ASSESSMENT OF AIDS OF TRADITIONAL LEADERS TOWARD GOOD GOVERNANCE AND EFFECTS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM CHANGE IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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ASSESSMENT OF AIDS OF TRADITIONAL LEADERS TOWARD GOOD GOVERNANCE AND EFFECTS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM CHANGE IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA 

ABSTRACT

This Study Assessment of the Contributions of Traditional Rulers toward Good Governance: and Implications for Social Studies Curriculum Change in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was guided by three objectives, three corresponding research questions and three null hypotheses. However, the study used traditional rulers and staff selected from emirates and chiefdoms of Kaduna State, Nigeria which constituted. A population of 570 and two sampling techniques namely; proportionate stratified sampling and simple random sampling was used to select 239 respondents. The study also used structured questionnaire as data collection instrument. The instrument was duly validated by supervisors and statisticians for content and face validation. The study pilot tested the instrument and a reliability index of 0.975 was realised which was considered as statistically fit for the main work. The study used independent sample t-test and

ANOVA to test the study‟s null hypotheses. The mean and standard deviation was used to answer the research questions. The study found that a significant difference existed between the mean opinion scores of Urban and Rural traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers toward good governance and implication for Social Studies curriculum change  in Kaduna State; no significant difference was found between the mean opinion scores of emirs and chiefs on the contributions of traditional rulers  toward good governance in Kaduna State and no significant difference was found between the mean opinion scores of traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers  toward good governance in Kaduna State in relation to their ranks. Some recommendations were put forth which include the need for Urban and Rural traditional rulers should be supported and be fully involved in Social Studies Curriculum change process toward good governance by traditional institutions in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

 

 TABLE OF CONTENTS

                                                                                                                        Page

TITLE PAGE                                                                                                             ii

DECLARATION                   iii CERTIFICATION                   iv

DEDICATION                                                                                                          v

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS                                                                                         vi

ABSTRACT                                                                                                              viii

TABLE OF CONTENTS                                                                                           ix

LIST OF TABLES                                                                                                     xii

LIST OF APPENDIXES                                                                                            xiii

LIST OF FIGURES                                                                                                    xiv

ABBREVIATIONS                                                                                                    xv

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study                                                                                1

1.2       Statement of the Problem                                                                               4

1.3       Objectives of the Study                                                                                   5

1.4       Research Questions                                                                                        6

1.5       Null Hypotheses                                                                                             6

1.6       Significance of the Study                                                                                7

1.7       Scope of the Study                                                                                          8 CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.01     Introduction                                                                                                     9

2.02     Theoretical Framework                                                                                  9

2.2.1 Models of Curriculum Change                                                                          10

2.2.2 Modernization Theory and Traditional Rulers                                                  14

2.2.3 Structural Functionalism Theory and Traditional Rulers                                  16

2.04.1  Concept of Social Studies                                                                               18

2.04.2 History and Justification for the introduction of Social Studies in Nigeria 22

2.04.3 Objectives of Social Studies                                                                            25

2.5.1 Concept of Traditional Institution                                                                     27

2.5.2 Concept of Governance                                                                                     28

2.5.3 Concept of Good Governance                                                                           29

2.5.4 Traditional Institution and Good Governance                                                   30

2.6.1 Concept of Curriculum Change                                                                         32

2.6.2 Need for Change in Social Studies Curriculum                                                33

2.7       Factors Associated With Curriculum Change Processes                                44

2.7.2 Teacher-related Factors                                                                                     50

2.7.3 Physical Resources                                                                                            55

2.8       Review of Related Empirical Studies                                                             56

Summary

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1.      Introduction                                                                                                     62

3.2       Research Design                                                                                             62

3.3       Population of the Study                                                                                  62

3.4       Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                 63

3.5.1 Instrumentation                                                                                                  64

3.5.2 Validation of the Instrument                                                                              65

3.5.3 Reliability of the Instrument                                                                              65

3.6.      Procedure for Data Collection                                                                        65

3.7       Statistical Analysis Procedure                                                                        66

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

4.1       Introduction                                                                                                     67

4.2       Participants Profile                                                                                         67

