ASSESSMENT OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICES PRESERVATION ON STUDENTS’ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
The main objective of this study is to investigate the Assessment of educational facilities maintenance on students’ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state. To achieve the aim of this research,six objectives were formulatedwhich include: the assessment of classroom facilities maintenance;assessment of library facilities maintenance;assessment of laboratory facilities maintenance; assessment of infrastructural facilities maintenance;assessment of recreational facilities maintenance and assessment of instructional facilities maintenanceon students’academic performance, in-line with the objectives six research questions and six hypotheses were raised. Descriptive survey design was employed for this research. A self-structured design questionnaire was used for collection of data. The population of this study are principal (215), teachers 5305, and Ministry of Education Officials (MOE) (96). The sample size includes principals (65), Teachers (1592) and MOE officials (29),total of 1686 respondents were sampled for the studyout of which 1660 responded to this study. Stratified sampling technique was adopted for the selection of sample size. The results of findingsshowed among others that there is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and MOE officials on the assessment of classroom facilities maintenance on students’ academic performance. The study concludes and recommends that class room facilities such as projectors and smart screens should be well maintained for teaching purposes. and other facilities such as waste bins and rules or consequences should be posted in each class and be maintain in public secondary schools for student’sacademic performance. The school’smanagement shouldmaintain the available instructional facilities like cameras and micro-films.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTS VIII
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS XII
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 6
1.3 Objectives of the Study 8
1.4 Research Questions 9
1.5 Hypotheses 10
1.6 Basic Assumptions 12
1.7 Significance of the study 12
1.8 Scope of the Study s14
CHAPTER TWO:REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.1 Introduction 15
2.2 Conceptual Framework 15
2.2.1 Concept of Educational Facilities 15
2.2.2 Concept of Maintenance 18
2.2.3 Concept of Academic Performance 19
2.2.4 Concept of Classroom Facilities 23
2.2.5 Concept of Library Facilities 24
2.2.6 Concept of Laboratory Facilities 27
2.2.7 Concept of Infrastructural Facilities 29
2.2.8 Concept of Recreational Facilities 31
2.3 Assessment of Classroom Facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in
Public Secondary Schools in Kaduna State 35
2.3.1 Facilities Needed in the Classroom 36
2.3.2 Provision and Maintenance of Facilities in the Classroom 36
2.3.3 Classroom Size and Space 43
2.3.4 Area Per Student in the Class. 43
2.4 Assessment of Library Facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in
Public secondary Schools in Kaduna State. 44
2.4.1 Taking Care of your Library Facilities 45
2.4.2 Weeding and Discarding 47
2.4.3 Issues in the Library 47
2.4.4 Library Facilities to be provided include: 48
2.5 Assessment of Laboratory Facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in
Public Secondary Schools in Kaduna State 52
2.6 Assessment of Infrastructural Facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in Public secondary Schools in Kaduna State. 56
2.6.1 Infrastructure Maintenance in Public Secondary Schools 57
2.6.2 Provision and Maintenance of Water and Electricity Supply 58
2.6.3 School Infrastructure Facilities can be divided into two Categories: 59
2.7 Assessment of Recreational Facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance
in Public Secondary Schools in Kaduna State 63
2.7.1 Guidelines for the Selection of Instructional Materials 64
2.7.2 Instructional Material Utilization and Maintenance 65
2.7.3 Implications of Instructional Materials 66
2.7.4 Criteria of selection Instructional Materials 67
2.8 Assessment of Instructional Facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance
in Public secondary Schools in Kaduna State. 68
2.8.1 Problems of Recreational Facilities Maintenance in Secondary Schools 71
2.9 Empirical studies 75
2.10 Summary 83
CHAPTER THREE:RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 Introduction 85
3.2 Research Design 85
3.3 Population of the study 85
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 87
3.5 Instrumentation 88
3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument 88
3.5.2 Pilot Study 89
3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument 89
3.6 Procedure for Data Collection 89
3.7 Method of Data Analysis 90
CHAPTER FOUR:RESULTS, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Introduction 91
4.2. Bio Data of the Respondents 92
4.3 Answering Research questions using the perception of respondents on each item of the
4.4 Hypotheses Testing 104
4.4.1 Summary of Hypotheses Testing 112
4.5 Summary of the major findings of the study 114
4.6 Discussion of Major Findings 115
CHAPTER FIVE:SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 118
5.2 Summary 118
5.3 Conclusions 119
5.4 Recommendations 120
5.5 Suggestions for Further Studies 121
REFERENCES 123 APPENDIXES 133
OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
The following terms were defined within the context of the study in which they are used. Academic Performance: This refers to the measure of what a learner has comprehended over a period of time during the teaching-learning process.
