ASSESSMENT OF ACCESSIBILITY AND APPLICATION OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA PROPERTIES IN TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

0
72

ASSESSMENT OF ACCESSIBILITY AND APPLICATION OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA PROPERTIES IN TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The research was carried out to assess the availability, and utilization of electronic media resources in teaching and learning of English language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was carried out with four objectives among which are to: examine the availability of electronic media resources used in teaching English language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State; and identify the various types of electronic media resources used in teaching English language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state. Four corresponding research questions were raised and answer while four null hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study. Relevant and related literatures were reviewed on the key variables of the study. The research adopted survey design the population of the study was 3895 comprising of 152 English language teachers and 3743 SS II students. A sample size of 350 were drawn from the population and used as respondents. Purposive and random sample techniques were adopted to draw the sample. Two sets of questionnaire were developed and administered on the two categories of respondent‟s teachers and students. These instruments were validated by the researcher‟s supervisors before it was pilot tested which showed a reliability values of 8.88 and 0.94 respectively. Data collected were analysed with SPSS version 20. The demographic characteristics of the respondents were analysed using frequency counts, percentages and mean response to answer the research questions. The hypotheses were tested using Chi-square at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that most of the required electronic media resources for the teaching and learning of English language were not available in the senior secondary schools Kaduna State. It was also found that the level of awareness of usage of available electronic media resources was very low. The study also revealed that most of the required electronic media resources for the teaching and learning English language were not available in the schools. In view of the findings from the study, it was concluded that there are no adequate supplies of various electronic media resources that can be used in the teaching of English language in secondary schools within the study area. The study recommended among others that ministry of education should as a matter of urgent importance provide necessary electronic media resources for the teaching and learning of English language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria.

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Contents                                                                                                                Pages

Cover Page                                                                                                                  i

Title Page                                                                                                                    ii

Declaration                                                                                                                  iii

Certification                                                                                                                iv

Dedication                                                                                                                   v

Acknowledgements                                                                                                     vi

Abstract                                                                                                                       viii

Table of Contents                                                                                                        x

List of Tables                                                                                                              xiii

List of Appendices                                                                                                      xiv

List of Abbreviations                                                                                                  xv

Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                xvi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                                1

1.2        Statement of the Problem                                                                               3

1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                                                   5

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                        5

1.5        Research Hypotheses                                                                                      5

1.6        Basic Assumptions                                                                                         6

1.7       Significance of the Study                                                                                6

1.8       Scope of the Study                                                                                          8

CHAPTER TWO:    REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1       Introduction                                                                                                     10

2.2       Conceptual Framework                                                                                  10

2.2.1 Concept of English Language                                                                            11

2.2.2 Concept of Electronic Media                                                                             13

2.2.3 Students‟ Performance in English Language                                             14

2.3       Theoretical Framework                                                                                  16

2.4       English Language Curriculum for Senior Secondary Schools                       20

2.5       Historical Background of Electronics media in teaching and learning          22

2.5.1 Types of Electronic Media                                                                                 29

2.5.2 Sources of Electronic Resources                                                                       32

2.6       Utilization of electronic media in teaching and learning of English

Language in Secondary Schools                                                                    36

2.6.1 Factors influencing utilization of electronic media in teaching                        43

2.6.2 Teachers Electronic media usage                                                                       45

2.6.3 Types of Electronic media usage                                                                       46

2.7       Electronic media in teaching English language                                             48

2.7.1 Constraints of the use of electronic media in teaching and learning

English language                                                                                            55

2.7.2 Media and technology as cognitive tools                                                           58

2.8       Empirical Studies                                                                                            61

2.9        Summary                                                                                                        69

CHAPTER THREE:  RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Introduction                                                                                                     70

3.2        Research Design                                                                                             70

3.3        Population                                                                                                       70

3.4       Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                 72

3.5       Instrumentation                                                                                               73

3.5.1 Validity of the Instrument                                                                                  73

3.5.2 Pilot Study                                                                                                         73

3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument                                                                              74

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection                                                                        74

3.7       Procedures for Data Analysis                                                                         75

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1       Introduction                                                                                                     76

4.2       Descriptive analysis of Respondents‟ Bio-data                                              76

4.3       Solutions to research questions                                                                      78

4.4       Test of hypotheses                                                                                          86

4.5        Summary of major findings                                                                           89

4.6        Discussion of Findings                                                                                   90

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Introduction                                                                                                     93