4.3       Answering Research Questions                                                                      69

4.4       Null Hypotheses Testing                                                                                71

4.5       Summary of Major Findings                                                                          74

4.6       Discussions of Major Findings                                                                       75

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Introduction                                                                                                     79

5.2       Summary                                                                                                        79

5.3       Conclusions                                                                                                    80

5.4       Contributions to Knowledge                                                                           80

5.5       Recommendations                                                                                          81

5.6       Suggestions for Further Studies                                                                      81

References                                                                                                     82 Appendices                                                                                                            88

 

 

LIST OF TABLES

Tables                                                                                                                          Page

  • Population of the Study             67
  • Sample Size for the Study by Gender and Geographical 68

Location

  • Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Locality 71
  • Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Chieftaincy Type 72
  • Frequency Distribution of Respondents by Rank             72
  • Descriptive statistics on the contributions of traditional rulers 73 in social studies curriculum change by location
  • Descriptive statistics on the contributions of traditional rulers 74 in social studies curriculum by chieftaincy type
  • Descriptive statistics on the contributions of traditional rulers 75 in social studies curriculum change by status
  • Summary of independent t-test samples statistics on opinion 76

of traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in relation to their location

  • Summary of independent t-test samples statistics on opinion 76

of traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in relation to their chieftaincy type

  • Summary of ANOVA statistics on opinion of traditional 77

rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in relation to status.

 

 

 

 

 

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix                                                                                                                             Page

Introduction Letter                                                                                                                  88

Questionnaire                                                                                                                          89

Sample Size Table (Research Advisors)                                                                                92

Reliability Coefficient Test                                                                                                    94

 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ASSEP: African Social Studies and Environmental Programmes.  
B.Ed:  Bachelor in Education  
CESAC: Comparative Education Study and Adaption Centre  
J.S.S: Junior Secondary School  
M.Ed:  Masters in Education  
NCE: Nigeria Certificate in Education  
NCSS: National Council for the Social Studies  
NERDC: Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council  
NNTEP: Northern Nigeria Teachers Education Project  
RMQ: Researcher Made Questionnaire  
SOSAN: Social Studies Association of Nigeria  
SOSCEAN:  Social Studies and Civic Education Association of Nigeria

UBE:               Universal Basic Education

UPE:               Universal Primary Education

USAID:           United        State        of         America        for        International Development

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background to the Study

Government comes and goes but the traditional institution has remained an integral framework of our history and the bedrock of our nation‟s democracy. No government or educational body can work harmoniously without the assistance of the tradition institutions because these institutions have remained the pulse of the people and an enduring part of our cultural heritage, No society progresses without defined cultural norms and values which regulate the activities of its people. Politically, looking at the history of Africa shows that countries without defined structures for the traditional institution do not last and are much prone to wars and civil strife (Aigbegbele, 2014).

Consequently,  traditional institution in Nigeria have become an important part of the life of Nigerians and forms the bedrock of the political  and  educational experience of many Nigerians; They elicit greater confidence and legitimacy in the eyes of the ordinary Nigerians than the institution of the modern state because of their belief of being their brother‟s keeper at all times. That is why from the Sultan‟s palace to the palace of the Ooni of lfe and the Amanyanabo of Kalabari, the words are the same and they preach peace, unity, good governance and stability, the very unifying factors that held us together as one nation, one people with a common heritage. Also, traditional rulers in Nigeria have traditional bureaucracy, so that rulers can intercede for the common man and modern state making it possible for the institution to broker- a new development and projects due to their closeness to the people as most traditional rulers are now educated, enlightened and well-travelled.

 

More so, in the days of yore and until date, traditional leaders play the role of upholding the values and administering the affairs of their domain. They are saddled with the responsibilities of working with municipalities to identify the needs of their communities and be involved in the shaping and participating in service delivery. They also play a role in curriculum change and the promotion of indigenous and modern knowledge system. Traditional institutions today rulers promote peace, foster cohesion and contribute to the political system of good governance. Among other interventions, traditional rulers provide and leadership in ensuring that societies utilized available resources to enhance their well being as well as  promote good governance (Aigbegbele,  2014).

