EXAMINATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN HAUSA DERIVATIONAL AND INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGICAL PRACTICES TEST IN KADUNA STATE

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EXAMINATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN HAUSA DERIVATIONAL AND INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGICAL PRACTICES TEST IN KADUNA STATE

 

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to analyze the Senior Secondary School Students’ Performance in Hausa Derivational and Inflectional Morphological Process in Kaduna state. The study attempted to find out the SS2 Students’ Morphological performance levels based on Hausa Derivational and Inflectional ProcessesTest. The study,need descriptive design and a sample size of 200 Students’ across ten senior secondary school classes. The instrument used for this study was a planned test of 50 questions, in form of fill in the blank spaces and multiple choice test. Descriptive statistics was used in analyzing the data collected for the study. The study discovered that SS2 students’ performance was generally higher in Hausa Derivation than in Hausa Inflection. The study also discovered that female students’ performed better than their male counterparts in both of the Hausa Morphological Processes. It recommended that Hausa derivation and inflection should be included into SSSHausa Language Curriculum. It finally recommended that a study of this nature should be conducted in Unit Secondary Schools.

             

TSAKURE

Wannan bincike an gudanar da shi ne don nazarin kwazon ɗalibai na manyan makarantun sakandare a jihar Kaduna wajen naƙaltar tsira da kumburar kalmomin Hausa. Binciken ya yi ƙoƙarin gano matsayin ƙwazon ɗalibai‘yan aji biyu a fannin tasarifi musamman ɓangaren tsira da kumburin kalmomin Hausa. An yi amfani da tsarin bincike na siffantawa da kuma gwargwadon samfurin ɗalibai  200 a manyan makarantun sakandare guda goma. An yi amfani da tsararren ma’aunin gwaji mai ɗauke da tambayoyi hamsin (50) a matsayin ma’aunin bincike, waɗanda su ka haɗa da canki-canka da kuma cike gurbi. An yi amfani da lissafin ƙididdiga don a tantance sakamako. A dunkule, bincike ya gano cewa ɗalibai ‘yan aji biyu na manyan makarantun sakandare sun fi nuna ƙwazo wajen naƙaltar tsirar kalma fiye da kumburin kalma a Hausa. Haka kuma binciken ya gano cewa ɗalibai mata sun dara takwarorinsu maza a dukannin hanyoyin ginin kalmar biyu. A ƙarshe an ba da shawarar sanya tsira da kumburar kalma a cikin manhajar Hausa na manyan makarantun sakandare. A gudanar da bincike mai irin wannan sifar a makarantun sakandare na gwamnatin tarayya.

             

ABUBUWAN DA KE CIKI

Shafin Sunan Aiki       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           i

Tabbatarwa     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           ii

Amincewa       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iii

Sadaukarwa     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           iv

Godiya             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           v

Abstract           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           vii

Tsakure –         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           viii

BABI NA ƊAYA: SHIMFIƊA

1.1       Gabatarwa       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           1

1.2       Matsalolin Bincike      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           3

1.3       Manufar Bincike         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           3

1.4        Tambayoyin Bincike –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

1.5       Muhimmancin Bincike           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           4

1.6       Farfajiyar Bincike       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

1.7       Naɗewa           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           5

BABI NA BIYU: BITAR AYYUKAN DA SUKA GABATA

2.0       Gabatarwa       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

2.1       Ma‟anar Kalma           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           7

2.2        Ginin Kalma –            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           9

2.3        Saiwa –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           9

2.4       Ɗafi     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           11

2.5        Tsirar Kalma –            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           18

2.5.1  Tsirar Suna Daga Saiwar Kalmar Suna            –           –           –           –           –           19

2.5.2  Tsirar Suna Daga Aikatau         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           23

 

2.5.3  Yadda Suna ke Tsira Daga Sifa                                                                                    30

2.5.4  Yadda Sifa ke Tsira Daga Suna            –           –           –           –           –           –           30

2.5.5    Yadda Sifa ke Tsira Daga Aikatau     –           –           –           –           –           –           31

2.5.6      Yadda Aikatau ke Tsira Daga Suna –            –           –           –           –           –           31

2.5.7    Yadda Aikatau ke Tsira Daga Sifa     –           –           –           –           –           –           32

2.5.8  Yadda Bayanau ke Tsira Daga Aikatau            –           –           –           –           –           33

2.6       Kumburar Kalma        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           34

2.6.1    Jinsi     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           36

2.6.2  Jam‟i –               –           —          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           41

2.6.3  Nasaba Da Mallaka       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           48

2.7       Kwatanci Tsakanin Tsira Da Kumburar Kalma a Hausa        –           –           –           51

2.8       Ra‟in Ɗabbaƙa Bincike          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           52

2.9       Tagomashin Manazarta           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           53

2.10     Naɗewa           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           55

BABI NA UKU: HANYOYIN GUDANAR DA BINCIKE

3.1       Gabatarwa       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           56

3.2       Tsarin Bincike-           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           56

3.3       Tsarin Gudanar Da Bincike (Jama‟a da Wurare)       –           –           –           –           56

3.4       Samfurin Gudanar da Bincike –          –           –           –           –           –           –           58

