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This study investigated the Effect of Project-based Approach on Acquisition of Entrepreneurial Skills, Retention and Performance in Biology, among Secondary School Students, in Niger State, Nigeria. The study adopted pre-test, post-test, quasiexperimental design. The population consisted of 149,290 public senior secondary school students in the state. Three secondary schools were purposively sampled from the seven educational zones in the state. The sample size was 150(75 male 75 female) SSII Biology students  assigned to three groups (two Experimental groups (EG1&EG2) and one Control Group (CG)} with 50 subjects per each group. Three instruments (1) Biology Concept Entrepreneurship Test (BCET), (2) Entrepreneurial Skill Acquisition Test (ESAT) and (3) Biology Achievement Test (BAT)were used in collecting data after validation. The reliability coefficients of the instruments using PPMCC were estimated at r = 0.71, r = 0.78 and r = 0.68 respectively. Results from this study provided answers to six stated research questions using descriptive statistics in form  of mean, standard deviation and standard error. Hypotheses testing were carried out using t-test, Scheffe test, ANOVA and ANCOVA at P<0.05 level of significance. One among the hypotheses states that there is no significant difference in students‘ performance means scores when exposed to Project-based Approach and their counterparts taught using Lecture Method. ANOVA and Scheffe test were conducted to identify the cause of the significant difference. One of the findings revealed that there was significant difference in performance mean scores of students taught biology concepts for entrepreneurship using Project-based Approach. There is significant difference in students‘ ability levels in skills acquisition using DATS as assessment tool over those exposed to TFLE as assessment tools of Project-based Approach in biology. Based on the findings recommendations were made one of which was, a common curriculum should be developed to maximise students‘ retention and performance in acquisition of meaningful knowledge and skills in biology through Project-based Approach.


                                                              CHAPTER ONE

                                                             THE PROBLEM

1.1       Introduction 

The key to any meaningful development is found in deliberate human development and as such every training in human resource development is geared towards sustainability which yields a productive economy. Therefore, to achieve a sustainable economy, there is the need to imbibe the spirit of creativity as a bench mark through acquired skills to exploit the desired change by converting it into human capital opportunities.

Jongur, Kabuta and Abba (2009) assert that Nigeria being the richest country in

Africa yet it remains under developed. More particular Nigeria‘s intellectual citizens fail to realize the essence of the available potentialities thereby unable to tap the untapped resources in order to build a self-sustainable and buoyant economy. This situation has made the Nigerian economy to be more of product-consumer or importer of manufactured goods instead of being producer from her own resources (Jongur, Kabuta & Abba, 2009). As a result, this has reduced the job opportunities for the teaming number of unemployed youth which led to youth unemployment, youth restiveness and economic deterioration. These situations have increased the need for Nigeria to emphasize and strengthen its economy through educational industries that would emphasize job creation, wealth generation and value reorientation for its teaming population. Skill acquisition through entrepreneurship education can be used as renaissance to ameliorate the situation in which Obeka (2013) opined that entrepreneurship education is a key driver to national economy.    The education sector calls for curriculum reforms so as to overcome the challenges of poverty and unemployment. Specifically, science education is believed to be an instrument of national development. This is so because it serves as a reformer through projects or associations. These projects or associations include among others: Nigeria Integrated Science Project (NISP), Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN), Nigeria Secondary School Science Project (NSSSP), Comparative Education Study and

Adaptation Centre (CESAC). Thus, the reforms programmes among others include:

Composite Objectives of Biology Education (COBE), Basic Science for Nigeria Secondary

Schools (BSNSS), Science Technology and Mathematics (STM), Science Technology

Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) Strengthening Mathematics and Science Education (SMASE) among others.

Upon doing so, these educational reforms are to provide learners with diverse basic knowledge; acquisition of life-long skills through education; wealth generation and educational advancement so as to function effectively in the society. It is on this note that National Policy on Education (FRN, 2013) spelt out some specific goals that encourage periodic review, effectiveness and relevance of curriculum at all levels of education in Nigeria to meet the needs of society and the world of work. This is to encourage the promotion of functional education for skills acquisition, job creation, and poverty reduction. Between 2003 to date, there had been a number of educational reforms of national and global initiatives through programmes like Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategies (NEEDS) and Science Technology and Mathematics (STM) that focus directly on how to address educational and economic challenges. The major challenge of the reforms in the education sector, are the need to harmonize the objectives of NEEDS and MDGs. The objective of MDGs initiative, emphasised poverty reduction, while NEEDS fine-tuned this to emphases on value re-orientation, job creation, wealth generation, self-reliance and the use of education to empower youth.  Thus, STM came with its objectives as to address the utility value of Science, Technology and Mathematics not as a means to seek employment elsewhere, but as acquisition of skills for life-long career prospect in invention. Therefore, would enable learners to be able to think creatively, constructively and independently of others.