Thus, good governance has become an issue of conditionality in promoting accountable and effective governance in aid-recipient countries. Good governance encompasses respect for, and enforcement of human rights and rule of law, the principles of participation, empowerment, transparency, accountability, the healthy interaction between

the        state     and     the     civil     society     and     effective          management     of      public

resources(Aigbegbele,2014).The institution of chieftaincy has an immense role to play in the search for good governance in Nigeria. Not only are chiefs required by the Constitution to advise government on matters relating to chieftaincy, they are also required to modernise the outmoded customs as well as adjudicate on matters bordering on chieftaincy dispute. The tenets of good governance recognise the important roles played by traditional authorities in attaining this pursuit.

Apparently, traditional leadership ties its pragmatic social responsibilities to the citizens with the notion of identity and moral responsibilities to their people. This essentially means the inter connectivity of people and the shared responsibility for each other in ways that would be of benefits to the overall development of the society. Today, the traditional institutions provide a sense of continuity and stability in an era of great education change.

They can serve as intermediaries to ensure that educational change occur in an orderly and familiar way. Yet at the same time, they are to display impressive flexibility, adapting to meet the needs of the day in an effort to preserve or enhance their position within local communities and the educational institution  at large, that  why, traditional institutions are paramount  in  social studies  curriculum  change process (Alade, 2011).

Thus, social studies deals with the teaching of cherished- values, good governance, attitudes and norms that are important to national development. The major problems facing the Nigerian society today is misplaced priorities but when right values and attitudes are inculcated in the young ones and they grow up with these values and attitudes, it goes a long way in positively affecting their lives and the society at large. The essence of social studies inclusion into the Nigeria curriculum is to change the perceptions, and re-orientate the thinking faculty of every individual, in term of beliefs and values and how the society can be moved forward. The content of social studies education is flexible in accommodating some issues and problems, so that the issues can be integrated into the social studies curriculum in an attempt to move the society forward and this is made possible through constant curriculum change by the stakeholders such as the traditional rulers (Alade, 2011).

Moreover, the dynamics of social changes and the peculiarities of educational initiatives in different settings all over the world do call for curriculum reviews or curriculum change with a view to meeting the emerging needs and values of the society. Arising from the need for relevance in form of education for functional living, self-sustenance, good governance  and self-reliance, in Nigeria‟s case, sporadic educational reviews  and change which are indeed curriculum based have been witnessed at various times. These have reshaped educational thoughts and practices in Nigeria. The reason being that the opinions and solutions that key stakeholders propose for society‟s requests and needs for productivity and progress often make some of the com ponents of the existing curriculum either obsolete or out of tune with currency (Alade, 2011). At this juncture, what should be borne in mind is that curriculum change entails the introduction of new ideas and practices in anyone part of the curriculum; it means to renew an existing curriculum or add something new to the curriculum so as to make it more relevant to the varying needs and aspiration of the learners, and to the ever changing needs of the society. Whenever this happens, it sets pace for the country‟s review initiatives in value-orientation, poverty eradication, politics, wealth creation and job creation among many other reasons.

1.2          Statement of the Problem

The Nigerian education system and social studies in particular has witnessed several curriculum changes within the past few decades especially after the independence and Nigerian civil war when Nigeria saw the need for upgrading the educational competence of its workforce since human capital was instrumental to social, economic and political development of the nation. Moreover, the search for enriching content and pedagogical approach to teaching and learning of social studies education can only be made possible through conducting of research and constant review of the existing curriculum. Similarly, the explore of enduring solution to challenges of good governance in the context of our desire for unity, peace and progress in Nigeria, research must be held at high esteem and doing so, the role of traditional rulers in this task cannot be over emphasized considering their long standing historical relevance to the education, political and economic development of any nation.

Though, many factors inside the classroom are affecting student learning and teaching process which includes teachers‟ commitment, workload, methodology, assessment, capacity, collaboration, and the erosion of the profession had been researched many times and continuously been research. New frontiers of researches are needed in order to unveil the contributions of traditional rulers in social studies curriculum and good governance in Nigeria and Kaduna state in particular because the  society is in a constant flux., for the reason that, in the  recent time,  Nigeria has witness a lot of issues  and problems which  demand curriculum review in order  to  use education  as an instrument  to address  them, some  of these issues are the revival  of agriculture  sectors, information and  communication technology in the Social  Studies classroom,  Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and  social  studies  education in Nigeria , revival  of traditional occupation  for self reliance,  the clamour for  change  in attitude to work, environment,  resources and fellow human being in a bid to promote national  development and among others  are  areas  that need to be revisited or  review  so  that social  studies education  in Nigeria can stand the test of time.

