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The research study was carried out to assess the perception of the use of Information

Communication Technology (ICT) among agricultural extensions agents in Zamfara State. In order to achieve the broad objectives of the study, four specific objectives were raised which included determination of the influence of the level of income and educational attainment of extension agents on the use of ICT in Zamfara State, Nigeria. Four research questions andtwo null hypotheses were formulated for the study. The sample of the study comprised of 340 extension agents drawn from a population of 475 extension agents working in Zamfara State Agricultural Development Project (ZADP). Multi-stage sampling procedure was used to select the sample from the population. A structured questionnaire was used as instrument for data collection. Data were presented in tables and analyzed using percentage, arithmetic mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions. The two null hypotheses were tested using regression analysis at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the tested null hypotheses indicated significant influence of socio-economic factors such as annual income, education, working experience and household size on the use of ICT in ZamfaraState. Findings of the study revealed that level of use of ICT tools among extension agents was very low due to non-availability of these devices. The researcher recommended that concerned stakeholders such as government and other non-governmental organizations should make efforts to address those socio-economic factors such as annual income, education, household size and working experience which influence the use of ICT among extension agents in Zamfara State, Nigeria.



Cover Page                                                                                                                                          i

Tittle Page                                                                                                                                           ii

Declaration             iii Certification             iv

Dedication                                                                                                                                           v

Acknowledgement                                                                                                                              vi

Table of Contents                                                                                                                                 viii

List of Tables                                                                                                                                      xi

List of Appendices                                                                                                                              xii

List of Abbreviations                                                                                                                            xiii

Operational Definition of Terms




1.1       Background to the Study                                                                                                        1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                                                       4

1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                                                                           6

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                                                6

1.5       Research Hypotheses                                                                                                              6

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                                                        7

1.7       Basic Assumption of the Study                                                                                              7

1.8       Delimitation of the Study                                                                                                       8 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Theoretical Framework                                                                                              10

2.2       Conceptual Framework                                                                                                          13

2.3       Concept of Socio-economic Factors                                                                                      14

2.3.1 Age as a Socio-economic factor                                                                                                15

2.3.2 Household Size                                                                                                                          17

2.3.3 Income as a Socio-economic Factor                                                                                          18

2.3.4 Education as a Socio-economic Factor                                                                                     19

2.3.5 Occupation as Socio-economic Factor                                                                                      19

2.4       Information Communication Technology                                                                              20

2.5       ICT Devices Used in Agricultural Extension                                                                         23

2.5.1 The Use of Radio and Television                                                                                              23

2.5.2 The Use of Internet                                                                                                                    24

2.5.3  The Use of Mobile Phones                                                                                                       25

2.5.4  Overhead Projectors                                                                                                                 26

2.5.5  The Use of Mobile Cinema                                                                                                      26

2.5.6  The Use of Videos                                                                                                                    27

2.6       Factors Influencing the Used of ICT in Agricultural Extension Services                              28

2.7       Major Constraints to ICT use in Extension Delivery in Zamfara state                                  29

2.8       Review of Empirical Studies                                                                                                  32

2.9       Summary of the Reviewed Literature                                                                                    40 CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY                                                    

3.1Research Design                                         42

3.2       Population of the Study                                                                                                          42

3.3       Sample Size and Sampling Procedure                                                                                    43

3.4       Instrument for Data Collection                                                                                               44

3.4.1 Validation of the Instrument                                                                                                      45

3.4.2 Pilot Study                                                                                                                                 45

3.4.3 Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                                      46

3.5       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                                                46

3.6       Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                                                  47

3.6.1 Measurement of Variables                                                                                                         47


4.1       Answers to Research Questions                                                                                             49

Research Question One                                                                                                          51

Research Question Two         52  Research Question Three         53

4.2       Test of Null Hypotheses                                                                                                         54

Null Hypothesis One                                                                                                              54

Null Hypothesis Two

4.3       Summary of Major Findings                                                                                                  57

4.4       Discussion of Major Findings                                                                                                57 CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY CONCLUSION ANDRECOMMENDATION

5.1       Summary                                                                                                                                   61

5.2       Contribution to Knowledge                                                                                                       63

5.3       Conclusion                                                                                                                                 63

5.4       Recommendations                                                                                                                     64

5.5       Suggestion for the Studies                                                                                                         64

References                                                                                                                                66

             Appendices                                                                                                                               74


1.1       Background of the Study

Effective communication of agricultural information to farmers is crucial in achieving optimum efficiency in agricultural extension administration and practice in Nigeria. Agricultural extension in this information age has been recognized as an essential medium of disseminating information and advice to farmers and this can be achieved throughthe use of ICT. In Nigeria today, the concept of ICT has become a global concern and the increasing application of the technology in every segment of our national life, especially through the mobile phones, television, the internet, e-wallet, video, cameras, computers, mobile cinema, cassette recorders and overhead projectors.