3.5       Ma‟aunin Tattara Bayanai      –           –           –           –           –           –           –           59

3.6       Dabarun Tattara Bayanai        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           59

3.7        Hanyoyin Tantance Bayanai –           –           –           –           –           –           –           60

3.8         Gwajin Wucin Gadi –            –           –           –           –           –           –           –           60

3.9       Inganci Ma‟aunin Tattara Bayanai                                                                             60

3.10     Naɗewa           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           61

BABI NA HUƊU: SAKAMAKON BINCIKE DA BAYANANSU

4.1       Gabatarwa       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           62

4.2       Ƙididdigar Bayanai     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           62

4.2.1 Tambayar Bincike ta Farko – –               –           –           –           –           –           –           64

4.2.2 Tambayar Bincike ta Biyu–        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           66

4.2.3 Tambayar Bincike ta Uku–        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           68

4.2.4 Tambayar Bincike ta Huɗu  – –              –           –           –           –           –           –           69

4.2.5 Tambayar Bincike ta Biyar  –                –           –           –           –           –           –           71

4.3       Sakamakon Bincike a Takaice            –           –           –           –           –           –           72

4.4       Tattauna Sakamakon Bincike             –           –           –           –           –           –           73

4.5       Tsifar Bayanai a Tsirar Kalma-          –           –           –           –           –           –           79

4.6       Tsifar Bayanai a Kumburar Kalma     –           –           –           –           –           –           82

4.7       Naɗewa           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           84

BABI NA BIYAR: TAƘAITAWA, KAMMALAWA DA SHAWARWARI

5.1       Gabatarwa       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           85

5.2       Taƙaitawa        –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           85

5.3         Tasirin Sakamakon Bincike –            –           –           –           –           –           –           85

5.3.1 Tasiri A kanƊalibai  –                –           –           –           –           –           –           –           86

5.3.2  Tasiri A kan Malami  –             –                                                                                   86

5.3.3 Tasiri A kan Masu Tsara Manhaja        –           –           –           –           –           –           86

5.4       Naɗewa           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           86

5.5       Shawarwari     –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           86

5.6       Shawarwari Don Faɗaɗa Bincike:      –           –           –           –           –           –           87

Manazarta       –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           88

Rataye             –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           96

 

 

 

 

             

 

JERIN JADAWALAI

Jadawali na 3.1            Yawan Makarantu da Ɗalibai  –         –           –           –           –           57

Jadawali na 3.2            Samfurin Makarantu da Ɗalibai –       –           –           –           –           59

Jadawali Na 4.1 Jadawali Na 4.1 Samfurin Sakamakon Ƙwazon Ɗalibai a Naƙaltar Tsirar

Kalmomin Hausa. –           –           –           –           –           –           –           62

Jadawali Na 4.2 Jadawali Na 4.2: Samfurin Sakamakon ƘwazonƊalibai A NaƘaltar Kumburar

Kalmomin Hausa. – –          –           –           –           –           –           –           63

Jadawali Na 4.3 Jadawali na 4.3 Yadda Sakamakon Ƙwazon Ɗalibai a Ƙakaltar Tsirar Kalma ya

Bambanta da na Kumburin Kalma. –          –           –           –           –           64

Jadawali Na 4.4 Taƙaitaccen Bayanin kan Babancin Samakon Ƙwazon ɗalibai a Tsira da

Kumburin Kalma –            –           –           –           –           –           –           65

Jadawali Na 4.5 Sakamakon Ƙwazon Ɗalibai Maza da Mata Wajen NaƘaltar Tsirar Kalmar

Hausa.         –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           66

Jadawali Na 4.6 Taƙaitaccen Sakamkon Ƙwazon Ɗalibai A Tsirar Kalma – –          –           67

Jadawali Na 4.7 Sakamakon Ƙwazon Ɗalibai Maza da Mata Wajen Naƙaltar Kumburar Kalmar

Hausa.          –           –           –           –           –           –           –           –           68

