formed the population of the study.  All the thirty (30) students in office option  formed  the sample for the study. This was then divided into two groups (male and female) with each group having 15 students. Data collection phase lasted for three weeks, where pre-test was given before exposing the students to the treatment variable (computer) and control variable (typewriter).    Mean and standard deviation were used to answer all the research questions. To achieve this goal four research questions were raised to guide the study, while t-test statistics was used to test all the four (4) null hypotheses  formulated to be tested  at 0.05 degree level of significance (p= 0.05). The analysis of the findings revealed among others that, students exposed to treatment to learn speed development  performed better than students exposed to traditional manual typewriter. It was also found that, students exposed to computer performed better than those exposed to conventional typewriter in terms of learning speed development. Chapter five concluded that, use of computer in learning word processing among business education students has significant effect than using conventional manual typewriter in Federal College of Education Kano State. It was recommended among others,that  there is need for curriculum planners to emphasize the importance of using computer when teaching word processing by teachers of business education in  federal college of education Kano State. It wasalso  recommended that, teachers in Federal Collegeof Education Kano should be provided  with adequate number of   computers   by the school authority   for teaching and learning  word processing in business education as it was found to be more effective than the manual typewriter.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

                    1.1       Background to the Study

The aim of Business Education is to teach the concepts meaningfully and make students become aware of how these concepts can be used daily. It is quite clear that „word processing in business education‟ (formerly known as typewriting) is one of the most important but difficult courses in business education because of the manual repetition of works; and as the traditional (manual) method is used in teaching it, students are bored, weak and more especially, lack the appropriate skills needed to fit in for the contemporary world of works that exist today. It is obvious that alternative teaching approaches; needed to teach this sort of difficult concepts be used in order to prepare students with the knowledge and skills needed to succeed in this twentyfirst century.

A computer is a machine or device which under the control of a stored program, can accept data in a prescribed form(input), process the data and supply the results as information in specified format(output).  Acomputer is an electronic machine which is capable of storing data, performing and retrieving information at a very high speed.  It also involves the activities of creation, manipulation and communication of information.

A typewriter is a manual machine that produces writing similar to print.  It has keys that you press to make metal letters or signs that hit a piece of paper through a fabric(ribbon) covered with ink.  A typewriter can also be seen as a machine which can print letters on  paper by means of keys.  Ezeah(2006) indicates that before the advent of word processors, typewriters were used to produce textual materials.

Uptill date, typewriters are still useful, more especially manual typewriters because they are operated manually without the use of electricity.  But they have many limitations and disadvantages which word processors have come to solve.Skill acquisition is a well established habit of doing something through acquisition of performance capabilities; a manual way of doing something.  Skill is knowledge translated into practical activity for economic development.  The acquired skills and competency can manifest in the life of the students to assist them improve on higher standard of life in the community.  Skill acquisition helps in developing intrinsic potential in students and it is a significance function of educational institution.  Skill acquisition is highly flying in Nigeria institutions of learning though it depends on the particular trade involved.  The skills involved in word processing in business education among others includes: keyboarding, printing, reprographic skill; typing, duplicating, photo copying and scanning.

Word processing in business education is the use of the computer hardware and software to create, edit, view, store, retrieve and print textual materials (example, letters, memos, documents.  Word processing in Business Education includes:  typing legal documents, layout of documents and job specifications, speed developments/consolidation, advanced display work, literary work and itinerary.

Computer and typewriter usage refer to the use of   computers and typewriters for drills, practice exercises, and tutorial sequences to the students, and sometimes to engage the students in a dialog about the substance of the instruction. Akiti and Onyema (2010) assert that computer   is   an   interactive   technology   concept   which   enables the user   to   interact   with   the   system.   The dynamic nature of the society has necessitated the need for the use of the modern technology in teaching and learning in Federal Colleges of Education, Kano, Nigeria.

Traditional education environments (the use of manual typewriters) do not seem to be suitable for preparing learners to function or to be productive in today‟s work place or society.  The position is that any educational system that does not incorporate the use of new innovations in teaching and learning cannot seriously be said to prepare the students for life in this twentyfirst century.  Innovations in technology could be used to help students in their learning.

Onyesom (2014) asserts that innovations can play important roles in the students‟ developmental skills, as well as motivation and knowledge.

In their words, Mamman and Nwabufo (2014), clearly said that the situation found in our business schools and colleges of education create gap  between the potential offered by modern word processing in business education and the actual manual way and practice.  Teaching is the profession or practice; and  the method adopted by the  teacher may hinder or promote learning therefore, a teacher‟s knowledge of a variety of teaching methods, the type of instructional materials used and the abilities of students he/she teaches  that vary from time to time can help reduce monotony, boredom and lack of interest.  On the other hand, absenteeism and   lack of concentration by students as often observed by the teachers of word processing in business education during manual typewriting class adversely affect students‟ academic performance and make them lack the necessary skills required after graduation.   As there are many methods of teaching, it is, however pertinent to realize that any method of teaching is only a means to an end and not an end itself. Aliyu (2013) has therefore, advised teachers that in teaching word processing for example, how to centre items on a title page, how to arrange data in tabular form, reproducing mail able documents and how to address envelops requires careful planning and organization of the instructional materials.

