The study examined the Management of Resources in FCT Government Secondary Schools Abuja, Nigeria. The objectives of the study are to evaluate the management of human, facility, funds, curriculum and time resources. Five research questions were raised while five hypotheses were tested in the study which adopted the descriptive survey as the design. The population of this study comprised the 56 Government Secondary Schools located in the six Area Council in Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja with 168 school heads and 3422 teachers from all the schools, from which a sample of 51 school heads and 383 teachers was drawn using purposive sampling technique. Respondents of the study responded to the instrument titled, ‗Assessment of Resource Management in Secondary Schools‘ (ARMSS) with the reliability index of 0.78. The instrument was designed by the researcher in the modified Likert 5-point scale. Mean score and standard deviation were used in answering the research questions while the t-test was used in testing the hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed that human resources and school funds were not well managed in the FCT secondary schools while the facilities, curriculum and time resources were well managed by the school heads. Based on the findings, the researcher recommended that school heads should motivate their staff (teachers) so as to bring out the best in them, Also to create a good organisational climate such that there will be  good culture and rapport among members of staff and school heads. Proper accountability procedures should be developed for better utilisation of school funds.








Declaration                                                                                                                                  ii

Certification                                                                                                                               iii

Dedication                                                                                                                                  iv


Acknowledgements                    V Abstract                    Vi

Table of Contents                                                                                                                 Vii

Operational Definition of Terms                                                                                          IX


1.1      Background to the Study                                                                                            1

1.2      Statement of the Problem                                                                                           6

1.3      Objectives of the Study                                                                                               9

1.4      Research Questions                                                                                                    9

1.5      Research Hypotheses                                                                                                 10

1.6      Basic Assumptions                                                                                                    10

1.7      Significance of the Study                                                                                           11

1.8      Scope of the Study                                                                                                     12


2.1       Introduction                                                                                                                    13

2.2      Conceptual Frame Work                                                                                               14

2.3      The Management of Human Resources in an Organisation                                          19

2.4      The Management of Material Resources in an Organisation                                        25

2.5      The Management of Time Resources in an Organisation                                             34

2.6      The Management of Financial Resources in an Organisation                                       42


2.7      The Management of School Curriculum                                                                       49

2.8      Empirical Studies                                                                                                           55

2.9      Summary                                                                                                                   56


3.1      Introduction                                                                                                                    58

3.2      Research Design                                                                                                            58

3.3      Population of the Study                                                                                                 59

3.4      Sample and Sampling Techniques                                                                                59

3.5      Instrumentation                                                                                                              60

3.6      Validity of the Instrument                                                                                             61

3.7      Pilot Study                                                                                                                     61

3.8      Reliability of the Study                                                                                                  61

3.9      Procedures for Data Collection                                                                                     62

3.10 Method of Data Analysis                                                                                                62



4.1.       Introduction                                                                                                                   61

4.2.      Results and Analysis of the Personal Data                                                                    61

4.3.      Presentation and Analysis of Data                                                                                 62

4.4.      Hypotheses Testing                                                                                                       81

4.5.      Summary of Major Findings                                                                                         87

4.6.      Discussions of the Findings                                                                                           88


5.1.      Summary                                                                                                                       92

5.2.      Conclusions                                                                                                                   93

5.3.      Recommendations                                                                                                         95

5.4.      Suggestions for further studies                                                                                      95

REFERENCES                                                                                                                        96

APPENDIX                                                                                                               104 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS

  1. Management -Management is the way things are done using the available resources to achieve the organisational goals and objectives.
  2. Assessment– this is the evaluation or the appraisal of the school heads efforts in handling the available school resources.
  • School Heads– this refers to the leadership of the school based on this research they are the school Principal, vice principal Administration and vice principal Academics.
  1. School Resources – School Resources refer to the educational resources that are used to achieve the secondary school educational objectives, they include human, material, finance, time and curriculum.
  2. Human Resources Management— refers to the act of getting school heads and teachers together to accomplish desired goals in schools
  3. Material Resources management —refers to the maintenance of school facilities and

instructional materials.

  • Time Resources Management— refers to the allocation and utilization of time to

instructional activities.

  • Financial Resources Management — refers to the utilization and control of school funds

in achieving the set educational objectives.

  1. School – refers to all the Government Senior Secondary Schools in the FCT Abuja





1.1.        Background to the Study

The need for improved service delivery in the secondary school system has necessitated the need to improve on the educational resources which is expected to positively impact on the FCT secondary schools; this can only be achieved by effective management of the school resources. Adedeji, Olaniyan and Owoeye (2001) opined that the quality of management of school human and material resources have a very strong relationship to the students‘ academic performances; therefore human resources in education should be seen as assets in an educational institution.

