DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF CYBER-PHYSICAL SECURITY OF SMART GRID: DATA INTEGRITY ATTACKS AND EXPERIMENT PLATFORM
A Smart Grid is a digitally enabled electric power grid that integrates the computation and communication technologies from cyber world with the sensors and actuators from physical world. Due to the system complexity, typically the high cohesion of communication and power system, the Smart Grid innovation introduces new and fundamentally different security vulnerabilities and risks. In this work, two important research aspects about cyber-physical security of Smart Grid are addressed: (i) The construction, impact and countermeasure of data integrity attacks; and (ii) The design and implementation of general cyber-physical security experiment platform. For data integrity attacks: based on the system model of state estimation process in Smart Grid, firstly, a data integrity attack model is formulated, such that the attackers can generate financial benefits from the real-time electrical market operations. Then, to reduce the required knowledge about the targeted power system when launching attacks, an online attack approach is proposed, such that the attacker is able to construct the desired attacks without the network information of power system. Furthermore, a network information attacking strategy is proposed, in which the most vulnerable meters can be directly identified and the desired measurement perturbations can be achieved by strategically manipulating the network information. Besides the attacking strategies, corresponding countermeasures based on the sparsity of attack vectors and robust state estimator are provided respectively. For the experiment platform: ScorePlus, a software-hardware hybrid and federated experiment environment for Smart Grid is presented. ScorePlus incorporates both software emulator and hardware testbed, such that they all follow the same architecture, and the same Smart Grid application program can be tested on either of them without any modification; ScorePlus provides a federated environment such that multiple software emulators and hardware testbeds at different locations are able to connect and form a unified Smart Grid system; Score Plus software is encapsulated as a resource plugin in OpenStack cloud computing platform, such that it supports massive deployments with large scale test cases in cloud infrastructure.
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