ASSESSMENT OF AIDS OF TRADITIONAL LEADERS TOWARD GOOD GOVERNANCE AND EFFECTS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM CHANGE IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
This Study Assessment of the Contributions of Traditional Rulers toward Good Governance: and Implications for Social Studies Curriculum Change in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was guided by three objectives, three corresponding research questions and three null hypotheses. However, the study used traditional rulers and staff selected from emirates and chiefdoms of Kaduna State, Nigeria which constituted. A population of 570 and two sampling techniques namely; proportionate stratified sampling and simple random sampling was used to select 239 respondents. The study also used structured questionnaire as data collection instrument. The instrument was duly validated by supervisors and statisticians for content and face validation. The study pilot tested the instrument and a reliability index of 0.975 was realised which was considered as statistically fit for the main work. The study used independent sample t-test and
ANOVA to test the study‟s null hypotheses. The mean and standard deviation was used to answer the research questions. The study found that a significant difference existed between the mean opinion scores of Urban and Rural traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers toward good governance and implication for Social Studies curriculum change in Kaduna State; no significant difference was found between the mean opinion scores of emirs and chiefs on the contributions of traditional rulers toward good governance in Kaduna State and no significant difference was found between the mean opinion scores of traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers toward good governance in Kaduna State in relation to their ranks. Some recommendations were put forth which include the need for Urban and Rural traditional rulers should be supported and be fully involved in Social Studies Curriculum change process toward good governance by traditional institutions in Kaduna State, Nigeria.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE ii
DECLARATION iii CERTIFICATION iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS ix
LIST OF TABLES xii
LIST OF APPENDIXES xiii
LIST OF FIGURES xiv
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study 1
1.2 Statement of the Problem 4
1.3 Objectives of the Study 5
1.4 Research Questions 6
1.5 Null Hypotheses 6
1.6 Significance of the Study 7
1.7 Scope of the Study 8 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
2.01 Introduction 9
2.02 Theoretical Framework 9
2.2.1 Models of Curriculum Change 10
2.2.2 Modernization Theory and Traditional Rulers 14
2.2.3 Structural Functionalism Theory and Traditional Rulers 16
2.04.1 Concept of Social Studies 18
2.04.2 History and Justification for the introduction of Social Studies in Nigeria 22
2.04.3 Objectives of Social Studies 25
2.5.1 Concept of Traditional Institution 27
2.5.2 Concept of Governance 28
2.5.3 Concept of Good Governance 29
2.5.4 Traditional Institution and Good Governance 30
2.6.1 Concept of Curriculum Change 32
2.6.2 Need for Change in Social Studies Curriculum 33
2.7 Factors Associated With Curriculum Change Processes 44
2.7.2 Teacher-related Factors 50
2.7.3 Physical Resources 55
2.8 Review of Related Empirical Studies 56
CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1. Introduction 62
3.2 Research Design 62
3.3 Population of the Study 62
3.4 Sample and Sampling Techniques 63
3.5.1 Instrumentation 64
3.5.2 Validation of the Instrument 65
3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument 65
3.6. Procedure for Data Collection 65
3.7 Statistical Analysis Procedure 66
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
4.1 Introduction 67
4.2 Participants Profile 67
4.3 Answering Research Questions 69
4.4 Null Hypotheses Testing 71
4.5 Summary of Major Findings 74
4.6 Discussions of Major Findings 75
CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.1 Introduction 79
5.2 Summary 79
5.3 Conclusions 80
5.4 Contributions to Knowledge 80
5.5 Recommendations 81
5.6 Suggestions for Further Studies 81
References 82 Appendices 88
LIST OF TABLES
- Population of the Study 67
- Sample Size for the Study by Gender and Geographical 68
- Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Locality 71
- Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Chieftaincy Type 72
- Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Rank 72
- Descriptive statistics on the contributions of traditional rulers 73 in social studies curriculum change by location
- Descriptive statistics on the contributions of traditional rulers 74 in social studies curriculum by chieftaincy type
- Descriptive statistics on the contributions of traditional rulers 75 in social studies curriculum change by status
- Summary of independent t-test samples statistics on opinion 76
of traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in relation to their location
- Summary of independent t-test samples statistics on opinion 76
of traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in relation to their chieftaincy type
- Summary of ANOVA statistics on opinion of traditional 77
rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in relation to status.
