IMPACT OF SUPERVISION ON THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NORTH-EAST GEO-POLITICAL ZONE, NIGERIA

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IMPACT OF SUPERVISION ON THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NORTH-EAST GEO-POLITICAL ZONE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study focused on the Impact of Supervision on the Management of Secondary Schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria. Ten (10) research questions were raised and ten (10) null hypotheses were postulated to find out the significant difference in the opinions of three categories of respondents. Descriptive survey method was adopted for the investigation. Population of the study was 120 supervisors, 826 principals and 16,160 teachers in the North-East Geo-Political Zone of Nigeria. Sample of 108 supervisors, 162 principals and 810 teachers were obtained through random sampling techniques. The questionnaires on Impact of Supervision on the Management of Secondary Schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria as a basic instrument was vetted by the supervisors and other experts in Education Administration and Planning at Ahmadu Bello University Zaria. It was subjected to pilot study in some schools which were not included in this study. Research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation. To analyze the data collected, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test the hypotheses formulated at 0.05 significant level. All ten (10) null hypotheses were rejected which means there were significant differences in the opinions of the respondents on impact of supervision on the management of secondary schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria. The major findings of the study indicated that, medical service, accommodation, funding, communication, recreational facilities were available but not adequate in schools in the North-east zone.  Recommendations such as the need to improve fund allocation to schools for proper maintenance of teaching and learning facilities and teacher training programme resuscitated were made. Finally, suggestions were also made for further study into the area of supervision, for the purpose of generalization and comparison, in other geo-political zones in Nigeria.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

Complexities of educational systems and their institutions in developing countries particularly in sub-Saharan Africa tend to be characterized by such phenomena as population explosion, diversity in admissions programme, operational goals and procedures; inadequacy of funds and material resources to maintain available programmes of quality control such as school supervision.School supervision is critical to quality management in Schools because it focuses on improving school, staff and students‟ performance by asking: what are the schools or individual teacher‟s strengths and weakness and how can the latter be improved? The results of good supervision should change the behaviour of all involved for the better.

In order to bring about improvement in the supervision of the secondary schools, attention should be paid to all factors that have been contributing to irregular supervision in secondary schools.   Due to inadequate funds and poor funding, there was a breakdown in management of amenities, particularly facilities for teaching and learning, according to Peretomode (2001).The gradual decline in performance of students in external examination, students unrest, leadership inefficiency, whose roots can easily be traced to instability of staff and students welfare services. Ogun (2007) affirmed that the main problem in secondary schools is non-understanding of students, staff and parents‟ expectations and needs. This is due to the fact that most people experience difficulties in adapting to new situations and conditions, especially students‟ new school environment.

There is need for proper supervision to be put in place. Therefore, staff and students‟ welfare service need to be provided to assist students and staff in dealing with problems that might confront them in the school. It is aimed at providing confidential and effective advice to staff and students to adjust to new situations. The following bodies such as community, Non-Governmental Organization, philanthropies and parents have roles to play in the supervision of schools, including organizing services for student such as health services, transportation services, maintaining discipline and facilities in improving the quality of education.  This can be done through working closely with supervisors, sponsoring, training to update knowledge and skills to effectively and efficiently perform their duties. Parents and private individuals play vital rolesin supervision which include: supply and provision of classroom accommodation space and other resources. For students to be in school, it requires a supportive and nurturing environment.  Students should report any damage done by other students to the school authority. They should also learn to resolve conflict peacefully. If proper supervision is put in place by the authority, teaching and learning may be perfected.

One of the factors hindering staff and students‟ welfare service provision in secondary schools in north-east zone is inadequate funding in all countries of the world. Education attracts considerable attention because of its position as a social service with direct economic significance. Perhaps this calls for United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) pronouncement that 26% of every nation‟s budget should be allocated to education. Nigerian government has not been able to yield to this recommendation by UNESCO because 17% of her budget allocation to education sector is inadequate. Financing education in most developing countries is very difficult. Frequent crises in some parts of developing countries coupled with population explosion where government needs to provide material, affect the funding of education.