The observable teaching and learning can effectively be handled by the teacher and accepted by the learner.  Interest in the subject can be generated through a motivational process which leads to active preparation for the lesson and meaningful teaching of the subject. In agreement with the above statement, Douglas (2011) opines that in learning word processing in business education, computer should be used in order to enhance students‟ skills.  The learner on the other hand, should be able to use the software and hardware of a computer to perform any assigned job. This implies the application of basic computer skills.

However, Federal Colleges of Education Kano – Nigeria should know that the application of the full complement of  the computer  gadgets is the basic computer skills which includes knowing how to power on the computer, being able  to use a mouse to interact with elements on the screen, being able to use the computer keyboard, being able to shut down the computer properly after use. The learner under such condition is required to possess some enabling abilities which include; obedience, attention, good comportment, hard work, respect for the teacher‟s competency and willingness to learn.   Learning is a relatively persistent change in the learner‟s behavior as a result of experience and training.  Learning must change an individual, the change comes about as a result of experience and the change in an individual‟s possible and positive behavior.  With new learning, a person is in some way different from what he was before the new learning.  For example, if a student‟s typing skill is inadequate (inappropriate for his level and situation) then it is clear that the teacher  must change his typing behavior to a more appropriate level which guarantee him  more task and guiding him on how to do it.

As it is well known, word processing in Business Education is the use of the computer hardware and software to create, edit, view, store, retrieve and print textual materials (example, letters, memos, documents, etc.).Word processing in Business Education includes: typing legal documents, layout of documents and job specifications, speed development/consolidation, advanced display work, literary work and itinerary.  But when one goes round some colleges of education particularly, Federal College of Education, Kano State; the deficiency in these application gadgets in this area becomes glaring.  There are other skills which are essential in ICT, but some among others appear to be lacking These skills include information processing for example(analyzing, synthesizing, key-boarding, printing).There is also reprographic skill andamong them  include(typing, duplicating, photocopying, scanning, man folding, etc).

The manual ways of doing things is gradually fading because it does not help the educational system to meet up with the demand of the society.  Moreover, manual typewriter make students to be tired and weak; especially if the typewriters are in bad working condition as there are no longer typewriter expert technicians for service and repairs.  This situation calls for the use of computers and if adequate computer hardware and software facilities are provided in most of these colleges of education, students will significantly improve in their performances.  It is based on this background that the researcher embarked on this study to evaluate the effects of usage of computer and typewriter on students‟ skill acquisition in learning word processing in business education at Federal College of Education Kano – Nigeria.

                    1.2       Statement of the Problem

Innovation in education generally has made the inclusion of modern technology into teaching and learning compulsory. The researcher has noticed that teaching and learning of word processing in business education is still carried out using the traditional obsolete worn-out manual typewriters at Federal College of Education, Kano – Nigeria.  This traditional system of teaching and learning with obsolete equipment has led to students‟ absenteeism and lack of interest in the subject matter.

In deed traditional methods of learning can no longer prepare the learner for the contemporary world of work that exists today.  Technology enhanced learning prepare students with the knowledge and skill needed for success in this twenty-first century.  The researcher observed that Federal College of Education Kano State has not effectively incorporated computers in teaching and learning or in some cases where few computers are available they are not adequately utilized forstudents‟ learning. The use of new technologies delivery will undoubtedly enhance students‟ learning word processing in business education.  The application of the new technology will act as a catalyst for change in this domain and by their nature are tools that encourage and support independent learning, thereby giving way to new scenarios which favour both individual and collaborative learning.  It is in the light of this that the researcher decided to carry out this experimental study just to find out: “comparative  effectiveness of using  computer and typewriter  on students‟ skill acquisition in learning word processing in business education at Federal College of Education,  Kano- Nigeria”.

                    1.3       Objectives of the Study

The general objective of this study was to compare the effects of computer and typewriter usage on students‟ learning of word processing in business education in Federal College of education Kano State. The specific objectives were to:

  1. ascertainthe relative effects of the level of skills acquired by business education students taught speed development in word processing using computer and those taught using manual typewriter in Federal College of Education Kano.
  2. assess the relative effects of the level of skill acquired by business education students taught accuracy development in word processing using computer and those taught using manual typewriter in Federal College of Education Kano.
  3. determine the relative effects of the level of skill acquired by business education students taught text edition in word processing using computer and those taught using manual typewriter in Federal College of Education Kano.
  4. investigatethe relative effects of the level of skill acquired by business education students taught creation of tables in a document in word processing using computer and those taught using manual typewriter in Federal College of Education, Kano.