LIST OF APPENDICES
Introduction Letter 88
Sample Size Table (Research Advisors) 92
Reliability Coefficient Test 94
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
|ASSEP:||African Social Studies and Environmental Programmes.|
|B.Ed:||Bachelor in Education|
|CESAC:||Comparative Education Study and Adaption Centre|
|J.S.S:||Junior Secondary School|
|M.Ed:||Masters in Education|
|NCE:||Nigeria Certificate in Education|
|NCSS:||National Council for the Social Studies|
|NERDC:||Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council|
|NNTEP:||Northern Nigeria Teachers Education Project|
|RMQ:||Researcher Made Questionnaire|
|SOSAN:||Social Studies Association of Nigeria|
|SOSCEAN: Social Studies and Civic Education Association of Nigeria
UBE: Universal Basic Education
UPE: Universal Primary Education
|USAID: United State of America for International||Development|
1.1 Background to the Study
Government comes and goes but the traditional institution has remained an integral framework of our history and the bedrock of our nation‟s democracy. No government or educational body can work harmoniously without the assistance of the tradition institutions because these institutions have remained the pulse of the people and an enduring part of our cultural heritage, No society progresses without defined cultural norms and values which regulate the activities of its people. Politically, looking at the history of Africa shows that countries without defined structures for the traditional institution do not last and are much prone to wars and civil strife (Aigbegbele, 2014).
Consequently, traditional institution in Nigeria have become an important part of the life of Nigerians and forms the bedrock of the political and educational experience of many Nigerians; They elicit greater confidence and legitimacy in the eyes of the ordinary Nigerians than the institution of the modern state because of their belief of being their brother‟s keeper at all times. That is why from the Sultan‟s palace to the palace of the Ooni of lfe and the Amanyanabo of Kalabari, the words are the same and they preach peace, unity, good governance and stability, the very unifying factors that held us together as one nation, one people with a common heritage. Also, traditional rulers in Nigeria have traditional bureaucracy, so that rulers can intercede for the common man and modern state making it possible for the institution to broker- a new development and projects due to their closeness to the people as most traditional rulers are now educated, enlightened and well-travelled.
More so, in the days of yore and until date, traditional leaders play the role of upholding the values and administering the affairs of their domain. They are saddled with the responsibilities of working with municipalities to identify the needs of their communities and be involved in the shaping and participating in service delivery. They also play a role in curriculum change and the promotion of indigenous and modern knowledge system. Traditional institutions today rulers promote peace, foster cohesion and contribute to the political system of good governance. Among other interventions, traditional rulers provide and leadership in ensuring that societies utilized available resources to enhance their well being as well as promote good governance (Aigbegbele, 2014).
Thus, good governance has become an issue of conditionality in promoting accountable and effective governance in aid-recipient countries. Good governance encompasses respect for, and enforcement of human rights and rule of law, the principles of participation, empowerment, transparency, accountability, the healthy interaction between
the state and the civil society and effective management of public
resources(Aigbegbele,2014).The institution of chieftaincy has an immense role to play in the search for good governance in Nigeria. Not only are chiefs required by the Constitution to advise government on matters relating to chieftaincy, they are also required to modernise the outmoded customs as well as adjudicate on matters bordering on chieftaincy dispute. The tenets of good governance recognise the important roles played by traditional authorities in attaining this pursuit.
Apparently, traditional leadership ties its pragmatic social responsibilities to the citizens with the notion of identity and moral responsibilities to their people. This essentially means the inter connectivity of people and the shared responsibility for each other in ways that would be of benefits to the overall development of the society. Today, the traditional institutions provide a sense of continuity and stability in an era of great education change.
They can serve as intermediaries to ensure that educational change occur in an orderly and familiar way. Yet at the same time, they are to display impressive flexibility, adapting to meet the needs of the day in an effort to preserve or enhance their position within local communities and the educational institution at large, that why, traditional institutions are paramount in social studies curriculum change process (Alade, 2011).
Thus, social studies deals with the teaching of cherished- values, good governance, attitudes and norms that are important to national development. The major problems facing the Nigerian society today is misplaced priorities but when right values and attitudes are inculcated in the young ones and they grow up with these values and attitudes, it goes a long way in positively affecting their lives and the society at large. The essence of social studies inclusion into the Nigeria curriculum is to change the perceptions, and re-orientate the thinking faculty of every individual, in term of beliefs and values and how the society can be moved forward. The content of social studies education is flexible in accommodating some issues and problems, so that the issues can be integrated into the social studies curriculum in an attempt to move the society forward and this is made possible through constant curriculum change by the stakeholders such as the traditional rulers (Alade, 2011).
Moreover, the dynamics of social changes and the peculiarities of educational initiatives in different settings all over the world do call for curriculum reviews or curriculum change with a view to meeting the emerging needs and values of the society. Arising from the need for relevance in form of education for functional living, self-sustenance, good governance and self-reliance, in Nigeria‟s case, sporadic educational reviews and change which are indeed curriculum based have been witnessed at various times. These have reshaped educational thoughts and practices in Nigeria. The reason being that the opinions and solutions that key stakeholders propose for society‟s requests and needs for productivity and progress often make some of the com ponents of the existing curriculum either obsolete or out of tune with currency (Alade, 2011). At this juncture, what should be borne in mind is that curriculum change entails the introduction of new ideas and practices in anyone part of the curriculum; it means to renew an existing curriculum or add something new to the curriculum so as to make it more relevant to the varying needs and aspiration of the learners, and to the ever changing needs of the society. Whenever this happens, it sets pace for the country‟s review initiatives in value-orientation, poverty eradication, politics, wealth creation and job creation among many other reasons.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Nigerian education system and social studies in particular has witnessed several curriculum changes within the past few decades especially after the independence and Nigerian civil war when Nigeria saw the need for upgrading the educational competence of its workforce since human capital was instrumental to social, economic and political development of the nation. Moreover, the search for enriching content and pedagogical approach to teaching and learning of social studies education can only be made possible through conducting of research and constant review of the existing curriculum. Similarly, the explore of enduring solution to challenges of good governance in the context of our desire for unity, peace and progress in Nigeria, research must be held at high esteem and doing so, the role of traditional rulers in this task cannot be over emphasized considering their long standing historical relevance to the education, political and economic development of any nation.