Jadawali Na 4.8 Taƙaitaccen Sakamakon Ɗalibai A Kumburar Kalma        –           –           69

Jadawali Na 4.9 Sakamakon Ƙwazon Ɗalibai na Makarantun „Yan Kasuwa da na Gwamnati a

Naƙaltar Tsirar Kalma-        –           –           –           –           –           –           69

Jadawalina 4.10 Taƙaitaccen SakamakonƘkwazon Ɗalibai na Makarantun „Yankasuwa da na

Gwabnati a Tsirar kalma – –            –           –           –           –           –           70

Jadawali na 4.11 Sakamkon Ƙwazon Ɗalibai na Makarantun „Yan Kasuwa da na Gwamnati ta

Fuskar Naƙaltar Kumburar Kalma –           –           –           –           –           71

Jadawali na 4.12: Taƙaitaccen Sakamakon Ƙwazon Ɗalibai na Makarantun „Yankasuwa da na

Gwamnati a Naƙaltar Kumburar Kalma      –           –           –           –           72

 

BABI NA ƊAYA SHIMFIDA 1.1 Gabatarwa

Ilimin ginin kalma wani muhimmin ɓangare ne a nahawun Hausa wanda ya shafi ƙira ko ƙirƙiro sababbin kalmomi ta hanyar amfani da ƙwayar ma‟ana ko ɗafi. Ita ƙwayar ma‟ana ko ɗafi akan liƙa ta ne a ginshiƙin ginin kalmar, wato saiwa, a inda a ƙarshe sai a samar da wata sabuwar kalmar mai ɗauke da sabuwar ma‟ana. Sabuwar kalmar da aka ƙirƙira za ta iya zama a ajin nahawunta na asali, ko kuma ta canza zuwa wani aji na daban na nahawun. Har ila yau, akan liƙa ƙwayar ma‟ana ko ɗafi a farkon kalma, ko a tsakiyarta ko a ƙarshenta, domin samar da wata kalmar ta daban.

Tsira da kumburin kalma da yanayinsu muhimman ɓangarori biyu ne mabambanta a ilimin tasarifin kalma, masu taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen samar da sababbin kalmomi a Hausa. To babban abin da ya kamata mu tambayi kanmu a nan shi ne, yaya ake gane kalma ta tsira daga wata, ko kuma ta kumbura daga wata kalmar ta daban? Wannan shi ne babban abin jan hankali gare mu.“Tsirar kalma” kuma, tana nufin samar da wata kalma daga cikin wata, ta hanyar sabunta ajin nahawu, tare da samar da wata ma‟ana ta daban (Zarruƙ, 1980:84, da Newman 2000:5, da Abubakar 2001:23, da Jaggar 2001:91, da fagge 2013:7).

“Ɗafi” ma a matsayinsa na ɗaya daga cikin hanyoyin ginin kalma, ya shafi ƙari ne da ake yi wa saiwa a gabanta, ko a tsakiyarta, ko a ƙarshenta. Ɗafin da aka yi a gaban saiwa, shi ake kira ɗafagoshi, wanda aka ɗafa a ƙarshen saiwa, shi ake kira ɗafa-ƙeya; wanda kuma ake ɗafawa a tsakiyar saiwa, ana kiransa da ɗafa-ciki (Abubakar, 2001:2).

“Kumbura” a ɗaya ɓangaren, ita kuma tana nufin ƙari da ake yi wa kalma, da ba ya canza rukunin nahawunta (Hartmenn da Stork, 1972:112; da Abubakar, 2001:115) kumbura hanya ce da ake amfani da saƙala ɗafi, domin fayyace matsayin kalma a nahawu. Tsari ne da ake gane

 

matsayin kalma ta waɗannan fuskokin: hanyoyin fayyace jinsi da nuna nasaba da nuna mallaka da kuma fayyace jam‟i (Fagge, 2013:60).

Jinsi na nufin nau‟i na tantance namiji ko mace, ma‟ana a kowace kalmar suna ko sifa, za a tarar tana da jinsin mace ko namiji (Fagge, 2013:60-61). „Yar‟aduwa (2004:117) ya ƙara da cewa, jinsi na samuwa ne a wajen suna ko wakilin suna ko sifa.

