Feeding Ecology and Nutritional Status of Fish Species in Tungan Kawo Reservoir, Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria.

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Feeding Ecology and Nutritional Status of Fish Species in Tungan Kawo Reservoir, Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria.

ABSTRACT:

Understanding the biology and dietary habits of fish species is a crucial aspect of fish biology. This research aimed to assess the Feeding Ecology and nutritional status of three selected fish species (Tilapia zillii, Clarias gariepinus, and Synodontis clarias) from Tungan Kawo Reservoir, Kontagora, during the period of July 2018 to February 2019. Standard methods were employed to determine physicochemical parameters, stomach content analysis, proximate composition, and amino acid profiles.

The physicochemical analysis indicated that most parameters, such as water temperature, alkalinity, hardness, phosphate, nitrates, conductivity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, and total dissolved solid, were within the limits specified by Nigerian Industrial Standard and World Health Organization, except for pH, which exceeded the standards. Overall, the reservoir demonstrated a good health status for aquatic organisms.

Stomach content analysis revealed that the three fish species had diverse food items in their diet, including plant materials, insect remains, algae, fish remains, detritus, and sand grains. The occurrence of these food items in the stomachs of S. clarias, C. gariepinus, and T. zillii was 36.0%, 41.4%, and 22.5%, respectively.

Proximate analysis results showed variations in moisture content, ash content, protein content, fat content, fiber content, and carbohydrate content among the three fish species. T. zillii had the highest moisture content, while C. gariepinus had the highest ash content. S. clarias had the highest protein content, and fat content was comparable among the species. The highest fiber and carbohydrate content were observed in S. clarias.

Analysis of the amino acid composition in the fish species indicated that Glutamic acid and Aspartic acid were the most concentrated amino acids, ranging between 13.0 to 14.20 g/100 g protein and 8.71 to 9.21 g/100 g protein, respectively. T. zillii had the highest proportion of essential amino acids compared to the other species analyzed.

In conclusion, this study highlights the importance of monitoring human activities around Tungan Kawo Reservoir as they significantly impact the nutritional qualities of the fish species inhabiting the area. Such monitoring is crucial to ensure the conservation and sustainability of fish populations in the reservoir.

Feeding Ecology and Nutritional Status of Fish Species in Tungan Kawo Reservoir, Kontagora, Niger State, Nigeria.

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