Analyzing the Impact of Rainfall and Temperature Variability on Portable Water Supply in Chanchaga Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria

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Analyzing the Impact of Rainfall and Temperature Variability on Portable Water Supply in Chanchaga Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria

Abstract:

Over the recent years, Minna, the capital of Niger State, has experienced prolonged dry seasons, heat stress, and erratic rainfall patterns. Despite the government’s efforts to provide pipe-borne water, Chanchaga Local Government Area in Niger State continues to face significant challenges in accessing portable water. This study investigates the variability of rainfall and temperature and its impact on portable water supply in Chanchaga Local Government Area.

To conduct this research, thirty years of meteorological data (1989-2018) consisting of monthly mean rainfall and air temperature were collected from the archives of the National Aeronautics Space Agency (NASA). Additionally, two hundred questionnaires were administered in five selected locations within Chanchaga Local Government Area to gather data on portable water supply. The study also analyzed information on water production trends obtained from the Chanchaga station of Niger State Water Board. Descriptive statistics, such as the mean, standard deviation, coefficient of skewness, coefficient of kurtosis, and coefficient of variation, were computed from the climatic data.

The results revealed an extremely high variability in annual mean rainfall data over the study area, with the coefficient of variation ranging between 88.46% in 1997 and 126.51% in 2015. In contrast, air temperature data showed a slight variation, with values ranging from 0.19% in 2015 to 4.39% in 1990. There was a general decreasing trend in rainfall amounts recorded in the study area, while temperature exhibited a general increasing trend over the last two decades (1999-2018).

Moreover, the investigation into portable water sources indicated that Boreholes, Hand pumps, Taps, and Hand-dug wells were the main water sources in the selected locations. Borehole water was the primary source of drinking water (35%), followed by tap water (22%), well water (17%), and sachet water (16%). For domestic water supply, boreholes (32%), hand-dug wells (30%), tap (23%), vendors (7%), hand pumps (6%), and water tankers (2%) were identified as the main sources. However, the study revealed that tap water supply in the area was insufficient, as many people relied on alternative water sources for drinking and domestic use. Therefore, there is a need to expand the tap water pipe network and increase water supply to accommodate the growing population in Chanchaga Local Government Area of Niger State.

Finally, this study underscores the significant changes in portable water supply in the area over the past decades, partly attributed to climate change and partly to the population growth. Thus, it emphasizes the importance for the government to implement strategies to mitigate the impact of climate change on the water supply system in the study area.

Analyzing the Impact of Rainfall and Temperature Variability on Portable Water Supply in Chanchaga Local Government Area, Niger State, Nigeria

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