5.2        Summary                                                                                                        93

5.3       Conclusion                                                                                                      95

5.4       Recommendations                                                                                          95

5.5       Contribution to knowledge                                                                             96

5.6       Suggestions for further Research                                                                    97

References                                                                                                                   98

Appendices                                                                                                                 106

 

 

 

  LIST OF TABLES  
Table 1: Population of the Study 71
Table 2: Sample and Sampling Techniques 72
Table 3: Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Gender 76
Table 4: Frequency Distribution of Marital Status of the Respondents 77
Table 5: Frequency Distribution of Respondents According to Age 77
Table 6: Opinions of the respondents on the available electronic media 79
   for the teaching and learning of social studies in the colleges  
Table 7: Opinions of the respondents on the available electronic media  
  for the teaching and learning of English language in senior  
  secondary school 81
Table 8: Opinions of the respondents on the extents of utilization of  
  available electronic media for the teaching and learning of  
  English Language in the senior secondary school 83
Table 9: Opinions of the teachers and students awareness in the usage  
  of the available electronic media resources for the teaching  
  and learning of English language in the senior secondary  
  school 85
Table 10: Analysis of variance on available electronic media resources  
   for the teaching and learning of English language 86
Table 11: Analysis of variance on factors on the available electronic  
  media  resources for the teaching and learning of English  
  language in senior secondary school 87
Table 12: Two sample t-test on available electronic media for teaching  
   and learning of social studies by status of respondents 88
Table 13: One way analysis on the utilization of electronic media for  
  the teaching and learning of English language in senior  
   secondary schools 89
     

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix 1:    Introductory letter                                                                               106

Appendix II: Availability of Electronic Media Resources for Teachers                    108

Appendix III: Result of the reliability test                                                                  114

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

CAI Computer Assisted Instruction
CD ROM Compact Disc Read Only Memory
CTMML Cognitive Theory of Multi Media Learning
EFA: Education for All
FME Federal Ministry of Education
ICT Information and Communication Technology
MDGs Millennium Development Goals
NERDC Nigerian Educational Research Development Council
UNDP United Nations Development Programme

 

OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

Availability:    It implies whether there is the presence of any form of                                 electronic media resources that are physically present in                                   the senior secondary school in the study area.

Awareness:                  To get acquainted or well informed with new ideas, skills

or materials resources

Electronic Media Resources: All types of gadgets that can assist in the teaching

and learning of English language, and are powered by                        electronic energy like electricity, solar energy or heat                                   energy.

Utilization:                  The manner in which the teachers employ the usage of the

available electronic media resources in classroom                               instruction.

 

 

 

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1        Background to the Study

Electronics media are considered as important instrument in modern world in facilitating quality instruction. The use of electronic media facilities has become a necessity for improving quality in teaching and learning in schools. Electronic media resources are indispensable and have been accepted as part of the contemporary world, especially in the advanced countries to the extent of given a new phase to the education system in terms of pedagogical approach (Okafor, 2009).The Federal Ministry of Education (FME, 2010) recognizes the prominent role of electronic media in the modern world and has integrated electronic media into education in Nigeria. It emphasis that at the secondary school, computer education is made a pre-vocational elective which is part of electronic media devices.

English language is not only Nigeria‟s official language and medium of international interaction but also the language of instruction and reference throughout the entire educational system. Thus, competence in English language assumes great importance for students as it directly affect the level of progress attainable irrespective of aptitude in their particular fields. Egbe (2009) posit that competence in English language is an essential pre-requisite for educational and career success. As an official language in Nigeria, English is used for all government transaction both oral and written and it is one of the languages in which information is stored and retrieved from electronic media, hence it is important that the English language is well taught in schools particularly at secondary schools level.

The advents of information and Communication technology in schools have resulted in the presence of electronic media in the English language classroom or language laboratory. The effect of media resources can be experienced at all levels and forms of education. Educators, teachers and instructors are discovering that the instructional delivery process in using electronic media environment (classroom or English laboratory), is different from the traditional classroom; despite, the relevance of electronic media resource to instruction; teachers and resources to harness the potentials to teach English language effectively. However, there is serious concern over the level of awareness of use of electronic media devices to instruct students in English language. This is characterized by possibly socio-economic and teacher‟s ability.