Therefore, NERDC and STAN harmonized these objectives and reviewed, restructured and realigned Nigeria curriculum to accommodate entrepreneurship as a form of teaching skills acquisition among secondary school students at all educational levels for the attainment of these aforementioned noble objectives. This is in line with Nnorom (2009) and National Policy on Education, (FRN, 2013) assertion for educational reform to meet the need and aspiration of individuals at all level and the society at general

particularly in skill acquisition.

Entrepreneurial Skill acquisition is a form of training designed for an individual or group of people to acquire the abilities to perform activity that are meaningful to the aspiration of the society. Idoko (2014) maintained that for skill to be acquired, appropriate knowledge, attitudes, and experiences learnt will enable the learner to develop intellectual, emotional and moral character which prepares him/her for a better and sustainable life. Idoko (2011) further emphasised that skill acquisition is the manifestation of ideas and knowledge through training which is geared towards instilling in an individual the spirit of entrepreneurship needed for meaningful development. Therefore, skill acquisition and entrepreneurship are two indispensable concepts in which individuals are given opportunity to acquire relevant and meaningful skills needed for self-reliance and self-sustenance. Thus, the acquired skill becomes meaningful if profitable opportunities can be identified and successfully achieved. Akpomi (2009) also emphasise that skill acquisition through entrepreneurship education is valuable to all students, including those who are taking courses other than business and management studies, therefore, the need to prepare individuals with the mindset to acquire hand–on skill of entrepreneurship-based interest right at the appropriate school level which is highly imperative. Consequently, this would make learners to be useful citizen at any point of completing their basic formal education.

The actualization of educational objectives as stressed in Nation Policy on

Education, (FRN,2013) requires the need to equip youths who are not proceeding to Senior Secondary School (SSS) a means of preparing their minds  for wealth creation and skill acquisition  through entrepreneurship education. These objectives of Post-Basic Education and Career Development (PBECD) that is (Senior Secondary Schools) as stressed in the NPE states that the students should be provided with entrepreneurial, technical and vocational job-specific skills in Agricultural, industrial and commercial areas, but the situation persist despite educational reform programmes. Fenton, Manuel and Mukundu (2013) allay the fear that the problems of the modern world is making individuals at all levels to  apply their theoretical knowledge to solve practical real life problems such as environmental and economic challenges.

The term ―Entrepreneur‖ according to Aminu (2008) comes from a French word Entreprendre, which means to undertake business for profit gain. In the same vein, entrepreneur is regarded as the person who perceives business opportunity and takes advantages of the scarce resources to make up a sustainable life (Obeka, 2013). Entrepreneur is an individual that undertakes risk by recognising business opportunity, organize and manage the scarce resources to develop a profitable venture for life sustainability through change. Arogundade (2011) described Entrepreneur as a person that search for change, respond to change, and exploits change by converting change into profitable business opportunity. Entrepreneurship Training (ET) started as an informal form as could be a life-long learning process starting earlier before elementary school and progressing through all levels of skill acquisitions outside school (Gidado, 2015).  Therefore, any activities that are not properly organized being an informal often lead to frustration, waste of time, effort and resources before success is achieved. However, education through formal programme in schools is a recent enterprise and has become a major academic discipline in the 21st century for economic renaissance (Volkmann, 2004 & Femi, 2010).  In the year 2003, entrepreneurship education becomes contemporary issue of global concern as remediation to poverty and economic recession. Thus, educational disciplines fine-tuned themselves to skill acquisition through entrepreneurship education so as to produce functional learners to life endeavours. Entrepreneurship education is therefore a process of providing individuals with the insight experience, self-esteem and knowledge of concepts and skills to recognize opportunities. In the light of this, Volkmann (2004) remarks that ―One becomes an entrepreneur not by birth but by education as well as by experience‖. Thus, the teaching of skill acquisition through entrepreneurship education is highly significant in all our secondary schools. The aim of entrepreneurship Education in science is thus, to produce large and qualitative manpower in science and technology so as to develop a scientifically literate society that can solve its own problems. To achieve this, entrepreneurship-based Education requires appropriate instructional strategy for it to be functional and reveals the innermost part of the learner.  Thus, Project-based Approach  (PA) would provide the appropriate mindset to this effect.