Facilities Maintenance:This refers to constant structures, facilities and equipment check, with the view to understanding their worthiness, services, and or replacement where necessary Educational Facilities:Refersto all the physical properties of a school, consisting of the grounds, buildings, and the various facilities within the school grounds and inside the school buildings. Classroom:This is a place where teaching, learning, acquisition of skills, as well as socialization is imbibed.
Library: This is created and maintained to serve and support the educational activities of the school.
Laboratory:This refers to an essential part of a school. This is the place where experiments are performedand hypotheses are tested and verified
Infrastructural FacilitiesThese refers to the school plant, that is, the school buildings, classrooms, library, laboratories, toilet facilities, recreational, offices and other materials and infrastructures that would likely motivate students towards learning.
Recreational facilities:These are sport or game facilities that can bring about sufficient motivation, likeball,net, hockey stick and many more.
Instructional FacilitiesThese are educational facilities used to improve students‟ knowledge, abilities, skills, to monitor their assimilation of information, and to contribute to their overall development and upbringing such as audio-visual, projector, micro films etc.
A Questionnaire on the Assessment of Educational Facilities Maintenance on Student
Academic Performance in Public Secondary School in Kaduna State, Nigerian 130
Frequency tables 132
List of Schools in various zones with their Official Staff Strength 143
Research Assistant Manual 147
1.1 Background to the Study
Schools exist for the purpose of teaching and learning. Human and material resources are deployed for this purpose. School facilities are the material resources provided for staff and students to optimize their productivity in the teaching and learning process. The realization that the transfer of knowledge does not only take place in the four walls of the classroom from the teacher to the students but rather that learning takes place through discovery, exploration, interaction with the internal and external environment has necessitated the creative and innovative development of teaching and learning facilities that reflect these changes.(Asiabaka, 2008) Schools exist to serve socio-economic and political needs of the ever-changing society, consequently, they are in constant interaction with their external environment. They receive inputs from the external environment in the form of human and material resources, processes them and empty same into the society as finished products and services.
Facilities maintenance is a collective responsibility of the Federal, State, Local GovernmentAuthorities, Staff and Students of the individual schools and the community where the school is located. The Federal Government through the Federal Ministry of Education provides the policies that guide the educational system and also oversees the implementation of these policies at the State level. On the other hand the State Government ensures the actual implementation of the National Policy on Education by providing the enabling environment for effective teaching and learning.Multipurpose facilities used for academic activities during school hours, may be available for community use during or after school hours. Such facilities may be used for continuing education programmes, social activities and recreation. Through appropriate scheduling multipurpose facilities may be accessible to the community during school hours. This will eliminate the burden of duplication of such facilities as conference halls, gymnasium, library, theatre and sporting facilities. Such integrated effort is cost effective and brings the community closer to the school. Some buildings are over fifty years and therefore require modern facilities for teaching and learning. Renovation and modernization of old and dilapidated buildings should be carried out to ensure that facilities for team planning areas, office space, clerical space, workrooms, professional development libraries, faculty dining area, storage space, students conference areas, guidance services area for large group instruction, spaces for instructional media, library resource centers, science facilities, arts and music studios, individual study area and physical education facilities. Equipment and supplies are essential for the attainment of educational goals objectives and stimulates academic performance.
