ASSESSMENT OF EFFECT OF COMPUTER SUPPORTED INSTRUCTION ON PERFORMANCE OF VISUAL ARTS LEARNERS’ IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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ASSESSMENT OF EFFECT OF COMPUTER SUPPORTED INSTRUCTION ON PERFORMANCE OF VISUAL ARTS LEARNERS’ IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study examined the Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Students‘ Performance in Visual Arts in Senior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study are to: determine the effect of computer assisted instruction on the performance of students in visual art, ascertain the performance of students taught fundamentals of colours with the use of CAI and conventional method in visual arts, examine the effect of the use of computer assisted instruction CAI and conventional method on the performance of students taught drawing of shapes in visual art and find out the effect of the use of computer assisted instruction CAI and conventional method on the performance of students in identification of textures in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state. Four research questions and four null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The hypothesis were tested at p < 0.05.Literatures that are related to the study were also reviewed. The study was conducted in the public Senior Secondary Schools in Kaduna State with a population of 106, using quasi-experimentaldesign. The bio-data of the respondents was analysed with the use of frequency and percentage while mean and standard deviation was used to answer the four research questions. All the four null hypotheses were tested at 0.05% level of significance using t-test. A t-test of independent sample was used to compare the performance of students taught using Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) method with the performance of the group taught using only conventional method.The findings of the study among others revealedthe performance scores of students taught Visual Arts with the use of computer assisted instruction was better compared to those taught using the traditional method of instruction;Students taught fundamentals of colours with computer assisted instruction performed better than students taught using the conventional method;that the performance of experimental group of students was better than the performance of students in controlled group when taught shapes in visual arts and lastly students taught identification of textures with computer assisted instruction performed better than students using the conventional method. The study concluded that students perform better and score higher in Visual when taught using CAI enhanced method. Based on the conclusion, the study recommendedthat the use of CAI method in teaching Visual Arts students should be encouraged and imbibed by teachers of Visual Arts in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State, Teachers should be trained and encouraged to teach students the fundamentals of colours and how to apply it using computers, graphics software‘s should be made available and handy to teachers and they should be able to utilize this software‘s to effectively guide students on functions of shape and drawing different types of shapes in art.Lastly, teachers should encourage students to use CAI to source for various types of design textures from the internet and guide the students on how to make use the textures to making meaningful design.

 

 

 

 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page                                                                                                                            i

Title Page                                                                                                                              ii

Declaration                                                                                                                             iii

Certification                                                                                                                          iv

Dedication                                                                                                                             v

Acknowledgements                                                                                                              vi

Abstract                                                                                                                                 vii

Table of Contents                                                                                                                 viii

List of Tables                                                                                                                        xi

List of Appendices                                                                                                               xii

List of Abbreviations                                                                                                           xiii

Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                        xiv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION 

1.1         Background to the Study                                                                                       1

1.2        Statement of the Problem                                                                                      4

1.3        Objectives of the Study                                                                                          5

1.4        Research Questions                                                                                                6

1.5        Hypotheses                                                                                                              6

1.6        Basic Assumptions                                                                                                 7

1.7         Significance of the Study                                                                                      7

1.8        Scopeof the Study                                                                                                   9

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 

2.1        Introduction                                                                                                             10

2.2        Theoretical Framework                                                                                          10

2.3        Conceptual Framework                                                                                          13

2.3.1      Concept of Computer Assisted Instruction                                                          15

2.3.2     Categories of Computer-Assisted Instruction                                                      18

2.3.3      Characteristics of Computer-Assisted Instruction                                              21

2.4        Conceptof Academic Performance                                                                       24

2.5        Concept of Visual Art                                                                                            26

2.5.1     Visual Arts Curriculum                                                                                          31

2.5.2     Importance of Visual art Curriculum                                                                   36

2.5.3  Challenges in the Implementation of Visual Arts Curriculum                              38

 

2.6         Effect of Computer-Assisted Instruction on Performance of Students

In Visual Arts                                                                                                          40

2.7         Types of Technology and their Educational Applications                                 42

2.8         Obstacles to the use of Computer Assisted Instruction(CAI)

In Nigerian Schools                                                                                                44

2.9        Critics of CAI                                                                                                          48

2.10      Empirical Studies                                                                                                   49

2.11      Summary                                                                                                                  60

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 

3.1        Introduction                                                                                                             62

3.2        Research Design                                                                                                     62