Misplaced priority coupled with selfish interest make the government and some principals of schools to mismanage and misappropriate funds meant to provide better service in schools. This resulted in many schools facing the problem of poor service which had consequently affected the attainment of the goal of education.

Since teaching and learning is a continuous process, it can only be meaningful and successful under healthy and determined minds of the learner, teachers and school authority and effective supervision.

According to Ogunu (2002), in the early 1960s and 70s most secondary schools were properly supervised, welfare service like feeding, hostel accommodation, laboratories, recreational centers, medical service, financial aids and adequate classrooms were all put in place. This was simple because the populations of students were relatively manageable, schools could not complain of inadequate supervision since they were few in numbers.  But the steady increase in students‟ enrolment and number of schools supervision can no doubt be cumbersome. Schools in north-east zone have been understaffed, underfunded and have communication problems for quite sometimes.  Apart from underfunding, other problems like maintenance of teaching and learning facilities such as laboratories, medical services and adequate classrooms have not been successfully resolved by subsequent governments. These problems could be linked to some factors such as corruption, mismanagement and misappropriation of funds meant for the education sector.

Universal principles governing the purpose of school supervision, according to Udoh and Akpa (2001), are the improvement of students growth and hence the improvement of schools and society.  The immediate purpose of instructional supervision is to develop favourable settings for teaching and learning. In Nigeria, an important study on problems of school supervision and inspection is by Ogunu (2007). A survey of 150 school supervisors from 15 states revealed that inadequate numbers of supervisors, lack of transportation, inadequate funds for school supervision, lack of incentives and motivation, non-implementation of supervisors‟ reports are factors significantly affecting schools supervision in Nigeria.

According to Ogunu (2007), despite the nation- wide spread of   inspectorate units, reactions from the stakeholders in the nation‟s education (parents, teachers, local communities) tend to indicate that the schools are not regularly and properly supervised or inspected and that the quality of instruction in the schools has progressively declined as evidenced by the poor performance of students in public examination. According to Udoh and Akpa (2001), supervision is the process aimed at improving classroom instruction. The present dimension of supervisory work deals with the supervisor working with teachers by trying to understand their personalities; teaching styles, objectives and encourage the teachers to develop self- understanding in teaching and learning process in secondary schools. Thus supervision in a school system implies the process of ensuring that policies, principles, rules regulations and methods prescribed for purposes of achieving the objectives for education are effectively carried out.

1.2         Statement of the Problem

Supervision is critical to quality management in schools.  It focuses on improving schools, staff and students‟ performance in schools.  Therefore, supervision is unavoidable for effective and efficient management of secondary schools in north-east zone and the country at large. The government and the secondary schools management as a matter of fact provide supervision in order to realize the aim of education. It was revealed by Udoh and Akpa (2001) that universal principle governing the purpose of the school supervision is the improvement of student growth and the improvement of schools and society. Due to inadequate funds and increase in students population in schools, enrolment and retention, staff and students welfare services, decision making process, staff development programmes, staffing, communication, funding maintenance of discipline, maintenance of teaching and learning facilities, teaching and learning were not properly supervised. In the same vein were increase in students‟ population and weak staff strength. The state government could no longer cope with the allocation of funds to meet up with the facilities. Some teachers have become „‟cheater‟‟, the standard of teaching and learning is gravely poor. The school leaving certificate, diplomas and degree have lost their credibility, general deteriorating standard of morality and academic performance as decried by stakeholders (Ukeje, 1999).This scenario has cast ominous clouds on the future of Nigerian nation and its education.