Management exists in an organisation to make resources productive in order that the organisation can achieve its goal. Onwuchukwa 1998 in Ezeani 2012 said, management is the organisation and mobilization of all human and material resources in a particular system for the achievement of identified objectives.  It determines the organization‘s outcome either positive or negative, therefore in secondary schools the school heads are responsible for the management of the schools despite the fact that government are responsible for the management of secondary schools in terms of provision of funds, school regulations, discipline, innovation, provision of houses for staff, school plant management, promotion of school health etc.

Educational management involves the application of management principles in designing, developing, and effecting resources towards the achievements of educational goals. Okwori and Edem (2012) were of the opinion that school administrator is one saddled with the responsibility of administering and managing school by making things happen and by organising human, financial, and material resources in order to achieve the objectives of the institution within the targeted period.  The post of a school administrator is the most challenging assignment that faces the school managers, due to this highly complex and demanding task, the administrator is required to possess professional skills and competent management techniques in order to achieve the educational goals of the school. Adetoro (2009) says resources management in an organisation is the effective and efficient deployment of an organisation‘s resources when needed, effectiveness here is judged by the extent to which the secondary school administrator acquire necessary instructional materials including teachers, and how they provide a congenial organizational climate and generally meeting the expectations of the society within which they are established.

The successful implementation of school curriculum and other programmes depend largely on the management ability to carry out the task or assignment effectively. (Edem, 2012) Oluremi (2014) says education involves the teachers and the learners as well as the use of certain resources; management of these resources is germane to the sustainable development of educational system. The success of any educational system therefore depends on the availability of resources and how the resources are effectively and efficiently managed. Good educational managers must carefully and effectively handle educational resources put under their custody (Babalola, 2006)

Good learning facilities are precondition for student learning, a growing body of research has linked students behaviour and performance to the physical building condition.

The conditions of school facilities are significant factors that influence students learning.  Material resources management is the process of acquisition, use and maintenance of school materials towards achieving the set goals and objectives. Material resources in these context referto physical resources which include every moveable and immoveable properties, physical structures, instructional materials, and educational assets belonging to an educational institution to enhance teaching and learning process.

However to achieve educational objectives, school administrators are expected to apply appropriate management skills which will enable them achieve the set educational goals because they are responsible for the provision of instructional activities by coordinating curricular activities such as lesson notes, scheme of work and teaching aids towards achieving academic performance. Therefore a good school administrator is in the position to supervise, monitor, evaluate, and disseminate current information on educational issues and modern teaching techniques to teachers in order to stimulate them and to ensure school activities are carried out in  such a way that things work effectively and efficiently.

Secondary school is the link between the primary and tertiary education in Nigeria, they are either owned by government or non-government.  It is at this level of education that students are prepared for the tertiary institution. Within the framework of the New National Policy on Education (2004), secondary education shall last for six years, broken into two distinct parts that are perfectly correlated with the ground works of the first three years – Junior Secondary School (J.S.S.) – dovetailing into the next three years of Senior Secondary School (S.S.S.), but presently its now nine (9) years in basic education class (I.e.  six years of primary school including the first three years of secondary school which is the junior secondary school) and three years in the secondary school. According to the National Policy on Education the broad aims of secondary education in Nigeria are:

  • Preparation of students for useful living within the society, and
  • Preparation of students for higher education. In specific terms, the secondary school system is geared towards realizing the following objectives:
  • Provide all primary school leavers with the opportunity for education of a higher level, irrespective of sex, social status, religious or ethnic background.
  • Offer diversified curriculum to cater for the differences in talents, Opportunities and future roles;
  • Provide trained manpower in the applied sciences, technology and commerce at subprofessional grades;
  • Develop and promote Nigerian languages, art and culture in the context of world‘s cultural heritage.
  • Inspire students with a desire for self improvement and achievement of excellence;
  • Foster National unity with an emphasis on the common ties that unite us in our diversity; (g) raise a generation of people who can think for themselves, respect the views and feelings of others, respect the dignity of labour, appreciate those values specified under our broad national goals and live as good citizens;

(h) Provide technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and economic developments. The aims and objectives of secondary education make it clear that the future of any nation depends quite considerably on the quality of education it provides for its citizens.

The Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja consists of about 56 government

Secondary Schools which include both day and boarding Schools in all the six Area Councils. It has been observed that most of the resources available in the schools are not properly managed by the various school administrators and the body governing the secondary schools.  The management and administration of the Nigeria education system is by law in the hands of the three tiers of government which are the federal, state and local governments although it is complemented by private individuals or missionaries. Based on this research, the researcher focused on the management skills of school heads in managing school resources by planning school activities, supervising instructional activities, maintaining school facilities, organising teaching activities, and controlling school funds.  In the school system, the Secondary School Education Board oversees the management of government secondary schools in FCT, they are responsible for recruitment, appointment, promotions, and discipline of staff, disbursement of funds, undertaking new capital projects, training and retraining of teaching and non-teaching staff, posting and deployment of staff including inter-state transfer and setting up of an effective supervisory unit.