Added to this, gaps exist in research that could provide answers to following questions: what role traditional institutions play in curriculum change process? What are the contributions of traditional rulers to good governance? And what are the contributions of traditional rulers to Social Studies curriculum change in Kaduna State? At present, there is no answer to these questions raised by the researcher. This establishes the base for the problem of study. Against this backdrop, this study assesses contributions of traditional institution toward good governance: implication for social studies curriculum change in Kaduna state.

1.3          Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study was to assess the contributions of traditional institution toward good governance: Implication for social studies curriculum change in Kaduna State, while the specific objectives were to:

  1. Find out the opinions of urban and rural traditional institution on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna State;
  2. Determine the opinions of emirate and chiefdoms on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in

Kaduna State; iii. Examine the opinions of traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna State in relation to their ranks.

1.4          Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What is the opinion of urban and rural traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna State?
  2. What is the opinion of emirate and chiefdoms on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna State?
  • What is the opinion of traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna

State in relation to their ranks?

1.5          Null Hypotheses

The following hypotheses were tested in the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the mean opinion scores of urban and rural traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social

Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna State;

  1. There is no significant difference in the mean opinion scores of emirate and chiefdoms on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna State; iii. There is no significant difference in the mean opinion scores of traditional rulers on the contributions of traditional rulers in enhancing Social Studies curriculum change toward good governance in Kaduna State in relation to their ranks.

1.6          Significance of the Study

This study is considered significant because of the usefulness of the findings to be made with regards to the theoretical contributions to already existing literature on Social studies curriculum change in which the objectives of such a programme have been achieved. The result o f this study would be of utmost importance to Ministry of Education, traditional rulers, Social Studies teachers, students, Parents, as well as future researchers especially in the area of curriculum change, Social Studies and education when published.

It is expected that the study could highlight findings in the area of Social Studies teaching and learning in Kaduna State which will be made available to Ministry of Education. The information may help the State Ministry of Education (Quality assurance unit) to enforce the regulations laid down by the Federal Ministry of Education in regard to the provision of social studies curriculum change process at all levels of educational institutions in Nigeria. The State Ministry of Education may also use the information to organize seminars, workshops and conferences for teachers and lecturers to sensitize/train them on how to effectively use the social studies curriculum which encompasses aspects of good governance  and adhere to it at all times.

Information from the findings of this study may be useful to National Educational

Research and Development Council (NERDC) as it may help them see the need to adopt measures to ensure facilities/instructional materials are available and adequate for learners in both urban and rural schools in Nigeria. NERDC may also find the information provided through the findings of this study useful to ensure continuing professional development of social studies teachers. This may also help to expose the teachers and lecturers to current trends in Social Studies curriculum change processes.

The findings of this study would be beneficial to biology teachers who are actually the implementers of the curriculum with self-evaluating criteria to enable them assess themselves on the implementation of social  studies curriculum in Kaduna State. The findings may provide them with information on the requirements of the national minimum standards in social studies teaching. It may also serve as a guide for them on how to effectively use the social studies curriculum in their classroom teaching which encompasses aspects of good governance.

Equally, the study may also be useful to future researchers especially in social studies teaching and learning. The information could provide them with empirical data on the contributions of traditional institutions in Social Studies curriculum process in Kaduna State of Nigeria which may be useful for further research studies in related areas.

1.7         Scope of the Study

The study will focus on assessment of contributions of traditional institution toward good governance: Implication for social studies curriculum change in Kaduna state. However, the study is delimited to emirates and chiefdoms in Kaduna State. While the subjects of the study are traditional rulers and officials in urban and rural areas in the state.

ASSESSMENT OF AIDS OF TRADITIONAL LEADERS TOWARD GOOD GOVERNANCE AND EFFECTS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM CHANGE IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA 

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