Bambanci da ke tsakanin tsira da kumburar kalma shi ne Bagari, (1986) cewa ya yi tsira na nufin liƙawa saiwar kalma wata gudar ma‟ana domin a sauya ajin nahawun kalmar. Mamman (2006) shi kuma ya kawo cewa ƙarƙashin kumbura za a tarar cewa akwai ire-iren dafa-keya da ake samu domin su haifar da tilo zuwa jam‟i ko kuma jinsin mace “iya” da kuma “anya”. Don haka tsira da kmbura a Hausa sun bambanta ta fuskoki kamar haka:

  1. A tsirar kalma ana samun canji daga wannan rukuni na nahawu zuwa wancan, amma a kmbura sai dai daga tilo zuwa jam‟i ko kuma daga jinsin mace zuwa jinsin namiji. ii. A tsirar kalma abin da ke faruwa shine, akan yi wa kalma ƙarin gudar ma‟ana ne don a sauya mata rukunin nahawu amma a kumburin kalma ƙarin gaɓa akan yi wa kalma ta fuskar jinsi ko adadi.

Wannan bincike ya yi nazari ne kan naƙaltar tsira da kumburar kalmomin Hausa ga ɗaliban babban sakandare (SS2) a jihar Kaduna. A ƙarƙashin haka ne bincike ya yi nazari tare da zaƙulo yadda kalma ke tsira daga wata, ko kuma kalma ta kumbura daga wata kalmar. Bugu da ƙari, wannan bincike ya yi ƙoƙarin fito da waɗannan hanyoyi na tsira da kumburar kalmomin Hausa ne a fili, a tsare kuma a kammale, domin masu nazari da bunƙasa ilimi. A ƙarshe, bincike ko dabaru da ɗalibai kan yi amfani da su a ƙoƙarinsu na naƙaltar yadda kalmomin Hausa kan tsira, ko kuma su kumbura, a makarantun babban sakandare, a jihar Kaduna.

 

                          1.2       Matsalolin Bincike

Wannan bincike ya lura cewa, masu nazari sun yi bincike-bincike da dama a wasu sassan nahawu, cikin harshen Hausa da Ingilishi, amma ɓangaren ilimin tasarifi (ginin kalma) musamman fannin naƙaltar tsira da kumburar kalmomin Hausa ga ɗalibai da kuma yadda kalmomin kan caccanza ta fuskar tsarin gini da ma‟ana, mai wannan bincike baici karo da ireirensu ba. waɗannan fannoni guda biyu kuwa sun kasance masu matuƙar muhimmanci wurin samar da sababbin kalmomi a harshen na Hausa, kai har ma da sauran harsuna daban-daban na duniya.

Haka kuma, mai bincike bai hadu da wasu isassun rubuce-rubuce da aka yi kan yadda ɗalibai kan naƙalci yadda kalma kan tsira daga wata ba, ko kuma kalma ta kumbura daga wata kalmar.Har ila yau, bincike ya lura cewa babu wadatattun rubuce-rubuce da aka yi cikin harshen Hausa a fannin tasarifi, kamar yadda suka wadata a harshen Ingilishi, wannan ita ma hujja ce muhimmiya ta gudanar da wannan bincike.A sakamakon haka ne wannan kundin bincike ya ga ya zama wajibi a nazarci wannan ɓangare, domin kar a bar shi a baya, saboda yana da matuƙar muhimmanci ga dukkan mai nazari, musamman a wannan ɓangare na bunƙasa harshen Hausa.

1.3 ManufofinBincike

Wannan binciken an gina shi ne akan manufofi kamar haka:

  1. Wannan bincike ya yiƙoƙarin gano bambancin da ke tsakanin ƙwazonɗalibai na manyan makarantun sakandare wajen naƙaltar tsira da kumburar kalmomin Hausa.
  2. Burin wannan bincike ne ya gano naƙaltar ɗalibai maza da mata na yadda kalmomin

Hausa kan canza daga wannan rukuni na nahawu zuwa wancan.

  1. Wannan bincike ya yi ƙoƙarin gwada ƙwazonɗalibaimaza da mata wajen gano yadda kalmomin Hausa kan kumbura su samar da jinsi da jam‟i da kuma nuna mallaka.
  2. Wannan bincike zai yi ƙoƙarin gano bambancin da ke tsakanin ƙwazon dalibai na makarantun „yan kasuwa da na gamnati wajen naƙaltar tsira da kumburar kalmomin Hausa.

                          1.4       Tambayoyin Bincike

Akwai tambayoyi da aka tsara waɗanda aka yi amfani da su a wannan aiki tare da nemo amsoshinsu. Tambayoyin kuwa sun haɗa da:

  1. Ta yaya sakamakon ƙwazon ɗalibai ta fuskar naƙaltar tsirar kalma ya banbanta da sakamakon ƙwazonsu a naƙaltar kumburin kalma?
  2. Mene ne sakamakon ƙwazon ɗalibai maza da mata wajen naƙaltar tsirar kalma, daga wannan rukuni na nahawu zuwa wancan?
  3. Wane irin bambanci ne yake a tsakanin sakamakon ƙwazon ɗalibai maza da kuma mata ta fuskar naƙaltar kumburar Kalmomin Hausa wajen samar da jinsi da jam‟i da kuma nuna

mallaka?