Availability of electronic media resources in secondary school will help to effectively teach and learn the English language (Alex, 2012).The adequacy of those resources poses another serious concern while it is true that government has not done much direct intervention to make electronic media resources widely available in schools. There is no doubt that governments have of recent signified intention to intensify the use of instructional materials in secondary schools. But evidence obtained from literature has revealed that the level of availability and use of electronic media resources for teaching and learning in Kaduna state secondary school is an issue of worried. For instance few schools have English laboratory. The few secondary schools that have the laboratory, teacher‟s skilfulness is doubtful.

The level of utilization of the resources is also a serious concern to enhance student‟s performance in English language examination. Evidence abounds to justify that many students or candidates (during standardize examination) could not answer half of the questions, not because of time factor, but inability to confidently and independently attempt the English language question (Aremu, 2014). Also, students‟ performances in recent external examination (WAEC, NECO, NABTEB, 2013, 2014) have shown great concern over the poor performance of students in English language.

Similarly students‟ negative attitude towards the subject coupled with their poor academic achievement in the subject have also warranted discussion and seeking for relevant use of modern resources in class instruction. Having this media resource in schools is one thing, using it for instruction is another thing. The study is therefore an attempt to assess the availability and utilization of electronic media resources for teaching English language at senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Spoken English as it is being taught at the Secondary Schools is hampered by the poor instructional materials and methods. These problems as perceived could be as a result of the teaching methods adopted on the part of the teachers which greatly affect the way learners comprehend the spoken aspect of English language. This has in turn led to students imbibing the wrong information and passing same to the general public during communication.

Evidence obtained from relevant literature had revealed that the level of availability and utilization of electronic media facilities for teaching and learning English language in educational institution is an issue of serious concern. For instance between 2012–2014, only six schools Barewa College Zaria, Science Secondary School

Kufena, G.S.S Kagoro, Capital School Kaduna, Queen Amina School and Government

Girls Science School Soba are found to have well equipped language laboratory in Kaduna state, (NBTE, 2014). The effort of government in the provision of electronic devices such as computers, radios, projectors, televisions, internet and other to serve as instructional materials is far from satisfactory to achieve meaningful teaching and learning of English language. In a situation where 80% of students in school are taught without adequate used of instructional materials to improve students‟ academic performance, especially in English language (Ayoji, 2013), where it is available, it is usually in few quantity and quality and the utilization to the maximum teaching and learning process is a source of concern in schools today.

Despite the inherent advantages of these electronic resources in teaching and learning, the extent to which schools in Nigeria have benefited in attaining teaching English language effectively is yet to manifest (Sweeny, 2010). It is obvious; teachers depended mostly on textbooks and chalk board in teaching the subject as instructional materials, while other relevant instructional materials such as maps and charts, overhead projectors, televisions, computers, radios, television and pictures were neglected, perhaps, possibly due to their insufficiency in schools. These deplorable situations affect the strategies and methodology application in teaching English language.

Advances in technology has brought instructional materials especially electronic materials to the forefront as the most tools of globalization which have affected the classroom teaching/learning situation positively. New technological breakthrough such as Audio, Audio visual electronic materials are important landmark in knowledge transfer. With this facilities and equipments, teaching and learning English language became very pleasant experiences and less stressful. Notable problems could be poor quality of teachers in terms of qualification and competence based to make use of this modern technology (electronic media). It is important to remark that teachers‟ inability or shortfall to make use of technologies should not serve as an excuse to retard student‟s acquisition of this core subject (English language) at credit level in schools. The study therefore is to assess the availability and utilization of electronic media resources in teaching and learning English language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state,

Nigeria.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The study is set to achieve the following objectives, to:

  1. examine the availability of electronic media resources used in teaching English language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.
  2. identify the various types of electronic media resources used in teaching English language in secondary schools in Kaduna State.
  3. ascertain teachers and students level of awareness of the available electronic media resources in senior secondary school in Kaduna state.
  4. investigate the extent of utilization of electronic media resources for the teaching of English language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.

