Analyzing the Impact of Rainfall and Temperature Variability on Potable Water Supply in Chanchaga Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria.

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Analyzing the Impact of Rainfall and Temperature Variability on Potable Water Supply in Chanchaga Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria.

Abstract:

In recent times, Minna, the capital of Niger State, has experienced prolonged periods of dry season, heat stress, and fluctuating rainfall patterns. Despite the government’s efforts to provide pipe-borne water, Chanchaga Local Government Area of Niger State has been grappling with a serious challenge of portable water supply. This study aims to investigate the variability of rainfall and temperature and its impact on portable water supply in Chanchaga Local Government Area.

Meteorological data spanning thirty years (1989-2018), including monthly mean rainfall and air temperature, were collected from the archives of the National Aeronautics Space Agency (NASA) for the study. Additionally, two hundred questionnaires were administered in five selected locations within Chanchaga Local Government Area to gather data related to portable water supply in the region. Information on water production trends was also obtained from the Chanchaga station of Niger State Water Board and analyzed in this study. Descriptive statistics, such as mean, standard deviation, coefficient of skewness, coefficient of kurtosis, and coefficient of variation, were computed from the climatic data.

The study’s findings revealed a high coefficient of variation in annual mean rainfall data, ranging between 88.46% in 1997 and 126.51% in 2015, indicating extremely variable rainfall in the study area. On the other hand, air temperature data showed a slight variation, with values between 0.19% in 2015 and 4.39% in 1990. The study observed a general decreasing trend in rainfall amounts over the years, while temperatures exhibited a general increasing trend during the last two decades (1999-2018).

Regarding portable water sources, the study identified Borehole, Hand pump, Tap, and Hand-dug wells as the main water sources in the selected locations. Borehole water (35%), tap water (22%), well water (17%), and sachet water (16%) were the primary sources of drinking water identified, while boreholes (32%), hand-dug wells (30%), tap (23%), vendors (7%), hand pump (6%), and water tankers (2%) were the sources of domestic water supply.

However, it was evident that tap water supply to the study area was insufficient, as many people relied on alternative water sources for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, there is a pressing need to expand the tap water pipe network and enhance water supply to cope with the increasing population in Chanchaga Local Government Area of Niger State.

The study’s results clearly indicated a significant change in portable water supply in the study area over the past decades, partly attributed to climate change and partly to the population increase. Hence, the government should implement strategies to mitigate the impact of climate change on the water supply system in the region.

Analyzing the Impact of Rainfall and Temperature Variability on Potable Water Supply in Chanchaga Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria.

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