  1. Mene ne sakamakon ƙwazon ɗalibai na makarantun „yan kasuwa da makarantun gwamnati ta fuskar naƙaltar tsirar kalmomin Hausa, daga wannan rukuni na Nahawu zuwa wancan?
  2. Ta yaya sakamakon ƙwazon ɗalibai na makarantun „yan kasuwa ya bambanta da na makarantun gwamnati ta fuskar naƙaltar kumburar kalmomin Hausa, wajen samar da jinsi da jam‟i da nuna mallaka?

                          1.5       Muhimmancin Bincike

Wannan bincike an gudanar da shi ne don a yi nazari kuma a gano yadda ɗaliban babbar sakandare kan naƙalci yadda kalmomin Hausa kan tsira kuma su kumbura. Bugu da ƙari, an bincika tare da gano yadda kalmomin na Hausa kan tsira daga wannan rukuni zuwa wancan na nahawu, ko kuma su yadda suke kumbura ta fuskar samar da jinsi ko jam‟i.

Wannan bincike yana da muhimmanci ta fuskoki da dama. Wannan bincike zai zama mai muhimmanci ga ɗalibai ta fuskar samar masu da wani kundin nazari wanda zai taimaka masu sanin yadda kalmomin Hausa kan tsira ko su kumbura, da kuma sanin ka’idojin da suka shafi hakan.

Wannan bincike yana da muhimmanci ga malaman Hausa wajen sauƙaƙa koyo da koyarwa a ɓangaren ginin kalma.Wanna kundin bincike zai bada muhimmiyar gudummawa ga masu sha’awar rubuce-rubuce musamman a bangaren tasarifi, ta hanyar samar masu da hanyoyi ko dabaru da a kan yi amfani dasu wajen kirar kalmomi a Hausa.

Su ma masu tsara manhaja ba a barsu a baya ba, domin wannan kundin bincike zai taimaka masu wajen sanin abubuwan da suka fi dacewa, zai kuma samar da yanayi da matsayin fahimtar ɗalibai lokacin tsara manhaja musamman a bangaren nazarin ginin Kalmar Hausa.

                          1.6       Farfajiyar Bincike

Kamar yadda aka sani, kowane abu yana da iyaka, wato yana da mafari da kuma madakata. Kamar yadda taken ya nuna, a wannan bincike an yi nazarin naƙaltar tsira da kumburin kalmomin Hausa, ga ɗaliban makarantun sakandare, amma ba a taɓo fannin ginin jimla ba.

Haka kuma, wannan bincike ya gudana ne a makarantun manyan sakandare a jihar Kaduna, a shiyyar ilimi na Zariya.

Har ila yau an gudanar da wannan bincike ne ga ɗalibai „yan aji biyu (SS2) na manyan makarantun sakandare

1.7Naɗewa

Kamar yadda aka gani a sama, wannan babi ya tattauna abubuwa ne a ƙarƙashin nazari kan naƙaltar tsira da kumburin kalmomin Hausa tsakanin ɗalibai na manyan makarantun sakandare. Babin ya yi bayanin abubuwa, kama daga matsalolin bincike, manufofin bincike, tambayoyin bincike, muhimmancin bincike da kuma farfajiyar bincike.

A wannan babi, an nuna cewa babu bincike da aka gudanar ta fuskar nazari kan naƙaltar tsira da kumburar kalmomin Hausa ga ɗalibai. Manufar wannan bincike ita ce nazari don gano yanayin naƙaltar ɗalibai maza da mata, kan tsirar kalma daga wannan rukuni na nahawu zuwa wancan, da kuma kumburar kalma wajen samar da jinsi da jam‟i da nuna nasaba da mallaka. An yi la‟akari da wannan manufar ce wajen tsara tambayoyin wannan bincike. Wannan kundin bincike yana da muhimmanci ga ɗalibai, malamai, masu nazari da kuma masu tsara manhaja. Har ila yau, an gudanar da shi ne ga ɗaliban manyan sakandare „yan aji biyu, a shiyyar ilimi na Zariya cikin Jihar Kaduna.

 

EXAMINATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN HAUSA DERIVATIONAL AND INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGICAL PRACTICES TEST IN KADUNA STATE

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