1.4        Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  1. What are the types of electronic media resources used in teaching English language in secondary schools in Kaduna State.
  2. To what extent are the electronic media resources available for use in teaching and learning English language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state?
  3. To what extent are teachers and students aware of the electronic media resources available in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state?
  4. To what extent do English language teachers utilize electronic media resources in the teaching of English language in senior secondary school in Kaduna state?

1.5        Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were postulated to guide the study.

1: There is no significant difference on the types of electronic media  resources  for the teaching of English language in senior secondary school in Kaduna

State.

2: There is no significant difference on electronic media resources available for the teaching of English language in Kaduna state

3: There is no significant difference in the awareness  level of teachers and students on the availability of electronic media resources in senior secondary school in Kaduna state.

4: There is no significant difference on the teachers effective utilization of electronic media resources for the teaching and learning of English language in senior secondary school in Kaduna state.

1.6        Basic Assumptions

It is assumed that:

  1. The availability of electronic media resources in schools will improve the quality of instruction of English language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna

state.

  1. That the awareness level of teachers and students is high on availability of electronic media resources in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state.
  2. The level of proficiency of teachers in the utilization of electronic media resources definitely stimulate the interest of the learners as well as improve the way these resources are being used by the learners.

1.7       Significance of the Study

The use of electronic media resources in education as a form of technology in modern class instruction makes English class interactive and collaborative as teachers and learners are given the opportunity to explore idea and have knotty problem solved. However, despite several curricular modifications, aims at enhancing quality of instruction, electronic media resources seems to be more appealing in enhancing teaching and learning. For this reason, this study can be used to further aid effective English language curriculum implementation through effective utilization of electronic media resources to facilitate learning. English language teachers can find some of the findings of the research useful, by understanding the impact of electronic media resources application in teaching and learning process. Teachers will be encouraged by the study to identify suitable areas that needed application of media and may detect their deficiencies and strengths in order to enhance the training of the teachers in their various institutions.

Curriculum planners of the various learning process can identify and incorporate most suitable media resources in English language curriculum for maximizing classroom instruction for students benefit. Students will also be motivated by the presence of electronic media resources in their classes to enhance their understanding of the lessons. Ministry of Educations, Kaduna state in particular can also benefit by ensuring availability and maintenance of the available media resources and also provide more to ensure quality instructions.

Educational bodies and associations particularly, Association of English Language of Nigeria (AELN) can benefit through identifying the needed electronic media resources in enhancing the subject, through continued call to government and other relevant agencies to assist in providing the needed electronic media resources to enhance teaching profession. Also, English language teachers Association of Nigeria (AELN) can benefit from the study through sensitizing members on the impact and usefulness of electronic media resources in classroom instruction and can also serve as

“pressure group” to intimate the Ministry of Education in ensuring availability of these vital resources. Nigeria Educational Research Development Council (NERDC) and states Educational resource centers can benefit by considering the findings of the study in identifying and implementing for classroom instruction, various electronic media devices to further enhance the teaching and learning of English language curriculum. As corporate bodies they can ensure adequate supply and maintenance of appropriate electronic media resources in schools. Publishers also will benefit by integrating media resources and concept of learning in teaching.

The finding from this study will enable teachers and students use appropriate electronic media tools in the teaching and learning spoken English language in schools respectively. Specially, some teachers who are reluctant to embrace this innovation in the use and knowledge of electronic media resources will see the need for it, if they want to ensure the success of their students academically. The data based documents will enable government plan to improve and upgrade the system by enforcing the training of teachers who are the electronic media facilitators. In addition, the study will serve as a guide to the management of senior secondary schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria to effectively use the data obtained from the data based document to know the electronic media resources available and the extent of its use for teaching and learning English language. Finally, the result of the study will serve as a guide and source of information for students and future researchers in the area and extent of electronic media resources availability and use in the teaching and learning of English language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

1.8       Scope of the Study

The study assessed the availability and utilization of electronic media resources for teaching and learning of English language in senior secondary schools in Kaduna state, Nigeria. The study hopes to cover the basic electronic media resources such as audio and audio-visual, computers, in terms of the availability and utilization.

Specifically, the study was delimited to English language teachers and students in both private and public senior secondary schools (SSII) in Zaria and Sabon Gari Local Governments in Kaduna State.

ASSESSMENT OF ACCESSIBILITY AND APPLICATION OF ELECTRONIC MEDIA PROPERTIES IN TEACHING ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

 

Leave a Reply