As supported by Peretomode (2001), supervision of schools declined so much so that problems resulting to resistance to change at supervisors‟ level mainly because of the attitude balance in the schools supervision. Inherent in this type of relationship are lack of awareness of role definition, poor leadership skills status, intellectual honesty, communication skills empathy and other human and personality dynamics. These human relation tools which should equip the supervisor to maintain the needed attitude balance in his working relationship with the school as change agent are grossly lacking. The problem with increase in number of schools inadequate funding, maintenance of discipline, maintenance of teaching and learning facilities had been of great concern as they affect all aspects of school supervision from budgetary to logistic. The conditions had also contributed immensely to students‟ untold hardships, emotional distress, frustration, persistent conflicts and unrest. Based on the argument above, the researcher found it necessary to investigate the impact of supervision in the management of secondary schools in north-east zone as to ascertain the perception of supervisors, principals and teachers on supervision.

The study, therefore, focused on the following areas:-find out the impact of supervision on enrolment and retention in secondary schools in north-east geo-political zone,examine the impact of supervision on staff and student welfare services in secondary schools in north-east geo-political zone. Ascertain the impact of supervision on staff development programmes in the secondary schools in north-east geo-political zone, determine the impact of supervision on communication in secondary schools in north-east geo-political,examines the impact of supervision on funding in secondary schools in north-east geo-political zone. Find out the impact of supervision on maintenance of teaching and learning facilities in secondary schools in north-east geo-political zone.  Assess the impact of supervision on teaching and learning in secondary schools in northeast geo-political. Therefore, the researcher intends to develop a viable tool for the topic: impact of supervision on the management of secondary schools in north-east geo-political zone of Nigeria.

 

1.3         Objectives of the Study

The main aim of the study is to investigate the impact of supervision in the management of secondary schools in north-east geo-political zone of

Nigeria.Specifically, the study was designed to achieve the following objectives:

  • Find out the impact of supervision on enrolment and retention in secondary schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria.
  • Examine the impact of supervision on staff and students welfare services in secondary schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria.
  • To assess the impact of supervision on decision making process in secondary schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria.
  • Ascertain the impact of supervision on staff development programmes in

secondary schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria.

  • Find out the impact of supervision on staffing in secondary schools in North-East

Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria.

  • Determine the impact of supervision on communication in secondary schools in

North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria.

  • Examine the impact of supervision on funding in secondary schools in North-East

Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria.

  • Assess the impact of supervision on maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria.
  • Find out the impact of supervision on maintenance of teaching and learning facilities in secondary schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria.
  • Assess the impact of supervision on teaching and learning in secondary schools in

North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeria.

 

1.4         Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

  1. Does supervision make significant impact on enrolment and retention in North-

East Geo-Political Zone?

  1. Does supervision make significant impact on staff and students welfare service in secondary schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone?
  2. In what waysdoes supervision impact on decision making process in secondary schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone?
  3. Does supervision make any impact on staff development programmes in

secondary schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone?

  1. In what ways does supervision impact on staffing in secondary schools in North-

East Geo-Political Zone?

  1. Does supervision make any impact on communication in secondary schools in

North-East Geo-Political Zone?

  1. In what waysdoes supervision impact on funding of secondary schools in North-

East Geo-Political Zone?

  1. Does supervision make any impact on maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone?
  2. In what waysdoes supervision impact on maintenance of teaching and learning facilities in secondary schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone?
  3. Does supervision make any impact on teaching and learning in secondary schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone?

1.5        Research Hypotheses (Ho)

The following null hypotheses were postulated.

H01.  There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on the Impact of Supervision on the Management of Secondary Schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeriaon enrolment and retention in secondary schools in north-east geo-political zone.

H02. There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on Impact of Supervision on the Management of Secondary Schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeriaon staff and students welfare in secondary schools in north-east geo-political zone.

H03. There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on Impact of Supervision on the Management of Secondary Schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeriaon decision making process in secondary schools in north-east geo-political zone.

H04.  There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on Impact of Supervision on the Management of Secondary Schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeriaon staff development in secondary schools in north-east geo-political zone.