To achieve these objectives, school heads that are also seen as the instructional leaders are in good position to supervise, monitor, maintain, assess, evaluate and disseminate current information on educational issues and modern teaching techniques to teachers in order to stimulate them. The school principals are the intermediary and interpreter of policy, aims and objectives between the school and the community, government, the public and private agencies. School heads should be more efficient and spend most of their time in organizing learning activities in schools, maintaining effective school supervision, school facilities, coordinating school teaching and learning activities and controlling school funds.

Education involves the teachers and the students/learners as well as the use of certain educational resources. Management of school resources are relevant to the sustainable development of educational system because it effectively develop and manage facilities, policies, procedures, processes, human and material resources and evaluate their effectiveness. Babatola (2006) noted that good educational managers must carefully and effectively handle the educational resources kept under their custody. The principal‘s position and his managerial effectiveness indicate the school prospect in achieving the educational goals and objectives.

1.2.        Statement of the Problem

Thereare available resources in secondary schools of the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja and its evidence on its availability and utilization in the classrooms.  (Aderomu, Akinsola, and Ogunkola; 2002)  In a research study on the effective management of resources in the secondary schools, despite the availability of resources, some school heads are lacking leadership competencies, resulting in low quality of instruction, indiscipline among staff and students (Aina, 2011) It appears that competencies here refer to the ability to supervise, appraise, develop, train and retrain, reward, and promote staff accordingly and most importantly meet up with their needs (welfare)all these lies at the efficiency of the organisation.

However every organisation depends mainly on human resources for the execution of their programme or activities in order to achieve the set goals and objectives. The importance of human resources cannot be over emphasized because the quality of staff in any organisation/ educational system determines the quality of the system or organisation itself. Professional staffs however, are relevant to the successful implementation and interpretation of the educational policies and programmes. Ofojebe (2010) stated that teachers are the major human resources for effective implementation and realization of the educational policies and objectives at the practical level of classroom. Therefore teachers are the aid to learning and the interpreters of the curriculum, According to Omojunwa (2007) teachers are the ultimate interpreters and implementers of educational policy as represented in the school curriculum which is designed to actualise educational goals. Maintaining and improving educational standard is only possible through teachers therefore poor management of teachers reduces the extent to which the curriculum can be delivered effectively.  It is in this light that Oduma (2012) noted that a manager who underrates the critical roles and underplays the importance of people in goals achievement can neither be effective nor efficient.

There have been steady decline in teachers‘ instructional task performance and students‘ academic performance which depicts non-realization of educational goals and objectives in secondary schools (Adeniji 2002). This has been largely attributed to gaps in teachers‘ competence, curriculum instruction, learning facilities and resources, funding and institutional management. Mpokosa said the challenges to effective management is a s a result of a weak management system and decision making, weak management for the recruitment and deployment of teachers and administrators. It is important know that the effectiveness of school heads in curriculum implementation and also the maintenance of school facilities is based on the management of school resources, It is not enough to provide school facilities but how these facilities are been maintained and replaced by the school heads and teachers. Good facilities appear to be an important precondition for student learning, provided that other conditions are present that support a strong academic program in the school. Different research study has linked student achievement and behaviour to the physical building conditions and overcrowding. The conditions of school facilities is considered a significant factor that influence learning, Craig (2009) said that there is a positive relationship between the quality of school facility and the quality of educational activities that takes place within the school.  Therefore, maintenance of school facilities keeps them in its original sate of wholeness, regular maintenance of facilities ensures that facilities remain operational even under adverse weather condition and prevents future cost of repairs and major renovations are reduced.

There is less money to spend on secondary education in Nigeria and other levels of the education, the Education Boards are complaining of underfunding while the governments are complaining of inefficient utilization of the available resources, more over there are complains about the poor standard of education, incessant strikes of the secondary school teachers due to the inability of the government to pay the new salary scheme which have really affected the sector. It is in this light that the researcher has decided to assess how the secondary school funds are been utilised towards achieving the set goals and objectives. Aja. N.S.(2015) emphasize that the education sectors are not well managed, education managers charged with the responsibilities of utilizing the money fall short of their expectations. It is in this light that Alu, Odo, Ede, and Ugu (1997) in Aja (2015) also lamented that as government and good spirited individuals try to build up education sector, some greedy individuals work hard to pull these efforts down through financial fraud. It is based on these that the researcher decided to assess how school‘s funds are been managed by the various school heads.