                    1.4:      Research Questions

Based on the specific objectives, the following research questions were raised:

  1. What is the relative effects of the level of skill acquired by business education students taught speed development in word processing using computer and those taught using manual typewriter?
  2. What is the relative effects of the level of skill acquired by business education students taught accuracy development in word processing using computer and those taught using manual typewriter?
  3. What is the relative effects of the level of skill acquired by business education students taught text edition in word processing using computer and those taught using manual typewriter?
  4. What is the relative effect of the level of skill acquired by business education students taught table creation in document in word processing using computer and those taught using manual typewriter?

 

 

                    1.5       Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated in line with the research questions:

  1. There is no significant difference between the relative effects of the level of skill acquired by business education students taught speed development in word processing using computer and those taught using manual typewriter in Federal college of education Kano.
  2. There is no significant difference between the relative effects of the level of skill acquired by business education students taught accuracy development in word processing using computer and those taught using manual typewriter in Federal College of Education,

Kano.

  1. There is no significant difference between the relative effect of level of skill acquired by business education students taught text edition in word processing using computer and those taught using manual typewriter in Federal College of Education Kano.
  2. There is no significant difference between the relative effect of level of skill acquired by business education students taught creation of tables in a document in word processing using computer and those taught using manual typewriter in Federal College of Education

Kano.

                    1.6       Significance of the Study

The findingsof this  study are expected to  be beneficial  to  the  following  stakeholders: Students, Teachers, School Authorities, Ministry of Education, Curriculum Planners, Tertiary institutions and National Commission for Colleges of Education  (NCCE).

Students in the study areas and other colleges of education stand to benefit from the findings of the study when they begin to interact with technology in the learning process so that on graduation, they too can use same in classroom delivery. The  study  will also enable  business   education  students  to  avail  themselves  on  the  frequent  use  of  computer and  various computer training that will enable them acquire the skills needed by employers of labour or become self employed on graduation.

The result of this study will enable teachers of business education to adjust to a better way of teaching methods. This will assist to bring effective and efficient teaching and learning of business education in Nigeria. Findings from the study will encourage teacher educators in colleges of education and universities in incorporating training in IT-assisted strategy in teacher preparation programmes.

The  study  will  also  help  teachers  of  business  education  to  avail themselves  in   training  and  retraining  of  the  new  skills ( use of modern computer) available in teaching and learning.

The college administration will be informed on the state of computer equipment for teachers and students‟ use for teaching and learning purposes, whether they are adequate or not. The recommendations will enhance teaching of large classes and access to course materials in the study area. School  Authorities  would  also be  directed  by  the  study  on  the   provision  of  a  conducive  atmosphere  for  teaching  and  learning.

The Federal Ministry of Education will  benefit  from this  study  as  it  will  be guided  on  how  to  formulate  and  implement appropriate   policies  that  will  lead  to  effective teaching  and  learning  of  word processing in business   education.

Curriculum planners and the body responsible for monitoring the academic programmes of colleges of education in the country – National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) and other regulatory agencies of other tertiary institutions will consider the study to review business education curriculum to prepare teachers and students for computer age in teaching and learning process and other academic activities that are computer inclined in the country.

Curriculum  planners  also  will  benefit  from  the  study because  it  will  help  them  in  reviewing of   the  course  content  every  four to  five   years.

The  study  will  also  enable  tertiary  institutions  that  offer  business education  to  direct  training  of  students  towards  the  needs  of  the  labour market and to address  the  current  challenges  faced  by  students  after  graduation.

                    1.7       Basic Assumption of the Study

This study was carried out on the assumption that:

  1. Convenient learning environment exist in the study area.
  2. When computer is used to deliver lecture students‟ interest are aroused and they understand better
  3. Both Teachers and students are using computer for teaching and learning word processing; for example, interactive white marker board for teaching centralization of items on the title on a page, text edition, speed and accuracy, arrangement of data in table form.

                    1.8       Delimitation of the Study

This study was delimited to Federal College of Education Kano.  The study was also delimited to NCE III students in office education option. The study was delimited to these students because they have made up their minds to take office education as their career and they will be able to provide relevant information for the study. It was delimited to usage of computer and typewriter on students‟ skill acquisition and it was also delimited to word processing in business education because this is the major concern of the study.

 

 

EFFICIENCY   OF LECTURERS` USE OF  COMPUTER AND TYPEWRITER FOR TEACHING  WORD PROCESSING IN BUSINESS EDUCATION AT FEDERAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION, KANO-NIGERIA  

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