3.3         Population of the Study                                                                                         62

3.4        Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                        63

3.4.1     Determination of Homogeneity of Samples                                                        64

3.5        Instrumentation                                                                                                       64

3.5.1  Validity of the Instrument                                                                                         67

3.5.2  Pilot Study                                                                                                                  67

3.5.3     Reliability of the Instrument                                                                                 67

3.6         Procedure for Data Collection                                                                              68

3.7        Procedure for Data Analysis                                                                                  71

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS ANDRESULTS

4.1        Introduction                                                                                                             72

4.2        Description of the Study Variables                                                                       72

4.3        Answers to Research Questions                                                                            73

4.4        Hypotheses Testing                                                                                                78

4.5         Summary of Major Findings                                                                                 80

4.6        Discussions of Findings                                                                                         80

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1        Summary                                                                                                                  83

5.2        Conclusions                                                                                                             84

5.3        Recommendations                                                                                                  85

5.4        Implications of the Findings                                                                                  85

5.6           Suggestions for Further Study                                                                                            86 Reference                                                                                                                                                          87

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Population for the Study                                                                           63
Table 2: Sample Population Classification                                                             64
Table 3: Table of specification                                                                                65
Table 4: Treatment plan and procedure (experimental group)                             69
Table 5: Treatment plan / procedure (Controlled group)                                      70
Table 6: Frequency and Percentage of Respondents based on Group                 72
Table 7: Frequency and Percentage of Respondents based on Gender                73
Table 8: Descriptive statistics table showing the mean and standard deviation
  Of posttest scores of control and experimental group 73
Table 9: Descriptive Statistics Table Showing the Mean and Standard

Deviation performance of student‘s fundamentals of colours

 
  with the use of CAI and Conventional Method 74
Table 10: Descriptive statistics table showing the mean and standard  Deviation of the performance of students taught shapes  
  in visual art.                                                                                     75
Table 11: Descriptive statistics table showing the mean

and standard deviation of post-test students‘ performance of  students taught identification of textures in senior secondary

 
  schools in Kaduna state. 76
Table 12: Independent sample t-test showing differences in Post-test  
  scores of Control and Experimental group. 77
Table 13: Independent sample t-test showing differences in performance of students taught fundamentals of colours using CAI  
  and Conventional method. 78
Table 14: Independent sample t-test showing differences in the effect of  computerassisted instruction and conventional method on the  
  performance of students taught drawing of shapes and forms. 79
Table 15: Independent sample t-test showing differences in performance  of students taught identification of textures using CAI and  
  Conventional method 79

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF APPENDICES

 

   
Appendix A: Request to Answer Research Question   93
Appendix B: Lesson Units   94
Appendix C: Test Instrument   149
Appendix D: Marking SchemeVisual Arts Performance Test (VAPT)   150
Appendix E: Photograph of Students in Experimental Group   151
Appendix F: Designs produced by Experimental Group of students   152
Appendix G: Designs produced by Conventional Method group

 

  153

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ABBREVIATIONS

CAI:                 Computer Assisted Instruction

CI:                     Conventional Instruction

CAL:                Computer Assisted Learning

CBI:                  Computer Based Instruction                                                                      

CAI: Computer Aided Instruction  IT:    Information Technology.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS 

 

Computer Assisted Instruction: It is an interactive instructional technique whereby a computer is used to present the instructional material and monitor the learning that takes place or it is the use of computer as a tool to facilitate and improve instruction.

Educational Technology: The combination of instructional, learning, developmental, managerial, and other technologies as applied to the solution of educational problems.

Hardware:                                     The computer equipment used to do the work (i.e., operate

Software programs). It consists of the items you can touch, such as the computer case and the peripherals (e.g., monitor, keyboard, mouse) that are attached to the computer.

Information and Communication Technology: Technologies such as computers and the Internet which are enabling tools for educational change and reform. ICTs help expand access to education, strengthen the relevance of education to the increasingly digital workplace, and raise educational quality by, among others, helping make teaching easier.

Instructional Design: The systematic and reflective process of translating principles of learning and instruction into plans for instructional materials, activities, information resources, and evaluation.

Instructional Software: The computer programs that allow students to learn new content, practice using content already learned, and/or be Evaluated on how much they know. These programs allow teachers and students to demonstrate concepts, do simulations, and record and analyze data. Often administrative applications like database programs and spreadsheets are used within the instructional context to help analyze and present information.

