AN EVALUATION OF EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF TEACHERS’ JOB-RELATED STRESS IN SOME SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS
1.1 Background to the Study
In developing countries like Nigeria, education aims to provide pupils with new skills, information, cultures, attitudes, behaviors, and creative solutions to everyday issues. Education is to provide the economy with human capital capable of effectively converting other resources into high-value output for a better quality of life (UNESCO, 2010). To achieve high-quality education for long-term growth, the teacher, as the primary impact er of information, must be well-motivated, healthy, and content with their work. Unfortunately, prior studies show that teachers are often stressed at work, preventing them from achieving the desired high levels of performance, resulting in inefficient teaching and delays in national and global growth (Kyriacou&Chien, 2004). Many academics believe that work discontent produced by a variety of circumstances (stressors) causes teachers to become stressed, unwell, perform poorly, and finally leave the profession (Borg & Chao, 2010). Teachers need understanding and support, as well as voices of reason, to counterbalance both the stress-inducing signals they get from this culture and profession, as well as the demoralizing, self-defeating ideas that some of them continue to tell themselves. Many stress symptoms are so frequent that they are considered the normal, even expected, consequence of living busy, productive lives. Basic realities regarding the insidious, often deadly consequences of stress on individuals throughout their lives should be known by teachers. Mgbodile Grace (2004) discovered certain elements that contribute to secondary school teachers’ stress. Poor student work attitudes, time pressure resulting from a heavy workload, and a lack of school discipline; teacher incompetence and lack of confidence in his ability; bureaucratic interference exemplified by frequent and arbitrary changes in school policy, as well as non-payment and delayed payment of teacher salaries are among these factors. Apathy, negativism, poor morale, boredom, anxiety, frustration, weariness, sadness, alienation, anger/irritability, medical problems (headache, stomach trouble), and absenteeism are all signs of stress and burnout among teachers. When we speak of stress and its negative consequences, we usually refer to stress in its extreme form (Okere and Onyechi, 2007).
Teachers are well aware that they are continuously under stress as a result of their employment. This, in turn, has an impact on their performance. According to Nayyar & Naomi (1994), teacher job performance is the degree to which an individual teacher fulfills a certain task or obligation in accordance with established standards or criteria. Teacher performance is defined as an instructor’s behavior that varies depending on the context in which the teacher effectively performs any specified task or obligation (Cheng &Tsu. 1998). However, due to the teacher’s stress, he is unable to carry out this task or duty efficiently. When a teacher is stressed, Tahir Almumin (2011) remarked, poor teaching quality, low student satisfaction, and turnover affect the instructor’s overall performance. The following are some of the impacts of stress on teachers, as stated by Brown and Ralph (1999): Increased introversion, irritability with colleagues, unwillingness to cooperate, frequent irrational conflict at work, increased substance, persistent negative thoughts, loss of appetite, and accident proneness. Reduced work performance and output, loss of confidence and motivation, inability to manage line or delegate, feelings of alienation and inadequacy, feelings of alienation and inadequacy, increasing introversion, irritability with colleagues, unwillingness to cooperate, frequent irrational conflict at work If the school system is experiencing rising dissatisfaction as a result of poor leadership, the school principal is unlikely to get the cooperation of his subordinates(Brown and Ralph, 1999). When the problem becomes more serious, the school principal, or any superior officer for that matter, feels “alone” since his subordinates seem to be either terrified of him or fearful of coming into touch with his harassing behavior. When he is unable to obtain the cooperation of his subordinates, he is inclined to get enraged at everyone around him. He is not pleased with this position, and neither are his subordinates. The school’s objectives will not be met in the end. This research work examines effective management of teachers’ job related stress in some selected primary schools in Ogun state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Stress, it is widely accepted, is unavoidable as long as one lives; so, the issue is how to handle it. The secondary and elementary school systems provide an ideal setting for teaching and learning(Brown and Ralph, 1999). Teachers’ capacities to address the problems in the classroom are severely harmed by stress. When primary school instructors do not manage their stress well, it may have a negative impact on their teaching style, which ultimately impacts the academic quality of their students. When a teacher is stressed, his or her emotional, cognitive, and psychological functions are compromised. As a result, instructors must be able to successfully handle stress when it arises in order to teach effectively and efficiently. So, what are primary school teachers’ stress management strategies? It is against this background that this study is faced with the problem of establishing effective management of teachers’ job related stress in some selected primary schools.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of this study is to examines effective management of teachers’ job related stress in some selected primary schools. The specific objectives and are:
- To examine the causes of stress among primary school teachers in Ogun State.
- To find out the effect of stress among primary school teachers in Ogun State.
- To investigate the strategies for effective management of stress among primary school teachers in Ogun State.
1.4 Research Questions
These are some of the questions the study is designed to answer:
- What are the causes of job related stress among primary school teachers in Ogun State?
- What are the effect of stress among primary school teachers in Ogun State?
- What are the strategies for effective management of stress among primary school teachers in Ogun State?
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study is designed to evaluate effective management of teachers’ job related stress in some selected primary schools. The findings of the study will provide data or literature for academicians as a basis for further research. The study will benefit the general society since stress affects many workers and using management strategies is a duty of each organization. The research findings will help head teachers to be able to identify the stress management strategies to be used in primary schools to address stress problems which can help in teacher commitment and hence retention.