Utilizing Chemometrics Techniques for Assessing Nutritional Quality in Minna, Niger State: A Study of Selected Unprocessed and Processed Wheat Products

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Utilizing Chemometrics Techniques for Assessing Nutritional Quality in Minna, Niger State: A Study of Selected Unprocessed and Processed Wheat Products.

Abstract:

This study investigated the nutritional quality evaluation of selected processed and unprocessed wheat products in Minna, Niger state, using chemometric techniques. Fourteen wheat samples were collected from three markets in Minna, and their proximate compositions were determined using standard methods. The samples underwent wet ashing with H2SO4, H2O2, and deionized water, followed by instrumental analysis using FES (Na, K, Mg, and Ca), colorimetry (P), and AAS (Fe and Zn).

The results showed that moisture content ranged between 8.83% to 13.74% for processed samples and 7.7% to 11.00% for unprocessed samples. Unprocessed samples had higher ash, carbohydrate, fat, fiber, and energy values, ranging from 1.44% to 1.89%, 66.39% to 70.84%, 5.59% to 6.92%, 1.16% to 1.01%, and 369.71 to 383.95 kCal/100 g, respectively. Protein content ranged from 12.25% to 16.61% for all samples. In terms of mineral contents (mg/100g), unprocessed samples had higher levels of Na (5.91-6.82), K (506.33-558.35), Ca (50.24-56.20), Mg (68.64-92.23), P (156.12-278.32), Fe (4.22-5.18), and Zn (5.19-6.43). In contrast, processed samples had higher Fe and P contents.

Physical tests, including farinography and sedimentation analysis, indicated that processed samples had superior physical properties, such as rheological and baking properties, and higher gluten contents. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) revealed that substitutability was distinct between processed and unprocessed samples. Moreover, the correlation matrix demonstrated that processing led to a loss of identity, as the correlations observed in the unprocessed samples did not correlate with the processed samples.

In conclusion, this study highlights that unprocessed wheat samples are richer in both micro and macro nutrients, suggesting they might be preferable for consumption over the processed counterparts.

Utilizing Chemometrics Techniques for Assessing Nutritional Quality in Minna, Niger State: A Study of Selected Unprocessed and Processed Wheat Products.

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