ANALYSIS OF LEARNERS’ PERFORMANCES IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION AT SELECTED COMMUNITY AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN ZARIA METROPOLIS (2009-2013)

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ANALYSIS OF LEARNERS’ PERFORMANCES IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION AT SELECTED COMMUNITY AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN ZARIA METROPOLIS (2009-2013)

ABSTRACT

 

The study examined the analysis of students’ performance in English language, Mathematics, Sciences, Arts and Commercial Subjects in West African Examination Council in Selected Public  and Private Secondary Schools in Zaria Metropolis from 2009 – 2013. Some of the objectives of the study were to identify students performance in English language in WAEC in Public  and Private

Schools, determine Students’ Performance in Mathematics in Public  and Private Schools and examine the performance of students in Arts Subjects in Public  and Private Schools. Five research questions were formulated among them are to what extent has the performance of students improved in English language in both Public  and Private schools, to what extent has the performance of student improved in Mathematics in WAEC in both Public  and Private schools in Zaria metropolis? Also five null hypotheses were formulated, there is no significant difference in the performance of student in English Language in Public and Private Schools from 2009-2013 in Zaria metropolis. Relevant related literatures were reviewed based on the variables in the objectives. The population of the study was (20)Public  secondary schools and (20) Private schools. Fifty percent (50%) of the population for both Public  and Private schools were considered that is, 10 Public  and 10 Private schools through a random sampling in Zaria metropolis. The instrument used to collect data was a secondary data titled West African Senior Secondary School Certificate and Oral Interview. Means and percentages were used to analyze the research questions while T-test was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 significant level and the null hypotheses were rejected. Some of the findings were that the percentage of Private Senior Secondary Schools that passed English language Mathematics, Sciences, Arts and Commercial Subjects were higher than those Public  schools over the period of five years, it was discovered that truancy and absenteeism of the students affect them in WAEC Examination. Some of the recommendations made were that the principals in Public  schools should do thorough supervision especially on teachers that teach English Language, Mathematics and Science Subjects, More Science facilities that can enhance students performance in sciences should be provided both in Public  and Private schools, and that principals should check and make sure teachers teaching Art Subjects are zealous in doing their work especially in Public  schools where failure rate is recorded.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

             

TABLE OF CONTENTS                       Page

Title Page                                                                                                                   i

DECLARATION……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ii

CERTIFICATION…………………………………………………………………………………………………….. iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS…………………………………………………………………………………………. iv

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS……………………………………………………………………. v

ABSTRACT……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. vi

CHAPTER ONE……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 1

1.1  Background to the Study………………………………………………………………………………………… 1

1.2  Statement of the Problem……………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

1.3  Objectives of the Study………………………………………………………………………………………….. 4

1.4  Research Questions………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

1.5  Hypotheses…………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 5

1.6    Basic Assumptions……………………………………………………………………………………………… 6

1.7  Significance of the Study……………………………………………………………………………………….. 7

1.8 Scope of the Study………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8

CHAPTER TWO……………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 9

2.1  Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 9

2.2      Theoretical Framework………………………………………………………………………………………. 9 

2.3  Conceptual Framework of the Study……………………………………………………………………….. 12

2.3.1  Meaning of Performance……………………………………………………………………………………. 13

2.3.2  Meaning of academic achievement………………………………………………………………………. 15

2.4  Students’ Performance in English Language in WAEC……………………………………………….. 18

2.5  Students’ Performance in WAEC in Mathematics………………………………………………………. 23

2.6  Students’ Performance in WAEC in Science Subjects…………………………………………………. 31

2.7  Students Performance in WAEC in Art Subjects………………………………………………………… 39

2.8  Students’ Performance in WAEC in Commercial Subjects……………………………………………. 40

2.9  Empirical Studies……………………………………………………………………………………………….. 42

2.10  Summary of Literature Review…………………………………………………………………………….. 45

CHAPTER THREE………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 46

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY…………………………………………………………………………………. 46