Facilities have a great impact on academic performances of students, and inadequate facilities translate to poor academic performance of students. According to(Oluremi & Olubukola, 2013)school facilities are buildings and grounds, parking lots, playing fields, sick bay and fixed equipment. It is the board’s desire that the local taxpayers who provide the school should be able to obtain maximum use of the facilities, to the extent consistent with the primary educational function of the school. While school maintenance According to American Association of school Administration in(Jumare, 2016) is the process and activity that involves keeping ground (spaces)buildings and equipment‟s at their original conditions of completeness of efficiency, either through repairs or by replacement. Thus, maintenance in the school is making sure that all within the school system facilities, structure and equipment are given required attention through proper utilization and services for maximum benefit derivation, with respect to students, school facilities affect health, behavior, engagement, learning, and growth in performance. Thus, researchers generally conclude that without adequate facilities and resources, it is extremely difficult to serve large numbers of children with complex needs. According to (Jumare,2016) school facilities maintenance could also be defined as constant structures, facilities and equipment check, with the view to understanding their worthiness, services, and or replacement where necessary. According to (Salisu., 2015).they define academic performance as the display of knowledge attained or skills developed in school subject designed by test and examination scored or marks assigned by the subject teacherEducation is very important in any given society. It is a process by which abilities and capabilities of individual are developed. These abilities might be physical abilities, emotional abilities, social abilities and intellectual abilities. It is the actualizing of human potential so that the individual can become something more than what he was before. According to (Ugwuanyi, 2003) Education is the process by which society establishes to assist the young to learn and understand the heritage ofthe past, participate productively in the society and contribute meaningfully for the development of the society.
It is widely accepted that the process of education begins at birth and continues throughout life. Some believe that education begins even earlier than this, as evidenced by some parents’ playing music or reading to the baby in the hope it will influence the child’s development. Education is often used to refer to formal education. However, it covers a range of experiences, from formal learning to the building of understanding and knowledge through day to day experiences. Ultimately, all that we experience serves as a form of education. Individuals receive informal education from a variety of sources. Family members, peers, books and mass media have a strong impact on the informal education of the individual. Education can therefore be regarded as a social process whose purpose is to bring about certain desirable behavioral change in the total development of the individual, in the whole world education has been given more regard while in Nigeria particularly education has been seen as the main vehicle for rapid development.
Furthermore, with the arrival of western education, the uses of facilities became in vogue. classrooms which came in small rooms now in form of schools which comprises of administrative blocks, offices with such facilities as chairs, tables, chalk and chalkboards. Textbooks were also provided to aid teaching, this ease the way knowledge was formally imparted to the students to prove for old stations system.
The no child left behind act 2001 is the latest federal approach in the improvement and closing of gaps in student academic performance. Traditionally, high schools have received much of the attention in the discussion of school reform. The assessment of the physical environment on education is not ignored in current research.The surroundings in which people function can greatly impact moods, satisfaction and self-worth. Facility appraisal should be one of the many roles assumed by educational leaders.
Classrooms are very vital in schools, the classrooms are constructed to suit the purpose of learning and also considering climate of the people. Much importance should be attached to facilities maintenance to enable successful achievement of educational programmes. This in short shows the importance of the provision of efficient and effective facilities to help enhance a smooth and conducive teaching and learning process to enable the productionof effective manpower for the Nation.An aspect of school management that is generally overlooked is facilities maintenance. When new buildings are constructed and taken over by the appropriate authorities, practically no attention is paid to the maintenance of such buildings. Several school buildings that are over fifty years old have never undergo renovation or any form of modernization in spite of the changes in the educational system. Facility maintenance is an issue that concerns all levels of the educational system ranging from the prekindergarten to the tertiary levels. Some of these facilities are architecturally obsolete and therefore cannot contribute to functional education. Maintaining the new buildings, renovating and modernizing the old ones require considerable expertise and commitment of human and material resources. Changes in weather conditions and lack of maintenance culture are responsible for the aging and deterioration of school buildings, grounds and equipment. School managers and teachers who constantly use school facilities lack knowledge of facilities maintenance planning. Consequently, they fail to integrate facility maintenance into the management of the school. The issue of facility maintenance is haphazardly addressed at all levels of the educational system. Repairs take place only when problems arise due to break down of the existing facility.
Certain types of maintenance should be adopted in the facility maintenance plan. These are preventive, routine, emergency repairs, and predictive maintenance. The school facilities consist of all types of buildings for academic and non-academic activities, equipment for academic and non-academic activities, areas for sports and games, landscape, farms and gardens including trees, roads and paths. Others include furniture and toilet facilities, lighting, acoustics, storage facilities and packing lot, security, transportation, Information Communication Technology (ICT), cleaning materials, food services, and special facilities for the physically challenged persons. (Asiabaka, 2008)These facilities play pivotal role in the actualization of the educational goals and objectives by satisfying the physical and emotional needs of students. Students‟ physical needs are met through provision of safe structure, adequate sanitary facilities, a balanced visual environment, appropriate thermal environment, and sufficient shelter space for his work and play. His emotional needs are met by creating pleasant surroundings, a friendly atmosphere, and an inspiring environment. The educational system has undergone tremendous changes in the form of its philosophy, broadened goals and objectives, new approaches to service delivery and architectural design, quantum leap in school enrolment, multiplicity of curricula programmes and extra-curricular activities, introduction of information and communication technology (ICT) and expanded academic support services such as guidance services to students, teachers and the community, integration of the school and community(Asiabaka, 2008). The resultant effect of all these changes is the need for creative and innovative steps in the maintenance of school facilities. For example, research findings have shown that students learn better when a combination of methods and materials are employed during teaching.