Project-based approach is a teaching and learning strategy in which a defined problem is planned with a specific goal to be accomplished in real life situation following sequential steps or stages (Eze & Okoye, 2001). According to Lawrence, Ken and Patrick (2015), Project-based approach is seen as a way of teaching through practical assignments in which several sub-themes or sub-ideas arising from a bigger one can be allocated to groups of students to work on.  It is essentially a learning strategy designed and conducted by the learner under the guidance of the teacher in true-life learners‘ manner of the environment.  Project-based approach can be set to measure the individuals capability, tacit knowledge and experience acquired to solve life related problems with minimum supervision. This may be carried out individually or in a group under the guidance of the teacher to achieve set objectives (Akpomi 2009, Fenton et al., 2013&Yusuf, 2015). Learning through this process is acquired by direct experience because by so doing, the students get motivated to acquire both academic and practical skills (Nneji, 2006).

Project-based approach is a form of Project-Based Learning (PBL) that enhances development of many practical work skills. Therefore, Project-based approach is a means of fostering students‘ curiosity, inquiry and hand-on activity which makes it possible for learner to transfer knowledge on higher order of cognitive levels to solve problems in real life situation. Science is a way of discovery through experimentation. Thus, for science to be functional enterprise, it requires the interplay of science process skills of which Project Approach is the functional strategy for the skill acquisition.

Project-based approach use in teaching biology is made up of four stages; presented in two forms which are:

  • Preparatory form
  • Constructive form.

Preparatory form of Project-based approach involves preparation and preservation of specimens such as hearts, lungs, frogs, snails and fishes for practical studies. Learners are trained with the relevant skills on how to prepare and preserve the specimens like endproducts which requires manipulative skills such as animal feeds, drug and culturing of organisms, fish and poultry products for sale (Okeke, Egbunonu & Ugbaja, 2009).

Constructive Form of Project-based approach, on the other hand, involves training individual on the building or constructing models to aid instruction in Biology. This involves construction of fish pond for stocking fish or animal pens or cages for rearing animals (Okeke, Egbunoun & Ugbaja, 2009). The use of Project-based approach can be carried out in laboratory or workshop which could be for a short time covering few lessons for a day or for a long term which may cover some lessons for some days. The four stages employed in using Project-based approach  in teaching biology are: (i) Planning Stage; (ii)

Class or Site Organization Stage; (iii) Project Implementation Stage and (iv) Assessment Stage (NTI, 2001). The inter play of these stages require the use of appropriate science process skills.

Thus, Science process skills are acquired capabilities that can be learned through experience and applied for further understanding of nature so as to proffer solutions to any existing problem about nature. Science process skills particularly require the use of technical skills such as observing, hypothesing, measuring, interpreting of data, inferring, communicating and diagnosing  which are indispensable in developing life related activitybased entrepreneurship education (Adeyemo, 2009). The use of Project-based approach in teaching entrepreneurial skill is Production – based oriented method of teaching which require all the aforementioned integration of science process skills. Science teachers need some essential entrepreneurial skills that will increase their efficiency and effectiveness in knowledge delivery and management of resources in the school environment. These entrepreneurial skills that put into play science process skills are: instructional leadership skills, management skills, communication skills, collaboration skills, vision development skills, analysis skills, process skills, evaluation skills and parsimony (cost cutting) or economy skills associated with project-base approach. Therefore, Project-based approach  use Diagnostic Adaptive Testing Skills (DATS) as amalgamated science process skills as its interface. NTI (2001), Adeyemo (2009), Njelita and Udogu (2009) and Nnorom (2009) outlined the following skills as a saddle for learners to sit on when acquiring skills in biology:

Manipulative or Technical skills: which involve the use of instruments, experimentation, demonstration, repair and construction involving hand-on activities.

Social or Managerial skills: involve the following: Communicative skill: this requires the act of asking questions, discussion, explanation, monitoring, reporting and advertisement among others. This stresses the need to use hand-on activities and heart-on activities (cognitive and affective domain respectively). Acquisition/Commercial skills: this involves the skill of rewarding, classification, comparing, contrasting, evaluating, recording, organizing, sorting, selling, buying to mention but few. It stresses the use of hand-on and heart-on activities (cognitive and affective domain respectively).

