IMPACT OF TEACHER VALUE ON EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN HAUSA LANGUAGE SENIOR SECONDARY CERTIFICATE EXAMINATIONS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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IMPACT OF TEACHER VALUE ON EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN HAUSA LANGUAGE SENIOR SECONDARY CERTIFICATE EXAMINATIONS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA  

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the “Impact of Teacher Quality on the Academic Performance of Students in Hausa Language Senior Secondary Certificate Examination in Kaduna State, Nigeria.” The design adopted in this study was Ex post facto type of survey research. The population for this study consists of all Hausa Language teachers in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, numbering 265. The sample size for this study was made up of one hundred and sixty-four (164) Hausa Language teachers, sampled using cluster sampling technique. The instrument for the study was SSCE Examination Result of the SSS III for 2014, 2015 and 2016 and a self-structured questionnaire of modified Likert Scale of four point rating scale of Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Strongly Disagree (SD) and Disagree (D). The instrument was duly validated. The reliability coefficient was determined using Cronbach’s Alpha technique and yielded a reliable value of 0.84. Therefore, this result confirmed the suitability of the instrument for use in the collection of data for the main study. The Pearson ProductMoment Correlation was used to analyse the data in order to obtain the relationship or impact of the teachers’ perception on the students’ academic performance at SSCE level in Kaduna State. The findings revealed that significant impacts existed between teachers’ qualifications, teachers’ mastery of the subject matter, teachers’ personality, teachers’ level of motivation and teachers’ level of experience and students’ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria. It was concluded that significant impact existed between teachers’ qualifications and students’ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The relationship between teachers’ qualifications and students’ academic performance in Hausa Language is positively proportional, that is the higher the teachers’ qualifications the higher the academic performance in Hausa Language at SSCE and vice versa. In the light of the    findings some recommendations were proffered which include the need for teachers with many years of teaching experience to be encouraged to stay in schools to teach Hausa Language subject.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Education is the process of acquiring relevant and worthwhile skills, attitudes, values and competencies in order to make one useful to oneself, family, community and the nation at large. According to the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN 2014), education is an instrument par excellence for national development and social change. Using education as an instrument par excellence for the desired national development; the government intends to make Nigeria a “free and a democratic society, a just and egalitarian society, a united, strong and selfreliant nation, a great and dynamic economy and a land full of bright opportunities for all citizens.”  (FRN, 2014, p.1).

The success of any organisation depends largely on the quality and strength of its staff. Ayodele (2000) in Carless (2009), opined that no matter how efficient and effective an administrator is, he hardly achieves success without the support and cooperation of well – qualified and dedicated teachers. Quality of teacher is the pivot and the determinant of education. A school without such calibre of teachers may not be able to achieve the stated goals and objectives of the education system.

Hausa language is one of the best known and widely spoken languages in West Africa. It is classified as a member of the Chadic of the Afro-asiatic family of languages. More recently, the relationship of Hausa to Cushitic, Berber and Semitic (that is Arabic and Hebrew) languages was widely recognised, (Greenberg, Kraft & Kirk-Greene). Welmars & Newman in Yahaya (2012), state that Hausa is largely and predominantly spoken in Nigeria and the Niger Republic. Sizeable Hausa speaking communities are also found in Ghana,

Cameroun, and Chad. A sizeable number also exists in Benin Republic, Burkina Faso, Togo, Sudan and many of the major cities in west, north and equatorial Africa. It is estimated that eighty to one hundred million people can claim Hausa as a first language with some one hundred million non-native speakers demonstrating varying degrees of competence in the language (Graham 1996). In fact, Hausa language is the eleventh most spoken language in the world.

“Hausa language is both the vehicle of knowledge, world view and the shortest route to a child’s conception and comprehension of concepts” (NCCE, 20l2:64). The policy on language education in Nigeria dates back to the colonial era when the Phelps-Stokes Commission of 1922 emphasised the importance of indigenous languages in the school system. The British Advisory Committee in Native Education in tropical Africa

recommended in 1927, that the native languages should serve as media of instruction in the lower years of primary education. The Richard’s Constitution of 1947 reinstated English as the official language in Nigeria while Hausa was recommended as an additional legislative language in Northern Nigeria. In addition, the 1954 Lyttleton Constitution recognised domestic and regional languages. In Article 144(1), it recommended the use of English as a national official language and as the regional official language in the South, with Hausa as the regional language of the North with the provision that if conflicts in interpretation occurred, documentation done in English language was regarded as valid (Fafunwa, 2004:34).

