Assessing the Effects of Anthropogenic Activities on Water Quality and Health in Select Areas of Minna Metropolis, Niger State, Nigeria.

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Assessing the Effects  of Anthropogenic Activities on Water Quality and Health in Select Areas of Minna Metropolis, Niger State, Nigeria


This study investigated the impact of human activities on water quality and the associated health implications in select areas of Minna Metropolis. The research involved the analysis of physicochemical and bacteriological parameters of water obtained from different sources, including Boreholes, Hand Dug Wells, and Water Vendors. Twelve water samples were collected, and various parameters such as pH, Hardness, Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD), Phosphate, Ammonia, Nitrate, Nitrite, Escherichia Coli (E.Coli), Salmonella Typhimurium, Staphylococcus Aureus, and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa were assessed.

Additionally, the study evaluated the accessibility of potable water supply to the residents in the area and examined the health implications of consuming contaminated water. Furthermore, laboratory analyses of water parameters were compared with the Nigerian Standards for Drinking Water Quality (NSDWQ) and the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Standard methods were employed for water quality parameter analysis, and simple summary statistics such as mean, range, and percentages were used for data presentation.

The results indicated that the pH levels of all water samples fell within the acceptable range of 6.5-8.5, as recommended by both NSDWQ and WHO. However, the hardness levels ranged from 40-500mg/l in all samples, with seven out of twelve samples exceeding the NSDWQ threshold of 150mg/l. Dissolved oxygen levels were below the recommended limits of 10mg/l (NSDWQ) and 5mg/l (WHO) in all samples. Similarly, biological oxygen demand in all samples was below the limits set by NSDWQ (6mg/l) and WHO (≥6mg/l). Nitrate concentrations complied with the WHO threshold of 50mg/l, but nitrite concentrations exceeded the Nigerian Industrial Standard threshold of 0.2mg/l in all samples.

Bacteriological analysis revealed widespread contamination of the water samples by bacteria, including E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhimurium. For example, ten out of twelve samples were contaminated with E.coli, three with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and nine with Salmonella typhimurium. Human activities identified as contributing to water contamination included concrete block-making industries, water vending, refuse dump sites, sewage, and the proximity of boreholes to septic tanks.

Although the residents had reasonable access to domestic water supply, attributed to the proliferation of private and commercial boreholes in the area, the study revealed a prevalence of water-borne diseases based on both respondents’ accounts and hospital records. In 2018, hospital records indicated 344 cases of typhoid, 1294 cases of diarrhea, 1882 cases of dysentery, and 25 cases of ringworm.

Given the significant bacterial contamination observed in most water sources, the study concluded that the majority of these sources are not safe for drinking. The contamination was found to be primarily linked to anthropogenic activities surrounding the water sources. Therefore, the study recommends strengthening existing policies on water quality control to safeguard public health. Additionally, it suggests organizing sensitization workshops and public awareness programs at all levels of government to emphasize the importance of consuming safe drinking water.

Assessing the Effects  of Anthropogenic Activities on Water Quality and Health in Select Areas of Minna Metropolis, Niger State, Nigeria

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