The topics that lend themselves to entrepreneurship training in teaching biology as outlined by (Nayak, 2002; Njelita and Udogu, 2009) are as follows: Bee Keeping;

Aquaculture; Floriculture; Horticulture; Aquarium; Poultry; Snailery or Snail Farm; Water,

Food and Beverages Production Skill;

Bee Keeping: This is the act of preparing artificial hive to attract honey bee to colonies. Honey can then be extracted from the colonies for consumption and for sale. Honey if consume cures respiratory allergies and asthma. This entrepreneurial skill can be treated under social insects in Biology.

Aquaculture: This deals with fish farming and crab culture among others. The practice of these activities can be done in or out of school for commercial purpose. It can be treated under integration of some invertebrate and vertebrate topics as well as Ecology.

Floriculture: Growing of flowers for ornamental and domestic values. This skill can be practiced under relevance of Biology to agriculture students where they can be encouraged to grow flower in pots or empty containers.

Horticulture: Growing fruits and vegetable for home consumption and local distant market sale. Planting of medicinal plants for identification and marketing can be studied under relevance of Biology to agriculture.

Aquarium: Students could be taught to rear fish in aquaria, which can be sold in the market or exported. This skill could be practiced under production in vertebrate for example, fish. Poultry: This involves rearing of birds for human consumption and for sales. The byproducts for example, the fecal dropping and eggs, meats, are also sold to make more money. This entrepreneurial could be studied under reproduction in vertebrates (birds). Snailery or Snail Farming: This is the act of farming snails for commercial purpose and for home consumption. This skill could be studied under reproduction in invertebrates (snails).

Water, Food and Beverages Production Skill: example is Fermentation of beverages

1.1.1 Theoretical Framework 

The theoretical framework for this study is based on constructivism which is basically a theory on observation and scientific process of how learners construct their own knowledge in real life situation.  Bruner (1960) and Piaget (1961) postulated that students create their own world through active process and that, learners are not passive absorbers but active constructors of knowledge. The theory of constructivism buttressed the definition of Project-based approach through which learners construct practical assignment and reveal tacit knowledge with minimum guidance from their teacher. In line with the theory, Project-based approach provides learners the curiosity and activeness to freely exploit nature until opportunity is identified and success is achieved.

The Project-based approach is born out of broaden psychological framework of constructivism (Brownstern, 2001), which has a in the early 1900s Dewey the father of progressive education proposed learning by doing. He promoted teaching strategies that helped students actively engage in learning about topics that are relevant to their lives Project-based approach relies on the notion that if learners are given opportunities to construct their own meaning based on their experiences of participating in a project with their peers, then multiple opportunities of meaningful learning occurs (Broadhead 2001).

Constructivist Von Glasserfeld (1990) stresses that knowledge is constructed in the mind of the learner as adaptive in the sense that it is constantly modified by the learner‘s prior experience. The learner through adaptive learning construct project from experience acquired in real life situation. Project-based approach requires learners to construct new idea into physical object for livelihood through acquired prior experience. Thus Projectbased approach is an action oriented approach that fosters acquisition of scientific skills or knowledge through learning by doing or direct experience. As Dewey (1956) maintained that learning is actualized in the domain of experience and those learners learn more by exploring opportunities through active thinking. Dewey91933)  and Kilpatrick(1935) postulated that Project-based learning requires ‗act of thinking‘ so as to  achieve

‗purposeful activity‘  through ‗learning by doing‘ where learner under guidance, encounter a conceptual or practical obstacle, plan a solution, try bit out, and reflect upon their result to create new venture.

Theory of entrepreneurial value creation explains the entrepreneurial experience in its fullest form, the entrepreneurial intention and process; and the discovery of an entrepreneurial opportunity. Therefore, this study focuses on entrepreneurial process of value creation theory. This involves entrepreneur and entrepreneurship.  An entrepreneur  is a person that identify opportunity, match the entrepreneurial resources at hand with the opportunity to effectuate an entrepreneurial competence, create sustainable value  and the appropriation of entrepreneurial reward (Mishra & Zachary2014). To be precise entrepreneurial process and opportunity would emphasize for this purpose considering the theory of Economic Development of Entrepreneurship and Opportunity–based Entrepreneurship theory.  In The theory of Economic Development of Entrepreneurship Schumpeter(1934) emphasized the role of entrepreneur  as the ‗ man of action‘ and the bearer of economic change  that combine productive factors and coordinate productive resources. Considering Australian Market Process of Economic Development of Entrepreneurship theory by Schumpeter(1934) described entrepreneur as  ―human in action‖ in the context of economy of knowledge.  Therefore , entrepreneurship is regarded as a driver of market-based system where individual create something new to satisfy  the market needs; system-level change occurs and the benefit of knowledge is reaped.  Therefore entrepreneur effectuate knowledge when they believe it will procure some individually-defined benefit.