Instructional Technology: The systemic and systematic application of strategies and techniques derived from behavior and physical sciences concepts and other knowledge to the solution of instructional problems.

Learner-Centered Classroom: Students are encouraged to choose their own learning goals and or projects, based on the belief that people have a natural inclination to learn; learn better when they work on authentic tasks; benefit from interacting with diverse groups of people; and learn best when teachers understand and value difference in how each student learns.

Self-paced Learning: Education in which the learner is on their own, studying without interaction with others. Sometimes used to refer to asynchronous modes of delivery. CBT has been the most common form of self-

  paced learning, but web-based asynchronous systems are catching up quickly.
Software:  Stored digital information on magnetic disks or tapes or as electronic information in the computer‘s memory that determines what the computer does. Software can be divided into two groups, operating system software and application software.
Tutorial: Refers to activities which include both the presentation of information and its extension into different forms of work, including drill and practice, games and simulation.
User friendly: Refers to anything that makes it easier for novices to use a computer. Menu-driven programs, for example, are considered more user-friendly than command-driven systems. Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) are also considered user-friendly. Online help systems are another feature of user-friendly programs.
Graphic design: also known as communication design, is the art and practice of planning and projecting ideas and experiences with visual and textual content. The form of the communication can be physical or virtual, and may include images, words, or graphic forms.
CorelDraw: It is a vector graphics editor developed and marketed by Corel

Corporation. It is also the name of Corel’s Graphics Suite, which bundles CorelDraw with bitmap-image editor Corel Photo-Paint as well as other graphics-related programs (see below).

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

                                            INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

Computer technology is the finest and most important gift of science and technology to mankind in recent times. There have been lots of areas touched by the benefits of computer. Computer knowledge can be stated as knowing about the various fundamental aspects of computers and the basic skills involved in the operations of computers. In this present digital era, development in various aspects of computer designed applications has reached a stage that is beyond imagination. Even though computer has a lot of applications in various fields, one should not forget its applications in the field of education. The use of computer in education as a medium of teaching and learning is called computer assisted instructions Ogiegbaen and Iyamu (2015).

According to Seo, Bryant, (2009), CAI is the use of a computer to provide instructional contents. These allows for interaction between user and computer with immediate feedback. There are various programs designed on CAI that adjust for student‘s ability levels and others limit advancement until skill mastery is achieved. Learning has been proved to be made easy by the utilization of computer in learning. Various countries have taken up the introduction and training of young ones using CAI. It is therefore, heartwarming that Nigeria has formally adopted the teaching and learning of Computer in its educational system. In this direction, students are expected to develop interest and use computers for learning other subjects among other things Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC 2014). Additionally, teachers are also expected to teach with computers.

The need for Nigeria to find opportunities hidden in the recent development in technology to cater for the consciousness and training of young ones early; on how to be creative and self-reliant through integration of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in various subjects such as visual art is indispensable. In as much as The National Policy on Education (FGN, 2013), stipulates that the Senior Secondary School will be both prevocational and academic; which will allow pupilsstudents to acquire further knowledge and develop skills. Furthermore the policy also emphasizes both practical and theoretical knowledge, which includes core subjects and electives at the junior and senior secondary schools. There is need for researcher to conduct studies to find out how various skills inherent within the use of technology affects the skills development of pupilsstudents in the country and how to bring about creativity to foster the countries development and serve as a panacea to unemployment most especially in vocational and technical subjects which Visual Arts is one of them.

Visual art as a subject consist of fields such as drawing, painting, sculpture, ceramics, textile design, graphics and the likes. According to Lawal (2007), art is a way in which man expresses his feelings, perceptions and thoughts about himself or the world of people and nature. There are seven basic building blocks of making art which are Line, colour, Shape, Form, Font, Space, Texture (Amy, 2017). Artist uses art elements and combines them in different ways to create a unique piece of art. The elements of art are like the ingredients in a recipe. Sometimes artworks contain only one or two elements. Sometimes they have all the elements of art. One thing is certain, there would be absolutely no art without the seven elements of art. (Amy, 2017).

Expressing oneself in visual art requires the utilization of a medium to be able to communicate what you feel to people. With an ever increasing emphasis on still and animated imagery, symbols and iconography in society, evaluation of visual imagery has become just as important as art creation. Furthermore, as the use of digital media has expanded, new career opportunities are opening up for visual artists. Students with knowledge, skills and proficiency in digital art and design are well situated to obtain employment in commercial visual arts contexts, such as advertising, film, animation and other computer graphic industries. Interestingly, the use of computer assisted instruction (CAI) applications are bringing in creativity and making art works faster with little corrections to make without having to waste to many time.