Agricultural extension is an informal educational service which brings information andnew technologies to farming communities to enable them improve their production, income and standards of living. Throughout the world, ICT has become increasingly integrated into dissemination of information to farmers. ICT are used to connect and enable learning and also connect communities of farmers and researchers in agriculture. In recent years, a number of Sub-saharan African countries experienced slow agricultural development. The decline in the agricultural development could be attributed to a number of constraints which include inappropriate and inconsistent agricultural policies, inadequate information provision, low level of adoption of improved agricultural technologies and institutional frameworks (KiplangandWallance, 2003).

Yakubu, AbubakarandAtala (2013), report that agricultural development in Africa and Nigeria in particular, has been hampered by low level of agricultural information exchange. Low ExternalInput Sustainable Agriculture (LEISA) now known as Farming


Matters (2005) emphasize that the underlyingis related to the information and knowledge.

Access to information is one of the most valuable resources in agricultural development. Recently the demand for agricultural information is of great importance than ever before, thereby making information a prominent factor in agricultural development.

Socio-economic factorsin accordance with this study are socio-economic variables that influence an agricultural extension agents‟ use of occupational devices in the discharge of his/her assignment.Such variables that are important include level of income, working experience, family size, age and level of educational attainment. Those with higher socio-economic status or variables tend to thrive and many aim to improve their socio-economic variables or factors in order to improve their life chances.

AikensandBarbarin (2010) view socio-economic factors as the economic and sociological combined total measure of a person‟s work experience and of an individual‟s or family‟s economic and social position in relation to others, based on income, education, occupation and other factors. Milner andPlourde (2006) posit that socioeconomic factors such as level of income, education and occupation together best represent socio-economic variables that influence the abilities of an individual or individuals to use certain occupational devices.

ICTsare technologies used by agricultural extension agents to facilitate communication, processing and transmission of relevant agricultural information and technologies to farmers. Such technologies include television, radio,mobile phones, as well as the internet facilities. Other technologies include the use of mobile cinema, radio cassette recorders, overhead projectors, and videos.

Adebayo andAdesope (2007) define ICT as the term used to access, retrieve, store, organize, manipulate, produce, present, and exchange information by electronic and other automated means. Similarly, Michael andVancrowder (2001) described ICTs as a range of electronic technologies which when converged in new configuration are flexible, adaptable, enabling, and capable of transforming organizations and redefining social relation. ICTs therefore, are an expanding assembly of technologies that can be used to collect, store and share information between people using multiple devices and multiple media.

Agricultural extension service depends largely on information exchange between and among farmers and a broad range of other actors, namely the extension agents or workers. Frontline agricultural extension workers, who are the direct link between farmers and other actors in the agricultural knowledge and information system are well positionedto make use of ICTs to access expert knowledge and information that could be beneficial to farmers.

Arokoyo (2005) identifies some potential applications of ICT in agricultural extension to include;

  1. Capacity to reach large audience example, the use of radio, television, and the


  1. Can be effectively used for training and demonstrations, example, television, video, compact disk (CD)anddigital versatile disk (DVD).
  • Can be used to make extension system and structures more efficient through better management of information and scarce resources. Example the use of data bases for management information system (MIS) and networking software.
  1. For the search and packaging of information on demandand for exploring of alternative productive option and technologies
  2. ICT may be used for normal weather forecast and as a warning system for diseases/pests outbreaks and other disasters before they occur and also for the provision of timely and sensitive market information. For example with the use of radio, television and short message service(SMS).
  3. ICTs are useful for networking among and between the key stakeholders in the Research-Extension-Farmers-Inputs-Linkage System(REFILS)example, the use of television, video and SMS.
  • Finally, ICTs can also be effectively used for community mobilization, learning and action. Example, Radio, TV, public address system and the web.

MeeraandDexit (2004) note that ICTs can bring new information services to rural areas where farmers (end users) will have much greater control, than ever before over current information channels. Access to such new information source is a crucial requirement for the sustainable development of the farming systems. Meera,JhamtaniandRao(2004) maintain that, ICT can be of immense help to extension workers to gather, store, retrieve and disseminate broad range of information needed by farmers, thus transforming them from extension workers into knowledge workers(KW) The emergence of such knowledge workers will result in the realization of the much talked about bottom-up, demand derive, technology generation assessment, refinement and transfers.

