AN APPRAISAL OF ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CHALLENGES TO MODERN DAY EDUCATION IN OBIO-AKPOR LGA
This study investigated the role and challenges of artificial intelligence in the modern-day education system (A Case Study of Obio-Akpor LGA of Rivers State). AI can completely alter the way we learn by providing individualized learning experiences, increasing student engagement, and reducing administrative work. Several difficulties, however, come with integrating AI into the educational system. The study’s findings offer important new understandings into how AI adoption in education is currently progressing and suggest solutions to the problems that have been found, ensuring that AI technologies are successfully incorporated into Obio-Akpor LGA’s educational system and used there as well. The study adopted a population of 1436 SS2 students, using a purposive and simple random sampling technique. An instrument for data collection was a Questionnaire. Data collected were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for the research questions and t-test for testing the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The result revealed modern AI Applications are of very low availability in the schools. Furthermore, the study indicated that students find it difficult to utilize the few available AI infrastructures in the school for learning. The findings also revealed that teachers rarely make use of AI tools in teaching. The result of the hypothesis revealed that there is a significant difference between the mean achievement scores of students with AI skills and those without AI skills. Additionally, positive and significant influence on teaching and learning using AI technologies on the student’s performance. The researchers therefore recommended that government training should be organized for teachers so they can improve their level of usage of AI technologies in learning.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a study area whose breakthroughs and developments have resulted in computers, machines, and other artifacts with intelligence comparable to that of humans, including cognitive capacities, learning, adaptability, and decision-making abilities (Chen, Xie, & Hwang, 2020; Chen; Chen & Lin, 2020; Roll & Wylie, 2016). Artificial intelligence is a subfield of computer science that focuses on creating intelligent machines with traits or abilities resembling those of human intelligence (Olafare, 2023; Vandal, 2010). The AI revolution we are currently witnessing was made possible by AI research’s expansion into new fields in the 2000s, such as robotics, computer vision, and natural language processing (Adami, 2021; Flansinski & Flansinski, 2016). AI first appeared in the form of computers and computer-related technologies, then moved on to web-based and online intelligent education systems, and finally, with the use of embedded computer systems along with other technologies, the use of humanoid robots and web-based chatbots to perform instructors’ duties (Chen; Chen & Lin, 2020). The Turing Test, which Alan Turing proposed to see if a machine could imitate human intelligence, marked the beginning of AI’s development in the 1950s (Haenlein & Kaplan, 2019). The first AI programming language, LISP, was created by John McCarthy in the 1960s, which helped AI research pick up steam. Expert systems were first developed in the 1970s and 1980s as a result of early AI systems’ emphasis on rule-based and symbolic thinking (Flansinski & Flansinski, 2016). Due to the growing accessibility of digital data and improvements in computing power, the 1990s saw a change in emphasis toward machine learning and data-driven approaches. The emergence of neural networks and the creation of support vector machines during this period enabled AI systems to learn from data, improving their performance and flexibility (Adami, 2021).
Given the rapid development of computing and information processing methods, AI has been utilized extensively in education (Roll & Wylie, 2016). Globally, the improvement and transformation of education systems could be significantly aided by artificial intelligence(Holmes et al, 2023). AI technologies are essential and widely recognized as a component of modern life, particularly in industrialized cultures, to the point where they have given the educational system a new phase in terms of pedagogical approach (Ololube, 2006). Artificial intelligence has the potential to be utilized to assist teachers in streamlining their instructional methods and to give students more individualized support that is tailored to their individual needs (Pedro et al., 2019). These platforms have helped teachers improve the quality of their instructional activities and carry out other administrative tasks, such as reviewing and grading students’ assignments, more successfully and quickly and because the systems make use of machine learning and adaptability, curriculum and content have been tailored and individualized by students’ needs, which has encouraged uptake and retention which has helped improved learners’ experiences and the overall quality of learning (Alam, 2021; Chen; Chen & Lin, 2020; Hwang, 2014; Hwang et al., 2020; Sijing & Lan, 2018; Tong-On et al., 2022).
AI in education brings forth new possibilities, difficulties, and opportunities for educational practices (Ouyang & Jiao, 2021). The goal of AI in education is to significantly improve educational methods through field tests and the creation of modular standard prototypes in statistical reasoning, data visualization, and learning analytics (Alam, 2021; Hwang, 2014; Hwang et al., 2020). According to Owoc et al. (2019), there are a wide range of benefits to using AI in education. These technologies have the potential to help teachers and students in several ways, such as relieving teachers of the pressure to know everything and allowing them to support their students while they are observing and gathering information for their collaborative knowledge-building processes, and so on (Akgun & Greenhow, 2021; Miao et al., 2021).
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The introduction of artificial intelligence (AI) technology in the education industry has largely replaced traditional classrooms and altered the way education is carried out, much to the admiration of many. However, Scholars have warned that such early celebration of AI benefits is unjustified and harmful to the educational sector because adopting contemporary AI teaching systems has long-term implications for the value of teachers and classrooms in 21st-century AI education (Ikedinachi et al., 2019).