In Nigeria, Hausa Language is used as the medium of instruction in primary schools as set out by the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2014:8) thus: “the medium of instruction in the primary school is initially the mother tongue (MT) or the language of the immediate community and, at a later stage, English “. The Federal Republic of Nigeria

National Policy on Education has also made Hausa a mandatory subject for Senior Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE) for the National Examinations Council (NECO), the

West African Examinations Council (WAEC) and the National Business and Technical Examinations Board (NABTEB) along with two other Nigerian languages (Igbo and Yoruba). Therefore, according to Federal Government of Nigeria, (FRN, 2014:23), it is a core subject and therefore compulsory for Senior Secondary School students in the Northwest geopolitical zone of Nigeria.

The objectives of teaching Hausa language in secondary schools include, among others, to: (a) “enable candidates speak, read and write completely in Hausa and communicate effectively with their neighbours, (b) familiarise themselves with the sound system and grammatical structures of Hausa, (c) expose candidates to their culture, customs and institutions, and (d) acquaint them with the necessary tools needed for creative writing and appreciation of Hausa language and literature.” (NERDC, 2011:6).

Secondary education is pivotal to a meaningful development of youths who are the leaders of tomorrow. As a matter of fact, the learning and nurturing that occur during these years have a profound impact on each student‟s opportunities for the future; and the quality of each student‟s education at the secondary school level has much to do with the course and quality of his/her life as an adult. Besides, secondary schools are also elaborate, complex mini-societies whose internal organisational structures have a direct impact on the lives of the individuals and groups of individuals who inhabit them (Odumu, 2006 in Gidado Tahir, 2010). In addition to their formal organisational structures, secondary schools are equally inherent cultural entities replete with amazing arrays of artifacts, rituals, and rites of passage all of which impact directly on the manner in which their inhabitants negotiate the terms of their existence within those institutions (Hemming, 2000; Hoffman, 2003 in Odumu, 2006 in Gidado, 2010).

Many teachers in Sub-Saharan Africa are not able to apply modern information technologies in teaching due to computer illiteracy, hence they mostly rely on the lecture method of teaching, which is to perform his/her teaching during lesson delivery duty efficiently and effectively and the capability of developing and implementing curriculum.

According to Koko (2003) in Habibu (2011), one of the indicators of an effective and efficient business educator is the ability to channel a student‟s behaviour towards set educational goals and objectives. Aaronson, Barrow & Sander (2010) posit that, such an educator must be an expert in his professional area as well as a good classroom manger, saying that every teacher must exhibit acceptable leadership behaviour and mastery of the chosen subject area to command the recognition and acceptance of the students.

Teacher motivation is very central in energising the teacher to teach and to seek to impart knowledge effectively. Teachers at all levels of the education system should be adequately trained, respected, remunerated, and be able to participate in decisions affecting their professional lives and teaching environments. When teachers are enabled to do their job effectively, their students are enabled to learn effectively.

Many occupations recognise employees‟ years of experience as a relevant factor in human resource policies, including compensation systems, benefit packages, and promotion decisions. The idea is that experience, gained over time, enhances the knowledge, skills, and productivity of workers. In education, teacher experience is probably the key factor in personnel policies that affect current employees: it is a cornerstone of traditional single-salary schedules; it drives teacher transfer policies that prioritise seniority; and it is commonly considered a major source of inequity across schools and, therefore, a target for redistribution. The underlying assumption is that experience promotes effectiveness.

Human resource is necessary at all levels of education, but most needed at the secondary school level. Teachers are indispensable human resources in any educational system and the success of any educational planning and implementation, to a very large extent, depends on the teacher. Teachers are the pivot of the implementation of all aspects of education and recognising the vital role of teachers in the development of education. The Federal Government of Nigeria said that teacher education would continue to be given a major emphasis in the entire nation in its education planning effort. This is because no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers (FGN, 2009). Teachers are instrumental in translating content standards into teachable classroom lessons. The teacher remains a constant factor in the successful implementation of educational programmes. Similarly, Obayan (2006) in NEDS (2010) believed that teacher factor should be duly taken into consideration in educational programme. Yusuf and Dada (2016), opine that the teacher holds the key to nation-building. The aspiration of any nation to transform into a great country is only possible if there are able and committed teachers to impact the right knowledge, skills and attitudes.