Sarasvathy (2001)advanced the theory of effectuation to describe the nature of the entrepreneurial process. Sarasvathy posited the entrepreneurial process is an  effectuation process not a causation process. Causation process  take a particular  effect as a given phenomenon and focus on selecting the means to create that effect, whereas effectuation process take a set of means as a given phenomenon and focus on selecting between possible effects using available  means.   It is when knowledge is being effectuated that  causative change is set out and profitable opportunity is being identified.

Opportunity–based entrepreneurship theory buttressed Shumpeter theory and Sarasvathy stressed that entrepreneur do not cause change as claimed by Schumpeter but exploit the opportunity that cause the change.(consumer preference). Therefore he defined entrepreneur to this context as the person that search for change, respond to change, exploit change as an opportunity. Thus, Project-based approach  use in acquiring entrepreneurial skills  train individual to be man of action through learning by doing so as to identify purposeful opportunities for life sustainability.

1.2       Statement of the Problem 

Skill acquisition through entrepreneurship education for graduates of tertiary institutions has become suggested strategy for remediation to unemployment and social vices in Nigeria. Femi (2010) reports that according to MDG (2006) report, over 70% of unemployment are youth and unskilled who are between the age limit of 13 – 25 years old.  The National Policy on Education, (FRN, 2013) identified this age limit (13 – 25) years for secondary school students. Therefore, the need to engage this group of students in skill acquisition with entrepreneurship education as enshrined in National Policy on Education, (FRN, 2013) becomes highly imperative instead of focusing attention on graduates of

tertiary institutions.

Femi (2010) observes that most science curricula attach much importance to student‘s acquisition of skills, despite the relevance of process skills, students‘ performance in science examinations are still low. According to Nwogbo (2009) a number of factors have been identified as contribution to the non-acquisition of skill by secondary school students which invariably lead to students‘ poor performance and students‘ restiveness.

Infact, one out of the factors is teachers‘ inability to navigate through the use of varieties of teaching methods by considering hand–on activities.  Fenton et.al, (2013) reported that despite awareness of project-based instructional strategy, lecture method remains the frequently used teaching method used by teachers even in a practical lesson. Okoli (2006) observed that teachers cannot teach effectively without employing the science process skills neither can students learn science effectively without acquiring such processes as well.  Project-based instructional method is one of the early teaching approach for acquiring experience through the use of science process skills.  Emphasis is not adequately given by teachers and students in acquiring meaningful skill, has instructions are over taken by lecture method. Lack of these skills has contributed to poor performance of students interms of entrepreneurial skills. This research work therefore put up Projectbased Approach as a means of teaching entrepreneurial skill acquisition in biology among secondary school students which requires teacher to navigate through other teaching methods so as to improve students performance in biology.

Nwagbo and Nnorom (2009) reported that secondary school biology students are not exposed to entrepreneurship training.  This is due to the fact that the few topics that lend themselves to entrepreneurship training are not adequately developed into curriculum in terms of content and practical activities by both students and teachers of biology. Thus, biology concepts for entrepreneurship at secondary school level could not be identify and applied for an independent business enterprise or entrepreneurship education over the years. This research work will identify some entrepreneurial skills and entrepreneurship concepts in biology such as aquaculture, poultry, apiculture and floriculture which could be used for entrepreneurship training in secondary schools.

Apart from teaching methods, gender is also implicative to students‘ performance in some skills acquisition concepts in science (Okeke, 2007). The issue of gender disparity in terms of skills acquisition permeates every aspect of human endeavour (Okeke, Egbunonu & Ugbaja, 2009). Some skills are socially biased against one or the other, such as more females are into home economics while more males are into agriculture. Eventually, this distorts available job opportunities of some individual sex despite their talents for such skills. This study therefore, investigated students‘ ability level in area of entrepreneurial skills acquisition and its effect on students‘ performance and retention in biology.


1.3       Objectives of the Study

The following were the objectives of the study which are to:

  1. find out the effect of Project-based approach on students‘ academic performance in


  1. find out the effect of Project-based approach on students‘ retention of Biology concepts.
  • investigate the effects of Project-based approach on students‘ entrepreneurial skills acquisition  on retention
  1. determine whether Project-based approach is gender friendly.
  2. determine students‘ level of entrepreneurial skills acquisition using Project-based approach assessment tools .