3.1  Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 46

3.2  The Research Design…………………………………………………………………………………………… 46

3.3  Population of the Study………………………………………………………………………………………… 46

3.4  Sample and Sampling Techniques………………………………………………………………………….. 46

3.5  Instrumentation………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 47

3.6  Validity of the Instrument…………………………………………………………………………………….. 47

3.7  Pilot Study………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 47

3.8  Reliability of Instrument………………………………………………………………………………………. 48

3.9  Administration of the Research Instruments……………………………………………………………… 48

3.10 Method of Data Analysis…………………………………………………………………………………….. 48

CHAPTER FOUR……………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49

4.1  Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 49

4.2  Responses to Research Questions…………………………………………………………………………… 49

4.3  Test of hypotheses………………………………………………………………………………………………. 59

4.4  Summary of Findings…………………………………………………………………………………………… 67

4.5  Discussion of the Findings……………………………………………………………………………………. 68

CHAPTER FIVE……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 74

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS…………………………………………. 74

5.1  Introduction………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 74

5.2  Summary of the Study…………………………………………………………………………………………. 74

5.3.  Conclusions……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 76

5.4.  Recommendations……………………………………………………………………………………………… 77

5.5.  Suggestions for Further Studies…………………………………………………………………………….. 78

 

References                                                                                                             58

Appendix                                                                                                             63

             

 

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1:     Population for Private Schools. List of Table for Population of Private School’s           69

Table 2: Mean percentage score of the Public  and Private secondary schools                     50

Table 3    Mean percentage score of the Public  and Private secondary schools                   52

Table 4: Mean percentage score of the Public  and Private secondary schools                     54

Table 5: Mean percentage score of the Public  and Private secondary schools                     56

Table 6: Mean percentage score of the Public  and Private secondary schools                     58

Table 7Two sample t-test on performances of Private and Publicschools                 60

Table 8       Two sample t-test on performances in mathematics by students in                    61

Table 9       Two sample t-test on performances in science by student in private schools   62

Table 10: Two sample t-test on Private and Public  senior secondary schools          63

Table 11: Two sample t-test on Percentages of passes by Private and Public  schools         65

 

 

 

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: The elements of performance management system  
  circle. 10
Figure 2: Trend in performance of students in language between  
  2009 – 2013                                                              36       
Figure 3: Trend in performance of students in language between  
  2009 – 2013                                                              38
Figure4: Trend in performance of students in language between  
            2009 – 2013                                                              39       

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

The cause of varying levels of academic achievement in schools has often been a subjectof investigation all over the world. In Nigeria, studies sought to explain the trend of candidates’ performance in West African Examination Council (WAEC). Some have attributed differences in performance to factors inherent in the candidates and in thesyllabuses, while attention has also been paid to other factors (Uwadia,2006 and Owokade, 2007). There have been contentions that school ownership is one factor that affectslearning activities which in turn affect performance of students. School ownership can be viewed from two main perspectives: Public  and private. There is a widely-held view that students who attend Private schools perform better than those who attend Public  schools in different parts of the world. Both Adomako (2005) and Asante (2005) opined that performance of Private schools has continued to be far better than that of Public  schools at the basic level. Sato (2005) argued that

“there is more chance of a better academic performance in Private schools” just as Dalma (2005) was of the view that Public  schools in the present day Nigeria were simply not up to the mark.

According to Adeleye (2008:8) the school system in Kaduna State in which Zaria metropolis is inclusive is besets by unhealthy situations. In view of this, the research is geared towards analyzing students’ performance in WAEC in English Language. Mathematics, Arts, Sciences and Commercial Subjects in Public and Private schools in Zaria.

Although, it is expected that all secondary schools in the country should be of the same standards in terms of academic, putting in the same resources, it is obvious that some schools perform better than others.

However, some factors that are responsible for this disparity between Private and Public  schools are enumerated as follows:

  1. Students admission procedure ii. Student’s academic performance in internal and external examinations  iii.            School facilities, infrastructure, and educational facilities  iv.    Staffing
  2. Quality vi. Quantity

vii.       Conditions of service of staff  viii.     Management of staff  ix. Socio-economic background of students’ parents.

Indeed the proliferation of Private schools and the surge of admission into them, in spite of high school fees, attest to parents’ desire for an alternative educational system to the decadence in Public  schools. It is worthy to note that the secondary schools in Zaria metropolis, operate through systems guided by regulatory agencies of the Kaduna State Ministry of Education to ensure quality services in both Public andPrivate secondary schools in order to have quality output through students’ success in their academics at both junior and senior secondary schools level.

The students performance in English language has become a thing of worry to parents. This is because past researches show that there has been a high failure rate in English language indicating too that other students that come with credit in English are few.  This trend has become a concern both to the schools and parents.  Likewise students performance in mathematics as shown in previous researches indicate also that  that there has been a high failure rate in mathematics and this is also attributed to students’ attitude to mathematics.