The importance of Visual Arts to any educational system or society cannot be overemphasized. For decades now, this subject has suffered lack of recognition and low participation. This kind of discussion; is not new, conferences, workshops, and seminars have been organized with the aim of making things right. Efforts made by the Federal

Government on reforms in all sectors of the economy have proved abortive. The Federal Government Educational Policy, to include visual Arts as a subject in the school curriculum has failed, it may be, due to lack of proper provision of instructional materials used in secondary schools. This brings us to the sorry state of Visual Arts. In the book,

―understanding Art in General Education‖ written by an art Scholar, Uzoagba in Chukueggu (2010), stated that, ―this profession has been extremely neglected in Nigeria and throughout West Africa where its importance is still not recognized‖.

The performance of a student in a subject could be traced to many factors such as the interest and attitude of the student towards the subject. Students don‘t even find visual arts as a subject for a better future carrier. They care less about taking visual art exams seriously. Researchers have blamed the performance on lack of facilities and many more. According to Yunusa, Esther and Bello (2015), observed that the poor attitudes and lack of seriousness of student‘s interest in learning Visual Arts and lack of teaching materials have long been recognized as major causes of poor performance of pupilsstudents in visual art exams.

In view of the forgoing discussion, this study sought to determine the effect of CAI on the performance of visual art students in the Senior Secondary Schools in Kaduna state.

The present research intends to investigate whether or not the teaching of Visual Arts subject can be enhanced by the use of CAI at senior secondary School levels in Kaduna

State.

1.2 Statement to the Problem

As Nigeria incorporates the use of computers in its educational system, it is very necessary and important that the effects of the variety of computer usage are explored. This will help the nation to know and be assured that whatever technology they are introducing will have a positive effect on both students and teachers. It is therefore very necessary, that a study is conducted to examine the effectiveness of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in teaching visual art subject against the traditional approach of teaching. computer assisted instruction (CAI) is new to our present educational system, in view of that little has been done to introduce it to teaching of visual arts in senior secondary schools.

The teaching of visual Arts, as a subject is at the bottom of the list of priorities. The performance of students in visual art is so poor that many researchers blame this on ineffective use of instructional facilities. According to Enamhe and Echeta (2010), this decline of art culture in schools is steadily eroding the subject in secondary schools. Ajibade and Lawson (2014), recorded data of students in some secondary schools in Calabar metropolis, Cross River State, Nigeria in 2002 – 2013, as 16 students out of 219 secondary schools offered visual Arts. In another study by Ajibade, Enamhe and Oloidi, (2011) reported that only a few students are seen offering visual art in secondary schools in Cross River State. This greatly affects admission into the university or tertiary institution to study Visual Arts.

Research are done in the utilization of instructional media to improve learning, but the utilization of instructional computer graphic design applications is not given much emphasis in the secondary schools, especially, regarding the effective application in visual arts III which is basically the practical aspect of visual art. From the researcher‘s observation in Kaduna state senior secondary schools, students are unable to carry out simple operations on a computer such as using the computer to make little designs this caught the attention of the researcher. Most of the students who know how to operate computers tend to play more of games than to use it for educational purpose. It should be noted that this games were produced by both graphics designer with the help of a programmer. The researcher became inquisitive on why secondary school student of 21st century are who are meant to be equipped with skills and abilities on the operation of computers are unable to carry to carry out or to handle and operate computer. Therefore, this study will examine the effect of Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on students‘ performance in visual arts.

1.3 Objective of the Study

Thus the objectives of the study are to:

  1. determine the effect of computerassisted instruction on the performance of students in visual art in senior secondary school in Kaduna State.
  2. ascertain the performance of students taught fundamentals of colours with the use of CAI and conventional method in visual arts in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state
  3. examine the effect of the use of computer assisted instruction CAI and conventional method on the performance of students taught drawing of shapes in visual art in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state
  4. find out the effect of the use of computer assisted instruction CAI and conventional method on the performance of students in identification of textures in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state

1.4       Research Questions

The following questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. What is the effect of the utilization of computer assisted instruction on the performance of visual art students in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State?
  2. How is the performance of students taught fundamentals of colours with the use of computer-assisted instruction and conventional method in visual arts in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state?
  3. To what extent is the effect of the use of computer assisted instruction and conventional method on the performance of students taught shapes in visual art in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state and
  4. What is the effect of the use of computer assisted instruction CAI and conventional method on the performance of students in identification of textures in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state?