Furthermore, emphasis has shifted towards giving individual attention to students as against teaching large classes which presupposes that all students in a class have the ability to learn at the same pace. The implication of the foregoing is that in designing school plant, maintenance should be made for individual, small group interaction and for large groups, for academic and social activities. (Fenker, 2004)observed that facility management is a process that ensures that buildings and other technical systems support the operations of an organization such as the school. School facilities are the material resources that are provided for staff and students to optimize their productivity in the teaching and learning processes.
1.2 Statement of theProblem
Facilities maintenance will surely affect the smooth teaching and learning process in all schools. Thereare some problems encountered in schools as a result of inadequate facilities maintenance. It is known that the academic performance of each student depends to a large extent on the facilities exposed to while learning butwhen these facilities are not maintained some problems are faced.
The first noted, peculiar problem would be generated when there is no inclusive teaching and learning conduciveness. The un-conduciveness could be as a result of facilities notmaintenance like tables, chair and chalkboard in the classroom,this can
affectstudent‟sconcentration.Students cannot be expected to achieve any of the objectives at the end of the lesson. The Students would be easily distracted among themselves and the class which is supposed to be actively involved in the learning process turns out to be appealing and there is enough discomfort for the day, this will discourage the interest of thestudents for the whole days‟ work.
Since the interest of the students are very low, they are going to also have a low level of understanding, knowledge to be imparted to the students would not be fully understood. There may also be limitation in understanding. Laboratories are not maintained in many schools and in some schools where they can be found reagents and equipment are not maintained, more so the maintenance of these facilities are poor. For instance, students in science class who always learn abstract concepts, that is without practical knowledge, of what the teacher is saying cannot have effective learning and this will automatically affect their academic performance. This non maintenance of laboratorieshas resulted to low interest in science-oriented subjects today, these have hindered students‟ performance academically and this has resulted in their low interest in most of the subjects offered in their various level in secondary schools in Kaduna State.
It is also observed that the students supply their acquired knowledge ineffectively since they have not been taught with the practical aspects but rather expressed to only theoretical aspects of their field of specialization, if they have been opportune to make use of facilities in different aspects, they would have been effectively appropriate. Insufficient funds havehindered the maintenance of infrastructural facilities, laboratory equipment, computers, power plants, audio-visual aids and stationeries among other facilities that enhances the operation of the school. Lackof maintenance for these facilities frustrates school programmes and ultimately aborts educational goals and objectives.
Aliyu., (2018). opined that the financing of education is a collective responsibility of all stakeholders. The school principal is expected to complement government‟s effort by
diversifying their income basis and utilizing the available funds judiciously for the attainment of educational goals, this will in a way help the school principal to maintain the existing educational facilities. The problem of maintenance of educational facilities in secondary schools in Kaduna State do not exclusively rest on funding as often depicted, rather the problems are most likely made complex due to poor maintenance of the existing facilities. Some of the principals are accused of lacking the necessary training required of facility managers while others are accused of imposingillegal levies on the students to fix the existing facilities, neglecting budgetary plans, delayingdisbursement of funds for fraudulent purposes.This situation apparently crates a turbulent atmosphere for the success of teaching-learning process.The present state of some Secondary Schools in Kaduna State is quite deplorable, most books in the library are obsolete, they are outdated equipment‟s in the laboratories and school buildings are yearning for renovation. In view of these numerous problems the researcher intends to investigate on the assessment of school facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
Themain objective of this study is to investigate the Assessmentof Educational Facilities
Maintenance on Students‟ Academic Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Kaduna State.