1.2        Statement of the Problem

The agricultural sector of Nigeria and ofZamfara State in particular is a strong springboard for development if it is given adequate attention. Moreso,ICT has been identified as a veritable channel through which development in agriculture of Zamfara State and Nigeria in general could be realized particularly in information dissemination and literacy drive of extension agents.

Various reports by the ZADP over the years at the National Agricultural Extension

Planning and Review (NAEPR) meetings held at the National Agricultural Extension and

Research Liaison Services (NAERLS) show lowextension agent andfarm family ratio of 1:1000. Furthermore, poor mobility of extension staff due to dwindling fund features regularly in the annual reports.Moreover, poor salary, non-payment of allowances,delayed promotion of the extension agents featured prominently in the annual reports. The invasion of the rural communities in Zamfara State by armed bandits, kidnappers and cattle rustlers had worsened the situations. These situations discourages regular visit of extension agents to farmers in the State. Rural farmers who should be given adequate attention and support in terms of provision of current information on relevant agricultural technologies and practices by the extension agents are not adequately assisted and informed, thus, constituting an uphill task in adopting modern technologies. Even when informed, they are beset with confusing and late information. Hence, farmers in Zamfara State are poorly reached by extension agents and thus, the expected high performance level of farmers has not been realized.However, the use of ICT by the extension agents will greatly enhance the dissemination of agricultural information to farmers through the use of radio, television and other ICT tools in the state. ICTs have many and various benefits to the extension agents in particular and transformation of agricultural extension. In view of the above therefore, this study attempted to analyze the perception of the use ofICTs among agriculturalextension agents in agricultural information delivery system in

Zamfara State, Nigeria.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study was to analyse the perception ofthe use of ICT by

Agricultural Extension Agents in Zamfara State, Nigeria.

The specific objectives are to:

  1. ascertain ICT devices available for use by agriculturalextension agents in Zamfara State, Nigeria;
  2. determine the level of perception ofthe use of ICT among agricultural extension agents in

Zamfara State, Nigeria;and

  1. establish the extent to which socio-economic characteristics of agricultural extension agents influence the use of ICT in Zamfara State, Nigeria.

1.4        Research Questions

The following research questions were answered:

  1. What are the ICT devices available for use by agricultural extension agents in Zamfara

State, Nigeria?

  1. What is the perception of the level of Use of the ICT devices among agricultural extension

Agents in Zamfara State, Nigeria?

  1. What is the extent to which socio-economic characteristics of agricultural extension agents influence the use of ICT in Zamfara State, Nigeria?

1.5        Research Hypotheses

The following null-hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance:

  1. Socio-economic characteristics have no significant influenceon the level of use of ICT byagriculturalextension agentsin Zamfara State, Nigeria.
  2. There is no significant influence between ownership of ICT devices andtheir level of use amongagricultural extension agents.

1.6        Significance of the study

At the end of this research study, it is hoped that, the study wouldbenefit farmers, Zamfara state government, Policy makers in agriculture and Researchers in the field of agricultural extension

The rural farmers in Zamfarastate would benefit from the result of this study as the use of ICT enhanced the volume of proven technologies available to assist farmers increase their farm productivity. Improved farming techniques are expected to be brought to their door-steps through the use of ICT devices by extension agents.

The findings of this study would be of beneficial to policy makers in agricultural extension to put more effort towards making the ICT more available, accessible and affordable to the extension workers in Zamfara state.

Through the findings of this study, the government would be sensitized on the problem that bedeviled the use of ICT by extension agents so that they can be effectively addressed by government for better service delivery to the rural farmers.

The findings would also serve as a baseline and reference material for further research in the study area or similar area so as to fill the gaps this study could not identify.

The study will also serve as a reference material for future researchers.

1.7       Basic Assumptions of the Study

For the purpose of this study, the following basic assumptions were made:

  1. Socio-economic characteristics of the agricultural extension agents in Zamfarastate influence their use of ICT devices.
  2. Agricultural extension agents in Zamfarastate have limited access and awareness to the use of ICT in extension delivery due to shortage of ICT devices in extension delivery in the state.
  3. The level ofuse of ICT devices among agricultural extension agents is significantly influenced by their availability in the study area.

1.8       Delimitation of the Study

The study was delimited to the assessment of perception of use of ICT among agricultural extension agents in Zamfara State, Nigeria. The socio-economic factors delimited to the study were; the level of income of the extension agents, their level of educational attainments, household size, working experience and the age of the extension agents because they are the main concern of the research study.  The research study was further delimited to the availability and level of use of ICT devices in the area under study.The study was delimited to agricultural extension agents in the fourteen (14) LGAs of Zamfara State working with ZADP.



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