1.5         Hypotheseis

The following Null hypothesis were postulated for the study:

H01 There is no significant difference in the performance of students taught with computer-assisted instruction and those taught with the traditional method in visual art insenior secondary schools in Kaduna State.

H02 There is no significant difference in the performance of students taught fundamentals of colours with the use of computer assisted instruction and conventional method in visual arts in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.

H03 There is no significant difference in the effect of the use of computer assisted instruction and conventional method on the performance of students taught drawing of shapes and forms in visual art in senior secondary schools in Kaduna

state.

H04 There is no significant difference in the use of computer assisted instruction and conventional method on the performance of students in identification of textures in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.

1.6         Basic Assumptions of the Study     

This study was conducted with the assumptions that:

  1. Students will perform better when working on a computer than the traditional method in Visual Arts.
  2. Students taught fundamentals of colours using computer assisted instruction will perform better than those taught with the conventional method.
  3. Students taught drawing of shapes in visual art using computer assisted instruction performed better
  4. Performance of students taught fundamentals of textures in senior secondary schools using computer assisted instruction will perform better than those taught using conventional method.

1.7         Significance of the Study

This study is going to be of benefit to policy makers, the society, students, academicians, programmers, graphic designers, photographers, publishers, curriculum developers and visual arts teachers.

The study will enlighten policy makers on how to see the possibility of creating employment for youths in areas of graphics designs. With the current situation of the country, policy makers can utilize the research work to develop skills in young ones so that they can be creative in areas related to design, photography and cinematography by the introduction of the use of computer as instructional materials at early stage of education.

The students will be introduced to various skills in computer designs that will benefit the students and reduce idleness. Students would be introduced to the application of use of computers to produce various illustrations and develop, identify rudiments of colours, shapes, textures and lines easily, do a wide range of research on their own, minimize mistakes, compete with their peers globally and earn some money for themselves by designing of cards, banners, engaging photography and many more.

The society will be equipped with students who have skills in various areas in graphic design. This would not only reduce crime but add to the development of the society at large. There would be employment opportunities for the youths and this would make them stay away from committing crimes that would disrupt the peace of the community.

Researchers would be able to get plethora of information‘s when conducting research and be able to find new areas for further research work. This work will expose some hidden advantages of CAI in the field of art.

For visual art teachers this study would serve as an avenue or source of information which would give them new ideas in their field. This work would encourage teachers to improve on their skills and make them source for better means of teaching the students so that they also can contribute to the development of the country.

Programmers will be encouraged to develop applications that will allow for easy teaching and learning process in visual art. This work would give inspirations to programmers on insights of applications that can be used for designs which would definitely contribute to the nation‘s development.

Graphic designers would be encouraged to do better in the work their work. They would be motivated to contribute to development of the young ones through training and workshops. Photography is another wide range in visual art because it integrates itself with the use of computers. Photographers would be tasked in finding better ways of developing new models to create jobs for the teaming youths. The photographers would also have means to showcase what they have and contribute to the development of the country through the research work.

Publishers will have high standard and genuine work to publish to add and enrichthe knowledge of some people around the country and world. , publishers will alsohave var00ious to write by getting information from the research work. Curriculum developers would be able to bring in new ideas into the educational system. Since education is dynamic and curriculum is not static, this work would create good information that would be of help to complement the existing information‘s in the curriculum

1.8         Scope of the Study

The study was carried out to determine the effect of CAI on the performance of visual art students in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state. Specifically, the Visual Arts students of SSII in Demonstration Secondary School Samaru Zaria, Zaria Academy Shika, Model Learning Secondary School Samaru, Zaria and Government Day Secondary School Bassawa. The study was carried out in these schools because of the nature of the research which requires the availability of computers. However the study was delimited to Visual Art III which is basically practical in graphics design. The study was carried using graphics software specifically (CorelDraw 15 and Photoshop Cs3) which is user friendly.

 

ASSESSMENT OF EFFECT OF COMPUTER SUPPORTED INSTRUCTION ON PERFORMANCE OF VISUAL ARTS LEARNERS’ IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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