DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A COMPUTERIZED ACCOUNTING SYSTEM OF AN ACADEMICS SYSTEM (A CASE STUDY OF IMT ENUGU)
The importance of accounting is gradually being recognized as germane to prudent management of any institution firm. This has necessitated the need for the computerization of structured operations of the Accounting managers structured operations are known with certainly for instance, the computation and decisions based on Accounting ratios.
This project therefore is a case study of IMT Enugu. It describes the computerization of the accounting of the institution as packaged for its clients. Thus this study gives detailed methods for the development of an optimal Accounting database for IMT Enugu as well as the software required for the computation and tabulation of different Accounting ratios.
Organization Of Work
Table Of Content
1.1 Statement Of Problem
1.2 Aims And Objectives
1.3 Delimitation Of Scope
1.6 Definition Of Terms
2.0 Literature Review
3.0 Description And Analysis Of The Existing System
3.1 Fact Finding Methods
3.2 Organizational Structure
3.3 Objectives Of The Existing System
3.4 Input, Process And Output Analysis
3.5 Information Flow Diagram
3.6 Problem Of The Existing System
3.7 Justification For The New System
4.0 Design Of The New System
4.1 Output Specification And Design
4.2 Input Specification And Design
4.3 File Design
4.4 System Flowchart
4.5 Procedure Chart
4.6 System Requirements
5.1 Program Design
5.2 Program Flow Chart
5.3 Pseudo Codes
5.4 Source Program
5.5 Test Run
7.0 Recommendation And Conclusion
Accounting is the life wire of any institutional organization. It is required for the execution of production, sales and administration of a institution operation. As a discipline, Accounting is concerned with the acquisition and administration of the use of the firms’ funds as well as profit planning and control Accounting analysis is inevitable for the effective planning and control of any firm.
To effectively plan for the future, the Accounting manager should be able to assess the Accounting position of the firm and relates this to its confronting investment opportunities. Since funds are scarce, Accounting analysis helps the Accounting manager to assess the returns on investment accruing from ploughing the firms’ assets and thereby efficiently allocating resources.
However, Accounting is the employment of the firm’s balance sheet and income statement to establish some relationship between one figure and another in order to highlight the strengths and weakness of the concerned institution. The balance sheet of a firm is also called the Accounting position because it shows the position of the institution in monetary term at a given point in time while the income statement show how the position depicted by the balance sheet has been attained. The results of accounting analysis are normally expressed as accounting ratios, which could be broadly classified as liquidity, leverage, activity and profit ratio. The suppliers of the firm’s funds and the investing public are usually interested in these ratios. But the nature of interest expressed on the firm determines the ratios to be emphasized by each concerned parts. This implies that different people emphasize on different ratios and as a result accounting analysis means different thing to different people.
For instance, creditors are interested on those ratios, which measure the ability of the form to service their debts and pay the principal as and when due while the equity owners are interested on the profitability ratios. The Accounting manager occupies a unique position in the firm as he should be able to computer interpret and explain these ratios to various interest groups in the firm when the firm requires funds from outside sources, the Accounting manager should be able to use the relevant ratio to convince investors to supply their funds. Also the Accounting manager should be able to justify the reasonableness of some investment or project being under taken by management before the shareholders.
However, the cost involved in the employment of a Accounting manager makes it mandatory for small-scale institution to engage the services of a Accounting consultant. The increased use of high-speed computers in various facets of institution should popularize the use of Accounting ratios in institution decision. This is because computer would provide the necessary equipment to handle problems associated with voluminous maze of Accounting data due to lack of time or more.
This study therefore, aims at the development of a database for Accounting statements and a set of programs to computer, store and retrieve various Accounting ratios for some institution.
STATEMENT OF PROBLEMS
The Nigeria institution Act of 1968 stipulate that all registered institution in Nigeria should file their audited annual balance sheet this will guide the investors in the development of the funds and to provide basis for institution taxation. But there are some problems facing the Accounting of any institution. These problems includes:-
1. Illegal use of money cards – some managers has taken the privilege of using both credit and debit cards to steal institution money and some do not know how to use this cards thereby causing problems to the institutions.
2. One of the major loopholes of an un-computerized Accounting system is its ability to fraud a institution. This poses a problem to the management of a institution.
3. Some institution employ inexperienced managers who are not professionals in the field of computing and this will restrict the objectives of the computerized system to a certain limit.
4. Insufficient fund- to set up a complete computerized Accounting system requires a huge amount of money. Some institutions find it difficult to afford or cannot afford it.
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1. The use of password and other security measures enable a institution to prevent unauthorized user of the files.
2. The use of money cards by some customers will act as a security measure against armed robbers and other inconveniences ca-use by the bulkiness of their money.
3. Information can be stored for future use and can also be retrieved at an electronic speed. This will prevent the time wasting while using the manual files.
4. The computer has been proved without any doubt to be far more accurate than either any know person or any previous machine performing mechanical operation with data.
5. Computer works at incredible high speed. It performs millions of calculations, sort and combines information in different ways within a second.
DELIMITATION OF STUDY
This study is focused on IMT Enugu, one of the prominent institutions in Enugu, owned by private individual. It has been chosen as case study because it is expected that given it size, modernity and its promoters. It will satisfy our data need. In examining the management of the institution, this project is limited to the Accounting aspect of the management.
LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
I was constrained by menu factors in carrying out this research work. This was despite my intention to make more research on the issue. Firstly, I was constrained by time factor. The project was not given enough periods in out timetable. And there was some academic constrains that is the combination of lectures, exams and writing of the project proved cumbersome. Secondly, due to the prevailing economic order in the country in general and the agency institution in particular. I had not enough fund to Accounting more extensive research on the subject. Thirdly information were made difficult to obtain by attitudes of some personnel to conserve their duty of secrecy, institution management did not permit the disclosure of account programs.
It is assumed that a computerized Accounting account will be of great advantage to both the institution management and government.
Data can be easily documented and retrieved in most economic manner.
Computer are never tired of carrying out a repetitive task as Accounting manager may be and everything is done at an electronic speed.
DEFINITION OF TERMS
Raw information when data is processed, it becomes information.
The physical components of a computer like the keyboard, the video display unit (VDU) etc.
The part of a computer system that performs the major activities like reasoning calculation etc.
Series of logically related instructions arranged for the computer to execute or run. It controls the activities of the system (i.e the system program or the application program).
A word supplied to a computer in order to gain access to the system or a file.
The logical components of the system like the program. They are not visible.
These are those items, which belongs to a institution so long as they have value the values can be objectively measured and the ownership by the assets can be proved.
These are those item s owned by the institution.
This portrays the assets and liabilities of a institution at specific point in time. It also is known as the position.
This is a summary of all transactions, which have taken place during a period, resulting in either a profit or loss figure.