Appropriate implementation of AI technology can give students a much more in-depth and comprehensive education because the technology can more effectively identify and target each student’s unique strengths and weaknesses and can also assist teachers by giving them more impactful teaching time with their students(Alam, 2021; Hwang, 2014; Hwang et al., 2020; Owoc et al. (2019). Chatbots and virtual assistants with AI capabilities are becoming more prevalent in educational settings. By responding to inquiries, offering clarifications, and offering advice, these technologies provide students with rapid help (Wang et al., 2018). A personalized educational experience may be created by using virtual assistants to replicate human-like interactions and have natural language discussions. They can help students find resources, work through issues, and understand topics, improving accessibility and lightening the strain on teachers (Kang et al., 2017).
Overall, the effective integration of artificial intelligence in schools has the potential to dramatically benefit education systems around the world. Due to the widespread use of AI technology (in industries like healthcare, finance, manufacturing, agriculture, and education, among others) that has already started the transformation of our societies, the emergence of ethical, legal, and social challenges around their use has led to a discussion on the potential positive and negative effects of AI Technology (Sijing & Lan, 2018). On the negative side of implementing AI in education through technology, there are significant concerns about privacy invasion and the uncertainty that AI poses (Cheng et al., 2022; Owoc et al., 2019; Tong-On et al., 2022). The emergence of ethical, legal, and social challenges surrounding their use has sparked a discussion about the potential benefits and drawbacks of AI, as well as whether we should permit these systems to perform tasks normally performed by people.
Furthermore, due to infrastructure limitations, a lack of understanding, and resource shortages, there are currently few AI technologies available in Nigerian educational institutions, that have included AI technologies in their classrooms. There are several reasons for this uneven adoption, including poor infrastructure, a lack of knowledge, and insufficient funding for the acquisition and maintenance of AI systems (Adeleke et al., 2021). However, government initiatives and stakeholder partnerships are tackling these issues and encouraging the use of AI in education (Akintayo, 2022). By removing these obstacles and making investments in infrastructure improvement, public awareness campaigns, and capacity building, we can increase the availability and accessibility of AI technologies and therefore unleash their transformative potential in Nigerian education. Therefore, the purpose of this research study is to analyze AI and how it may help the Nigerian educational system.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The researcher formulated the following research questions to aid the completion of the study;
- What is the availability of AI technology in educational institutions in Obio-Akpor LGA of Rivers State?
- To what extent have the students acquired AI skills?
- To what extent do teachers use AI technologies while teaching?
- What is the role of artificial intelligence in improving the quality of teaching in Obio-Akpor LGA of Rivers State?
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The study has one main objective which is sub-divided into general and specific objectives. The general objective is to examine the role and challenges of artificial intelligence in the modern-day education system (A Case Study of Obio-Akpor LGA of Rivers State). Other specific objectives include;
- To examine the availability of AI technology in educational institutions in Obio-Akpor LGA of Rivers State.
- Find out the extent to which the students have acquired AI skill
- Find out the extent to which teachers use AI as instructional tools while teaching
- Find out the is the role of artificial intelligence in improving the quality of teaching in Obio-Akpor LGA of Rivers State.
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
The researcher formulated the following research hypotheses to aid the completion of the study;
The null hypothesis tested at a 0.05 level of significance guided the study:
- There is no significant difference in the achievement of the students with AI skills and those without.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The country’s educational system needs this study on many levels, from policymakers to the Ministry of education down to the main beneficiaries, teachers, and students. The following thoroughly enumerates the significance:
There are several ways in which teachers will benefit from this study. In particular, teachers who must deal with crowded classes can be assisted by AI mode of instruction to carry out their instruction efficiently and quickly. Since lessons may be designed and delivered without the teacher having to be present for the entire lesson, this study will open their eyes and boost their self-esteem if they choose to use this instructional technique. Additionally, it has the benefit of lessening teachers’ responsibilities in the classroom to more or less that of facilitators.
Students who are familiar with AI technologies can conduct personalized learning at home to better understand ideas.
After the study, it is anticipated that the federal Ministry of Education would find the results to be extremely significant since they will help them develop policies that will completely transform the Nigerian educational system.
Given that the results of this study will serve as a guide for future research, it will also be very important for scholars who want to pursue studies on related subjects because it will add to the body of already-existing literature on the topic and advance knowledge in the field.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers the role and challenges of artificial intelligence in the modern-day education system. The area of study consisted of all the government-approved secondary schools in Obio/Akpor LGA of Rivers State.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
Artificial intelligence is the simulation of human intelligence processes by machines, especially computer systems. Specific applications of AI include expert.
A scenario requiring a lot of effort, whether it is physical or mental, to complete successfully (Online Cambridge DAIionary, 2021).
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, morals, beliefs, and habits.
Education system” includes all institutions which are concerned with the education of children, young persons, and adults, in particular preschool/Kindergarten, preschool/nursery school, primary school, lower secondary school, vocational upper secondary school, general upper secondary school or Gymnasium
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized into five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consists of the historical background of the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research question, significance of the study, scope of the study, and definition of terms. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals with the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives a summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.