Teachers are the heartbeat of education in Nigeria. Furthermore, Ogunsaju (2000) in Bayhan (2011) states that in any establishment, be it a school or corporation, the development of human resources are important tools for the survival of the formulation and successful implementation of educational policies in any country. Addressing the question of what constitutes teacher quality and teacher quantity, Chin & Oshorme (2010), identified subjective qualities such as positive expectations, inspirational leadership and a wide representative of teaching skills and motivational strategies.

Studies such as in Danusso, Tesfa & Vicentimi, (2010) suggest that good teaching matters, but considerable debate continues over which policies and practices will help to promote high-quality teaching. In general, the preponderance of evidence concludes that effective teachers are capable of inspiring significantly greater learning gains in their students when compared with their weaker colleagues. Most of this evidence is based on “value added” analyses of large sets of data linking individual students‟ test scores to their teachers. They estimate how much value a teacher has contributed to student achievement by correlating the average gains the student is expected to make based on past performance, and in some cases, controlling for elements such as peer characteristics and background, including poverty level and family background and education. Factors such as family background continue to predict a majority of the variations in students‟ performance, but scholars (Ingersol & Strong 2011) generally agree that teacher quality is probably the most important school-based factor affecting performance. Specific estimates are difficult to arrive at because economists have been unable to link a portion of the variation in students‟ achievements to any particular input (Aina, 2010).

In a related development, Adeogun (2001) in Adeyemi (2014), observes that the quality of the educational system depends on the quality of its teaching staff and that a school without human resources may not to be able to achieve the goal and objectives of the educational system. Further, Adeyemi (2014), also asserts that teachers are the major indicator and determinants of educational quality. Highly professional teachers, who are dedicated, are needed in schools. It has been established by the researchers (Olaleye, 2011; Atanda and Jaiyeoba, 2011), that there is high correlation between teachers‟ knowledge and what they teach. Thus, the ability to teach effectively depends on the teacher‟s knowledge and knowledge occurs in a variety of forms. Teacher effectiveness is impeded if the teacher is unfamiliar with the body of knowledge taught and the teacher‟s effectiveness is subjectspecific. The implication of this for teachers is that they must thoroughly understand the content of what they teach. A teacher whose understanding of a topic is thorough uses clearer language and provides better explanation than those whose background is weaker (Adeogun, 2001 in Audu, 2011).

Whether a considerable number of Hausa language teachers have requisite qualification to teach Hausa at NCE, B.Ed. and M.Ed. levels, the years of work experience, the number of training/workshops attended, the knowledge of subject matter, the teachers‟ personalities, their conditions of service, as well as their motivation are extremely important.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

There were hues and cries among stakeholders in education over the growing rate of failures and subsequent drop-outs in Nigerian secondary schools in recent times. The growing failure rate can be noticed in the yearly decline in students‟ performance in the Senior Secondary Certificate (SSCE) examination (Alka 2008). Stakeholders in education blame students for the general unpreparedness to study as one of the major causes of students‟ failures. Teachers are also blamed for lack of dedication to their job, which has inadvertently affected the academic performance of students. Whoever is to be blamed, the general view is that high quality teachers are education‟s best resources and assets. These observations by stakeholders necessitate the need to investigate the impact of teachers‟ quality on the academic performance of students in Hausa Language SSCE examination in Kaduna State, Nigeria with a view to finding lasting solutions to the problem and to serve as a contribution to knowledge and scholarship.