However, the previous researches in Science such as biology, chemistry, and physics showed that students performed below average in biology and chemistry while physics recorded more failures. Students performance in Arts Subjects in the previous research show that the performance has been fair and students performance in commercial Subjects in the past researches showed that the result in this area has been fair compared to students performance in English language and mathematics.  However, students’ performancein commercialSubjects has been of great concern because the opportunity of youth to acquire skills and knowledge for effective nation building is based on the commercial and technical education programme.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Zaria metropolis secondary schools have been recording high failure in English Language, Mathematics, Sciences, Arts and Commercial Subjects.According to Nwazuzu (2012), there has been a significant gap in students performance in Public  and Private secondary schools.According to Albert (2003) some of the problems leading to mass failure from the examination bodies are traceable to schools, internet.However, the rate of failure in English Language, Mathematics, Science, Arts and Commercial Subjects. in both Public  and Private schools in Zaria metropolis is alarming.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The following objectives were formulated to guide the researcher to,

  1. Identify students performance in English Language in WAEC in both

Publicand Private Secondary Schools from 2009 – 2013 in Zaria metropolis.

  1. Determinestudents’ performance in Mathematics in Public and Private schools from 2009 – 2013 in Zaria metropolis.
  2. Ascertainstudents’ performance in Science Subjects in Public and Private schools from 2009 – 2013 in Zaria metropolis.
  3. Examine the performance of students in Arts Subjects in Public and Private schools from 2009 – 2013 in Zaria metropolis.
  4. Analyse the performance of students in Commercial Subjects in WAEC

inPublic and Private secondary schools from 2009 – 2013 in Zaria metropolis.

1.4       Research Questions

The study aimed at finding answers to the following questions

  1. To what extent has the performances of students improved in English Language inboth Public and Private secondary schools from 2009 to 2013 in Zaria Metropolis.
  2. What extent has the performances of students improved in Mathematics in

WAEC inPublic  and Private secondary schools from 2009 to 2013 in Zaria Metropolis?

  1. Is there any difference in the performances of students in Sciences in WAEC in Public and Private schools from 2009 to 2013 in Zaria Metropolis?
  2. Is there any differences in the performance of students in Art Subjects in

WAEC in Public  and Private schools from 2009 to 2013 in Zaria Metropolis?

  1. Is there any difference in the performance of students in Commercial Subjects in WAEC in Public and Private schools from 2009 to 2013 in Zaria Metropolis?

1.5       Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were postulated to guide the researcher:

H01: There is no significant difference inthe performances of students in English Language in Public and Private schools from 2009 – 2013 in Zaria

metropolis.

H02: There is no significant difference in the performances of students in Mathematics in Public  and Private schools from 2009 – 2013 in Zaria metropolis.
H03: There is no significant difference in the performances of students inScience Subjects in Public  and Private schools from 2009 – 2013 in Zaria metropolis.
H04: There is no significant difference in the performances of students and ArtSubjects in Public  and Private schoolsfrom 2009 – 2013 in Zaria metropolis.
H05: There is no significant difference in the performances of students and

commercial Subjects in Public  and Private schoolsfrom 2009 – 2013 in Zaria metropolis.

1.6    Basic Assumptions

The researcher comes up with the following assumptions,

  1. That the performances of students in Private secondary schools are betterthan those of the Public schools.
  2. That students performed better in Commercial Subjects than any otherSubject. iii. That Public secondary schools have better facilities, infrastructureand educational materials but are not made use of.
  3. That students performed relatively well in Art Subjects than in Science

Subjects.

  1. That students failed English Language and Mathematics more thanany other

Subject.

1.7       Significance of the Study

The researcher came up with the following as the significance of the study.This study is significant in the sense that, it will provide evidence regarding the performance effectiveness of Public and Private secondary schools in Zaria metropolis. This will either confirm or dispel the belief of people in respect of the superiority of the type of school over the other.

Educational     planners,     policy     makers,     school     administrators     and

proprietors/proprietresses of schools in the Public and Private secondary schools in Zaria metropolis will benefit from the findings of this study. The area of strength and weakness in the management of the types of schools will be highlighted to give room for possible adjustment to enhance better performance of students in WAEC.

1.8       Scope of the Study

The scope of the study involves ten Private schools with One Hundred (100) SS 3 students and 10 Public  schools with 200  SS 3 students who have taken WAEC examination from 2009 – 2013.

ANALYSIS OF LEARNERS’ PERFORMANCES IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION AT SELECTED COMMUNITY AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS IN ZARIA METROPOLIS (2009-2013)

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