H05. There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on Impact of Supervision on the Management of Secondary Schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeriaon staffing in secondary schools in northeast geo-political zone.
H06. There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on Impact of Supervision on the Management of Secondary Schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeriaon communication in secondary schools in north-east geo-political zone.
H07. There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on Impact of Supervision on the Management of Secondary Schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeriaon funding in secondary schools in northeast geo-political zone.
H08. There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on Impact of Supervision on the Management of Secondary Schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeriaon maintenance of discipline in secondary schools in north-east geo-political zone.
H09. There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisors, principals and teacherson Impact of Supervision on the Management of Secondary Schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeriaon maintenance of teaching and learning facilities in secondary schools innorth-east geo-political zone.
H010.  There is no significant difference in the opinions of supervisor,principals and

teachers on Impact of Supervision on the Management of Secondary Schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, Nigeriaon teaching and learning in secondary schools in north-east geo-political zone.

1.6         Basic Assumptions

For the purpose of this study, the researcher assumes that:

  1. Enrolment and retention in secondary schools are not properly supervised by the

State government in North-East Geo-Political Zone.

  1. Staff and student‟s welfare services are not properly supervised by the State

government in North-East Geo-Political Zone.

  1. Decision making process in secondary schools is not properly supervised by the state government in north-east geo-political zone.
  2. Staff development programmes in secondary schools are not properly assess and supervised by the State Government in North-East Geo-Political Zone.
  3. Staffing in secondary schools is not properly supervised by the State Government in North-East Geo-Political Zone.
  4. Provision of communication facilities and communication processes in secondary school are not properly supervised by the State Government in North-East GeoPolitical Zone.
  5. Funding of secondary schools is not properly supervised in North-East Geo-

Political Zone.

  1. Maintenance of discipline in secondary schools is not properly supervised by

State Government in North-East Geo-Political Zone.

  1. Maintenance of teaching and learning facilities in secondary schools is not properly supervised by the State Government in North-East Geo-Political Zone.
  2. Teaching and learning in secondary schools are not properly supervised by the

State Government in North-East Geo-Political Zone.

 

1.7        Significance of the Study

The study will be of considerable value to school supervisors, academic practitioners, educational managers, educational administrators, educational planners, inspectorate divisions and stakeholders in the following ways:

The findings of this study will be useful to North-East Ministries of Education and all stakeholders in the States for the enhancement of school supervision.

The study will encourage the North–East government to provide measures that will enhance school supervision by providing them with relevant information and importance   of adequate school supervision for educational growth and development. In the area of educational planning, the findings will assist the educational planners to assess the roles supervisorsand resources could play in the achievement of educational objectives in Secondary Schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone. The findings will also help the principals to realize the value of decision making and staff development in their various institutions. The result of the study will enlighten the Federal and State Ministries of Education officials on the impact of communication and adequate funding of secondary schools on teaching and learning. The study will reveal which school is well disciplined and equipped with human and materials resources for teaching and learning, hence the finding will be of great value to parents in knowing which schools they would send their children.  The study will be of great value to teachers and students in understanding which aspect of teaching and learning facilities are making much impact on teaching and learning in their schools and therefore need to be maintained.

The findings of the research will contribute to the search for solution to the problems of poor academic performance of students in the various Secondary schools inNorth-East Geo-Political Zone. The findings of the study would be of great value and useful to other researchers and serve as a valuable contribution to literature presentation in educational administration and planning in North-East Geo-Political Zone. The study will also be useful to Non-Governmental Organization, agencies and other educational parastatal in North-East and the country at large, by providing them with insights and relevant literature on school supervision and its implications for the country‟s educational growth and development.

1.8         Scope of the Study

The study covered the school supervisors, principals and teachers of secondary schools in North-East Geo-Political Zone, irrespective of their sex, ages and marital status. It covered assessment of opinions of supervisors, principals and teachers on supervision in the management of secondary schools on enrolment and retention, staff and students‟ welfare services, decision making, staff developmentprogrammes, staffing, communication, funding, maintenance of discipline, maintenance of teaching and learning facilities and teaching and learning.

IMPACT OF SUPERVISION ON THE ADMINISTRATION OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN NORTH-EAST GEO-POLITICAL ZONE, NIGERIA

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