Knowledge and mastery of the subject matter are variables that influence teachers‟ quality and also affect students’ performance. Students understand a lesson better and with keen interest when the lesson is taught by a teacher who masters his/her subject matter very well. A teacher who masters his/her subject matter teaches very well. He/she is able to perform his duty efficiently and effectively and is capable of developing and implementing the relevant curriculum (Amadi, 2011)

Many occupations recognise employees‟ years of experience as a relevant factor in human resource policies, including compensation systems, benefit packages, and promotion decisions. The idea is that experience, gained over time, enhances the knowledge, skills, and productivity of workers. In education, teacher experience is probably the key factor in personnel policies that affect current employees: it is a cornerstone of traditional single-salary schedules. The problem that necessitate the researcher to embark on this research is the problem of teachers‟ qualifications, teachers‟ mastery of the subject content, teachers‟ personalities, teachers‟ motivation and teachers‟ experience. The study intends to examine the “Impact of Teacher Quality on the Academic Performance of Students in Hausa

Language SSCE Examination in Kaduna State, Nigeria.”

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The objectives of the research are to:

  1. determine the impact of teachers‟ qualifications on students‟ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  2. determine the impact of teachers‟ mastery of the subject on students‟ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  3. assess the impact of teachers‟ personality in students‟ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  4. examine the impact of teachers‟ motivation on students‟ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria; and
  5. examine the impact of teachers‟ experience on students‟ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

       1.4     Research Questions

This study is guided by the following research questions:

  1. What is the impact of teachers‟ qualifications on students‟ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria?
  2. What is the impact of teachers‟ mastery of subject on students‟ academic performance in

Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria?

  1. What is the impact of teachers‟ personalities in students‟ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria?
  2. What is the impact of teachers‟ motivation on students‟ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria? and
  3. What is the impact of teachers‟ experience on students‟ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

From the research questions raised, the following hypotheses were stated and tested at

0.05 level of significance:

H01: There is no significant impact between teachers‟ qualifications and students‟ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria;

H02: There is no significant impact between teachers‟ mastery of subject and students‟ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State,

Nigeria;

H03: There is no significant impact between teachers‟ personalities and students‟ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria;

H04: There is no significant impact between teachers‟ motivation and students‟ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria;

H05: There is no significant impact between teachers‟ experience and students‟ academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

1.6 Basic Assumptions

The study was based on the following assumptions:

  1. if only teachers‟ qualifications are improved, there will be high academic performance in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  2. if teachers‟ mastery of subject content is enhanced there will be great improvement in the performance of students SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  3. if teachers‟ personalities are enhanced, there will be great improvement in the performances of students in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria;
  4. if teachers are motivated, they will put in their best in the teaching/learning process, thereby enhancing the performances of students in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria; and
  5. If teachers gain good experience through either training or workshop, there will be great improvement in the performances of students in Hausa Language SSC Examinations in

Kaduna State, Nigeria.

1.7 Significance of the Study

The study focused on the impact of teacher quality on the academic performance of students in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The findings will lead to the review of the curriculum to include the second language learners and help to solve the problems of shortage in books and quality of teachers in schools. It will lead to the review of teaching methods. Further still, the findings of the study will serve as a wake-up call to authorities concerned to ensure adequate improvement and innovations into teacher education programmes.

Most importantly, this work will draw the attention of state governments, most of which seem to adopt the indigenisation clause in the employment of teachers, to the enormity of the problems being created for the education sector. It is hoped that Faculties of Education, Colleges of Education, the National Commission for Colleges of Education, the National Teachers‟ Institute, as well as other teacher-training institutions, will be sensitised on the need to introduce programmes or reforms that will improve Hausa teacher quality into the curriculum of their various institutions. This is with a view to making the curriculum more innovative and creative such that the teacher-trainee will be positioned to foster such skills in learners. Creativity and innovative skills are highly needed in the knowledge-based economy of the 21st century.

It is also hoped that this work will be relevant to the Faculties of Education, Colleges of Education, as well as Institutes of Education, who are in charge of training teachers, on the need to draw up courses and activities that directly impact on trainees, thereby reinforcing their mastery and competencies in the teaching profession. These individuals and organisations will be able to realise from this work that irrelevant teaching programmes and activities have in the past led to the training of a huge army of „schooled illiterates‟ among secondary school leavers. Moreover, it is hoped that the authorities concerned will change their attitudes towards the subject so that in future Hausa and non-Hausa speakers alike would be proud of studying Hausa language.