Thespecific objectives are to:
- Find outthe assessment of classroom facilities maintenance on students‟ academic
performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state;
- examine the assessment of library facilities maintenance on students‟ academic
performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state;
- find out the assessment of laboratory facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state;
- determine the assessment of infrastructural facilities maintenance on students‟ academic
performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state;
- assessrecreational facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in public
secondary schools in Kaduna state; and
- assess instructional facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated:
- What isthe assessment of classroom facilities maintenance on students‟ academic
performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state?
- What is the assessment of library facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state?
- How does laboratory facilities maintenance impact students‟ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state?
- What is the assessment of infrastructural facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state?
- How does recreational facilities maintenance impact on students‟ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state?
- What is the impact of instructional facilities maintenance on students‟ academic
performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state?
The following hypotheses are postulated:
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and ministry supervisors on the assessment of classroom facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state;
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of the respondent on the assessment of library facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state;
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of the respondent on the assessment of laboratory facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state;
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of the respondent on the assessment of infrastructural facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state;
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of the respondent on the assessment of recreational facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state; and
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of the respondent on the assessment of instructional facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The study assumed that:
Adequate classroom facilities maintenance improves the academic performance of publicsecondary school students; in Kaduna State;
Library facilities maintenance will attract Students quality academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna State;
Laboratory facilitiesmaintenance improves effective teaching and learning performance of students in public secondary school in Kaduna State;
If the Federal government,State government and Local government supports the maintenance of infrastructural facilities in public secondary schools, students‟ academic performance will be encouraged and improved.
Adequate provision of recreational facilities maintenance will enhance and improved public secondary school students‟ academic performance in Kaduna State.
Sufficient supply of instructional facilities maintenance will encourage and improved public secondary school students‟ academic performance in Kaduna State.
1.7 Significance of the study
This study is useful to educational policy makers, students, school, parents, community, School Administrators, Curriculum Developers, Publishers/Authors,Academia/Researchers and Teachers realize what problems students are subjected to since there is rapid desire for education due to Population increase in Nigeria, which have to be met with adequately.
The study is meant to identify the significant and how much impact it has on the academic performance of the students in public secondary schools in Kaduna state, since these facilities exist to facilitate and stimulate the instructional program of the school system they should be provided and maintained.
The significance of the facilities maintenance to the students cannot be over emphasized.
The students‟ academic performance will naturally increase because the facilities to aid teaching and learning are available and in good conditions. The interest to learn will increase; bringing about an achieve success in academic performance. The maintenance of these educational facilities should be encouraged.
The school on the other hand have great benefit from the maintenance of the school facilities when they are actually maintained. The number of student enrollment will be increased because of the good academic performance and also the awareness created to the students, this will encourage them to talk to other students to come to their school for the facilities are available, good, and well maintained. The students will have better grades in their test and examinations. Therefore, improving the school reports positively. Especially with national examinations.
Individual parents are excited when their children‟s academic performance improved. The parent become proud of the quality of school that the government provides for their wards.
Community development has always been a primary desire to the government. The public secondary schools with educational facilities such as social and recreational facilities, conference halls, library and others are always useful to the community. According to Ntukidem & Ntukidem,(2011), the school principals with his teachers must also decide whether school facilities should be available for public (community) use if there are no government directive against it. The use of this facilities by the community will contribute immensely to the promotion of cordial relationships between the school and the community. The community can use the following facilities in several ways:
- For conferences and exhibitions.
- Opening the school library to the public
- Where social and recreational facilities are lacking in the community, the school can fill in the gap by admitting members of the public to football matches, sports festivals, film shows, concerts and prize days.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study is limitedto the Assessment of School Facilities Maintenance on Student Academic Performance in Public Secondary Schools in Kaduna State. The study is confined to public secondary schools in Kaduna state. The researcher is considering secondary schools, both day and boarding, mixed and single sexed, in order to know the impact of educational facilities maintenance on Students‟ academic performance of public secondary school students in Kaduna
This studycovers the 12 (twelve) educational zones in Kaduna State the researcher hopefully sampled out some public secondary schools in Kaduna State and their opinion to determine theassessment of educational facilities maintenance on students‟ academic performance in public secondary schools in Kaduna state.
The scope is delimited to secondary schools‟ teachers, students and also MOE Officials. The study focuses on the below mentioned educational facilities:
Recreational facilities and Instructional facilities
ASSESSMENT OF EDUCATIONAL SERVICES PRESERVATION ON STUDENTS’ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA