ESTIMATING PERFORMANCE AND METHANE EMISSION FROM YANKASA LAMB RAMS FED DIETS CONTAINING VARYING LEVELS OF CAMEL’S FOOT (Piliostigma thonningii) LEAF AND POD MEALS

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ESTIMATING PERFORMANCE AND METHANE EMISSION FROM YANKASA LAMB RAMS FED DIETS CONTAINING VARYING LEVELS OF CAMEL’S FOOT (Piliostigma thonningii) LEAF AND POD MEALS

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Abstract:

The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of varying NPK 15;15:15 levels on the forage yield and quality of Brachiaria ruziziensis and performance of Yankasa rams fed different ration of the forage and Concentrate in a total mixed ratioin the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria. The experiment was laid in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) in a 4×3 factorial arrangement comprising of four rates (0,20,40 and 60 kg/ha) of NPK 15:15:15 replicated three times and age of harvest were 10,12 and 14weeks after sowing. The growth components showed that plant height (74.9 cm) and leaf length (33.3 cm) were significantly (P<0.05) higher at 60kg/ha and 40kg/ha, respectively.Number of tillers (23) weremore (P<0.05) at 12 weeks after sowing (WAS). Varying fertilizer levels significantly (P<0.05) affected fresh forage yield with the highest value (15.8t/ha) recorded at 60kg/ha. Age of cutting also had significant (P<0.05) effect on both fresh forage and dry matter yields. The highest fresh weight yield (16.3t/ha) was recorded at 12 weeks after sowing (WAS) where as dry weight (4.3t/ha) was recorded at 14 weeks after sowing (WAS).Proximate compositions ofcrude protein, crude fiber and nitrogen free extract were significantly (P<0.05) affected by the varying levels of fertilizer, whereas Dry matter, crude protein, crude fibre, ether extract, andnitrogen free extract were significantly (P<0.05) affected by age of cutting. The highest DM (94.3%), CP (8.99%) and CF (39.39%) were recorded at 10, 12 and 12 weeks after sowing (WAS), respectively. ether extract (7.88%) and ash (7.67%) were significantly (P<0.05) higher at 12 weeks after sowing. Calcium content of the forage and Calcium (Ca): Phosphorus (P) ratio were significantly (P<0.05) affected as the level of fertilizer application varied with 60kg/ha rate recording the highest percentage (1.62%) and ratio (6.23:1), respectively. Calcium (Ca), Phosphorus (P) and Ca: P ratio were similar (P>0.05) at different cutting intervals. It can be concluded from the result of this study that NPK 15:15:15 compound fertilizer rate 60 kg/ha on Brachiaria ruziziensis gave the better forage yield, Crude protein was higher when harvested at 12 weeks after sowing, mineral composition (Ca and P) was also optimum. Therefore, NPK 15:15:15 rate of 60 kg/ha is recommended for higherBrachiaria ruziziensis forage yield and nutrient composition for smallholder farmers and livestock owners. In the Second experiment a feeding trial which lasted for (12) weeks was carried out to determine feed intake, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance of growing Yankasa rams fed different mixture of Brachiaria ruziziensis/concentrate in a total mixed ration. Sixteen healthy Yankasa rams with an average live weight of 21.75kg±1kg were randomly allocated to four treatments with four replicates in a Complete Randomized Design (CRD). The treatment diets were ratio of Brachiaria ruziziensis to concentrate: (90:10), (80:20), (70:30) and (60:40)mixtures. Feed intake (57.19kg), Daily feed intake (635.48g/day), Average daily gain (61.11g/day), and feed conversion ratio (10.47) were significantly higher (P<0.05) in animals’ fed (60:40) ratio of B.ruzizienss to concentrate mixture and showed a decline across the treatments as the quantity of concentrate inclusion in the mixture decreased. Feed conversion ratio (10.47) was significantly (P<0.05) lower in animals fed (60:40) ratio of B.ruziziensis to concentrate mixture. The DM, OM, CP, CF, EE NFE and ADF digestibility showed significant variation (P<0.05) across the treatments. The Crude protein digestibility (CPD) was significantly (P<0.05) higher (84.25%) in (60:40) ratio B.ruziziensis to concentrate mixture while the least value of 76.12% was recorded in rams fed viii B.ruziziensisto concentrate mixture (90:10) ratio. Nitrogen intake, nitrogen absorbed, nitrogen retained and absorbed as percentage of intake (61.28%, 59.16%, 57.58%, 93.75% and 96.48%) respectively were significantly higher (P<0.05) in animals fed (60:40) ration. Rumen pH (6.80), TVFA (Total volatile fatty acid) (44.87 Mmol/100ml), Rumen Ammonia nitrogen (NH4-N) (16.18 mg/100ml) significantly (P<0.05) differed across the treatments and animals fed (60:40) ratio of B.ruziziensis to concentrate mixture ratio recorded the highest value. It can be concluded from this work that feeding Yankasa rams with 60:40 ratio of B.ruziziensis to concentrate mixture in a total mixed ration improved digestibility, utilization resulted in the highest weight gain (5.5kg) and highest revenue (₦4887.7). Feeding of B.ruziziensis to concentrate at a ratio of 60:40 in a total mixed ration is hereby recommended for smallholder farmers and livestock owners in the Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria.

ESTIMATING PERFORMANCE AND METHANE EMISSION FROM YANKASA LAMB RAMS FED DIETS CONTAINING VARYING LEVELS OF CAMEL’S FOOT (Piliostigma thonningii) LEAF AND POD MEALS AGRICULTURE FAULTY PROJECT TOPICS AND MATERIALS

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