The Ministry of Education officials will benefit from the study by having knowledge of the state of teacher quality in these Secondary Schools in Kaduna State and it will serve as an input for effective law making, timely release of funds for more training of teachers in these schools and the legal framework guiding its teacher recruitment. The Parent Teachers Associations (P.T.As), who are indeed partners in managing their schools, will benefit from the study, the findings of which will inform the Parent Teachers Association the opportunity to have adequate knowledge of the teachers‟ quality in these schools and the roles they can play in supporting their schools with more quality and competent teachers. It will enable them to work harmoniously with their school in talking to their wards/students on how to motivate teachers.

Educational Administrators like Principals, Teachers and Parent Teachers Associations (P.T.As). The education administrators like principals, who are the heads of their schools, will have reliable and factual information concerning the state of teachers. Again, the findings from this study will place the education administrator on alert on the enrolment rate of new students, given the availability of quality teachers. It will help the teacher who is the major stakeholder in teaching and learning to initiate and use different teaching strategies, sustain and adequately use the available infrastructural facilities at his or her disposal, to achieve the teaching goals.

Non-Governmental Organisations will have reliable and factual knowledge of the state of teachers in these schools. It will give them the opportunity to play a sensitive role of providing more funds, to enable these schools have more quality teachers. Again, religious bodies who are partners in education. Curriculum experts/planners will benefit from the study as it will give them the opportunity to have adequate knowledge of the state of teachers in these schools. It will place a burden on them to plan and develop curricula documents that will take care of all students, as well as curriculum experts in playing a sensitive role aimed at mapping the standard of education, hence the curriculum needs to be changing alongside with the needs and aspirations of the society.  The study will motivate the curriculum planners to emphasise the use and mastery learning skills and reflective strategy in teaching various concepts in Hausa Language. This may help to enhance the performance of students in SSCE Hausa Examination, thereby reducing the rate of failure in the subject.

It will also boost the morale of teachers to be able to use the right teaching methods; proper, effective and efficient use of instructional aids to teach. It will enable the educational administrators and planners to appreciate the need for proper management of teachers to send for workshops/seminars so as to ensure productivity. This will help in showing the effectiveness and usefulness of instructional materials for teaching Hausa language to the teachers and all other classroom teaching and learning activities. It will equally aid and motivate the students and teachers, about the principles, guidelines and procedures for the maintenance, selection, application and use of different instructional facilities. It will help students and teachers under training to enhance their learning skills, knowledge and rudiments about how regular motivation of teachers can help both teachers and students to learn and improve their skills successfully. It will help school administrators in casting some light on the extent of the benefits of teacher quality in schools as well as the opportunity to enroll more students in Kaduna State schools.

The study will also enable educational administrators and planners to appreciate the need for proper management of these infrastructural facilities, so as to ensure longevity. This will help in showing the effectiveness and usefulness of infrastructural facilities for teaching Hausa Language to the teachers and all other classroom teaching and learning activities. It will equally aid and motivate the students and teachers, about the principles, guidelines and procedures for maintenance and use of these infrastructural facilities. It will help students and teachers under training to enhance their learning skills, knowledge and rudiment about how school infrastructural facilities can help both teachers and students to learn and improve their skills successfully. It will help school administrator in casting some light on the extent of benefits of adequate infrastructural facilities as well as the opportunity to enroll more students.

1.8 Scope of the Study

The study looked at the impact of teacher quality on the academic performance of students in Hausa Language SSCE Examinations in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study covered all Hausa Language teachers in 19 public secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone (senior secondary school section). The researcher collected standardised scores of WAEC from the various school heads for a period of three years: 2014, 2015, and 2016 of the SS III students SSCE and analysed and derived findings. The study was based on the assumption that within the period in which the SSCE results were collected was also the same period all the teachers were on ground in all the respective schools. In other words, the Kaduna State Government did not transfer teachers to and fro (from 2011 to the present).  Statistics of when the Hausa language teachers in these schools were employed are given in Appendix D, according to Kaduna State Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (2016). The study investigated the following variables: teachers‟ qualification on students‟ performances, teachers‟ mastery of the subject, teachers‟ personalities, teachers‟ motivations and teachers‟ experiences on students‟ performance in Hausa language in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

IMPACT OF TEACHER VALUE ON EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN HAUSA LANGUAGE SENIOR SECONDARY CERTIFICATE EXAMINATIONS, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA  

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