1.4       Research Questions

The following research questions were advanced for the study:

  1. i) What is the effect of Project-based approach on students‘ academic performance in

Biology?  ii)           What is the effect of Project-based approach on students‘ retention of Biology concepts?

  • What is the effect of Project-based approach on students‘ retention ability to acquire entrepreneurial skills in Biology?
  1. Is there any difference in the performance mean scores of male and female students after exposure to Project-based approach in Biology?
  2. What is the difference between levels of entrepreneurial skill acquired using

Project-based Approach assessment tools (DATS and TFLE)?


1.5       Null Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses are formulated and tested at P<0.05 significant


HO1:  There is no significant difference between students‘ means scores in Biology taught using Project-based Approach and those taught using lecture method.

HO2:  There is no significant difference between the retention mean scores of students taught Biology concepts using Project-based approach and those taught using lecture method.

HO3:  There is no significant difference in students‘ acquisition of entrepreneurial skills when taught using Project-based approach and those taught using lecture method.

HO4:  There is no significant difference in the mean scores of male and female students after exposure to Project-based approach in Biology.

HO5:  There is no significant difference in students‘ ability levels in entrepreneurial skills acquisition using Project-based approach assessment tools (DATS and TFLE).


1.6       Significance of the Study

The research findings would hopefully benefit the following:

  1. Biology Students: Provides training for career placement and development in education and instills in students technical skills and confidence for selecting appropriate entrepreneurial skills. It would provide a bench mark for students to financially assist their parents in solving some of their academic problems.
  2. Biology Science Teachers: Trained teachers in identifying and integrating some concept of biology for entrepreneurship development. Also, provide training for managing efficiency which is the hall mark of entrepreneur‘s enterprise.
  • School Administrators: School administrators acquired personal, technical and managerial skills as they are involved in the implementation processes of every educational innovation. Therefore, they acquire more skills through assessing


  1. Curriculum Planners: Serve as database for curriculum planners to develop new curriculum for entrepreneurship education. Specifically the production of

Entrepreneurship-based Project-based approach  Teaching Manuals on fishery, poultry and floriculture, their respective syllabus as well as assessment tools (DATS, TFLE, and Entrepreneurship-based Project Approach  check-list) will serve as a base for further research work and entrepreneurship development in biology.

  1. Researchers: Serve as a foundation for further researches and development of innovative educational delivery that would enhance implementation of

entrepreneurship in secondary schools.

  1. Publishers: Be used for designing teaching manual to guide activities in selecting skills. Therefore, publishers would have this opportunity to produce as much as possible manuals for every student to lay hands on.
  • Society: Reduce chances of crime and youth restiveness among unemployed youth because of the pre-exposure to entrepreneurial skills before graduation from secondary schools. Entrepreneurial skills acquisition provides benefit to society, even beyond their application to business activity. It adds up to attitudinal changes or personal qualities of individual in aspect such as creativity and spirit of initiative. It raises the economic standard of a given society through self-reliance, selfproductivity and self-employment.


  • Scope of the Study

The study investigated the effects of Project-based approach on entrepreneurial skills acquisitions, retention and performance in biology among secondary school students in Niger State. The study was limited to the seven Educational Zones in Niger State namely Bida, Kutigi, Minna, Suleja, Rijau, Kontagora and New Bussa. This study was carried out using only public Senior Secondary School (SS II) students. SSII classes were considered based on the following reasons; as they were pre–exposed to Biology from SSI; the nature of the curriculum that focused on some rudimentary concepts of biology for

entrepreneurship; the use of Entrepreneurship/Trade study syllabus in Fishery and Poultry.

The Senior Secondary School Biology concepts for entrepreneurship used for this purpose were drawn from the senior secondary school Biology syllabus. They include the following topics: Reproduction in invertebrates, (zooplanktons and phytoplanktons), Reproduction in  vertebrates (poultry and fishery), Nutrition in animals (poultry and fishery), Basic concepts in ecology for teaching fishery and poultry as concepts of entrepreneurship training.


  • Basic Assumptions

This study assumed that:

  1. Schools in the education zones of Niger State run the same biology syllabus.
  2. Project-based approach effect could measure parameters required (entrepreneurial skills acquisition, retention and performance) for this study.

The biology teachers were all trained and could handle the biology concepts used for the study.


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