Time is a resource which is available to all at equal amount; it all depends on the efficient utilization of time by individuals that makes achievement differ from each other. Time cannot be accumulated nor replaced like other resources such as human, material/facilities, curriculum and funds. Time is a precious resource which must be well managed along with the other resources to achieve the goals and objectives of the school (Ajayi 2007) the researcher is therefore concerned with the efficient utilization of time by the various school heads in the FCT secondary schools. Obi (2003) said that time management involves tasks to be performed, scheduling organisational activities, prioritising such activities, allocating time to the task according to their degree of importance in enhancing productivity. Therefore, the researcher tends to investigate the efficiency in managing time by the school administrators in the FCT secondary schools.

1.3. Objectives of the Study

The was set to:

  • evaluate the management of human resources in secondary schools in Abuja;
  • assess the management of facilities in secondary schools in Abuja;
  • examine the management of time as resource in secondary schools in Abuja;
  • find out the management of financial resources in secondary schools in Abuja; and
  • assess the management of Curriculum as instructional resources in secondary schools in



               1.4       Research Questions

Based on the statement of the problem and objectives of the study, the study was guided by the following research questions;

  • How are the human resources in secondary school of the FCT managed?
  • How are facilities in FCT secondary schools maintained?
  • How is time resource managed in secondary schools of the FCT?
  • How are school funds managed in FCT secondary schools?
  • How are instructional resources managed in FCT secondary schools?

1.5Research Hypotheses

The following research hypotheses were formulated to guide the study

  • There is no significant difference in the opinions of school heads and teachers in the utilisation of teachers in FCT secondary schools;
  • There is no significant difference in the opinions of school heads and teachers in the maintenance of school facilities in FCT secondary schools;  
  • There is no significant difference in the opinions of school heads and teachers in the utilisation of time in FCT secondary schools;
  • There is no significant difference in the opinion of school heads and teachers in the utilisation of school funds in FCT secondary schools; and
  • There is no significant difference in the opinions of school heads and teachers in the utilisation of instructional resources in FCT secondary schools.

1.6Basic Assumptions

The study is on the assumptions that:

  • human resources in secondary schools in FCT Abuja are well managed.
  • school facilities are well maintained in all the FCT secondary schools.
  • time resource is effectively managed in order to achieve the set educational objectives in the FCT secondary school.
  • school funds are well utilized to achieve the set educational objectives in the FCT Abuja.
  • all the available instructional resources are well utilized by the various schools in the FCT


1.7 Significance of the Study

The research will be of importance to all the educational stakeholders like the

Government, Secondary Education Board, National Education Research and Development

Council, School heads, teachers and the society at large in the following ways;

The National Education Research and Development Council (NERDC) in May, 1986 made a nine point recommendation to enhance educational standard, among the recommendation was adequate teaching aids and funds to provide other infrastructural facilities. It is hoped that the research study will help to raise the standard of education in schools having made useful suggestions on how to improve the management of school resources.

This study will hopefully reveal to the government the importance of planning, organising, monitoring, supervising, maintaining and evaluating the available school resources.  It will also help them to develop skills to encourage their staffs so as to put in their best and also to give room for teachers‘ growth and development by organising programmes, seminars that will help to broaden their knowledge.

To the Secondary Education Board, it is hope that the research study will help them to identify the need for effective management on all the secondary schools in the FCT thereby encouraging school heads to make use of their management skills to direct and utilise the resources given to them and also monitoring of secondary schools in terms of finance, curriculum, maintenance of facilities and development of human resources at specific periods of time, this will help them to know the need for consistency in their work.

To the Administrator it will help them to identify the areas where they are lacking and how to improve on it towards achieving the set educational goals thereby increasing the standard of education. It also helps them to understand the need for school management and to develop maintenance culture on all the available school resources.

To the school management, it will help to improve on their management strategies so as to achieve the goals and objectives by taking appropriate actions with modification when goals are not achieved or when improvement is desired. It will also help the researcher herself to know how effective and efficient educational resources are managed in the various secondary schools.

To the society at large, which include the teachers, learners and parents the research study will help their mentality on how to manage and maintain school resources rather than the ‗I don‘t care attitude‘ in which they are use too. Finally, it will also serve as a base line data and source of concern for other future researchers.

               1.8       Scope of the Study

This research focuses on assessment of resource management in secondary schools in FCT Abuja. In doing this, the study focused attention on the importance of management on the available school resources (Human, material, finance, time and curriculum).The research was narrowed to FCT Government secondary schools to enable the researcher minimize the cost of covering a large number of schools and to enable the researcher conduct a meaningful study within the short possible time as permitted for the programme.


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