Though, many factors inside the classroom are affecting student learning and teaching process which includes teachers‟ commitment, workload, methodology, assessment, capacity, collaboration, and the erosion of the profession had been researched many times and continuously been research. New frontiers of researches are needed in order to unveil the contributions of traditional rulers in social studies curriculum and good governance in Nigeria and Kaduna state in particular because the society is in a constant flux., for the reason that, in the recent time, Nigeria has witness a lot of issues and problems which demand curriculum review in order to use education as an instrument to address them, some of these issues are the revival of agriculture sectors, information and communication technology in the Social Studies classroom, Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and social studies education in Nigeria , revival of traditional occupation for self reliance, the clamour for change in attitude to work, environment, resources and fellow human being in a bid to promote national development and among others are areas that need to be revisited or review so that social studies education in Nigeria can stand the test of time.
Added to this, gaps exist in research that could provide answers to following questions: what role traditional institutions play in curriculum change process? What are the contributions of traditional rulers to good governance? And what are the contributions of traditional rulers to Social Studies curriculum change in Kaduna State? At present, there is no answer to these questions raised by the researcher. This establishes the base for the problem of study. Against this backdrop, this study assesses contributions of traditional institution toward good governance: implication for social studies curriculum change in Kaduna state.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of the study was to assess the contributions of traditional institution toward good governance: Implication for social studies curriculum change in Kaduna State, while the specific objectives were to:
- Find out the opinions of urban and rural traditional institution on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna State;
- Determine the opinions of emirate and chiefdoms on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in
Kaduna State; iii. Examine the opinions of traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna State in relation to their ranks.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
- What is the opinion of urban and rural traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna State?
- What is the opinion of emirate and chiefdoms on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna State?
- What is the opinion of traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna
State in relation to their ranks?
1.5 Null Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were tested in the study:
- There is no significant difference in the mean opinion scores of urban and rural traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social
Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna State;
- There is no significant difference in the mean opinion scores of emirate and chiefdoms on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna State; iii. There is no significant difference in the mean opinion scores of traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna State in relation to their ranks.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study is considered significant because of the usefulness of the findings to be made with regards to the theoretical contributions to already existing literature on Social studies curriculum change in which the objectives of such a programme have been achieved. The result o f this study would be of utmost importance to Ministry of Education, traditional rulers, Social Studies teachers, students, Parents, as well as future researchers especially in the area of curriculum change, Social Studies and education when published.
It is expected that the study could highlight findings in the area of Social Studies teaching and learning in Kaduna State which will be made available to Ministry of Education. The information may help the State Ministry of Education (Quality assurance unit) to enforce the regulations laid down by the Federal Ministry of Education in regard to the provision of social studies curriculum change process at all levels of educational institutions in Nigeria. The State Ministry of Education may also use the information to organize seminars, workshops and conferences for teachers and lecturers to sensitize/train them on how to effectively use the social studies curriculum which encompasses aspects of good governance and adhere to it at all times.
Information from the findings of this study may be useful to National Educational
Research and Development Council (NERDC) as it may help them see the need to adopt measures to ensure facilities/instructional materials are available and adequate for learners in both urban and rural schools in Nigeria. NERDC may also find the information provided through the findings of this study useful to ensure continuing professional development of social studies teachers. This may also help to expose the teachers and lecturers to current trends in Social Studies curriculum change processes.
The findings of this study would be beneficial to biology teachers who are actually the implementers of the curriculum with self-evaluating criteria to enable them assess themselves on the implementation of social studies curriculum in Kaduna State. The findings may provide them with information on the requirements of the national minimum standards in social studies teaching. It may also serve as a guide for them on how to effectively use the social studies curriculum in their classroom teaching which encompasses aspects of good governance.
Equally, the study may also be useful to future researchers especially in social studies teaching and learning. The information could provide them with empirical data on the contributions of traditional institutions in Social Studies curriculum process in Kaduna State of Nigeria which may be useful for further research studies in related areas.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will focus on assessment of contributions of traditional institution toward good governance: Implication for social studies curriculum change in Kaduna state. However, the study is delimited to emirates and chiefdoms in Kaduna State. While the subjects of the study are traditional rulers and officials in urban and rural areas in the state.
ASSESSMENT OF AIDS OF TRADITIONAL LEADERS TOWARD GOOD GOVERNANCE AND EFFECTS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM CHANGE IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA