IMPACT OF FUNDING ON THE DELIVERY AND PRESERVATION OF FACILITIES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

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IMPACT OF FUNDING ON THE DELIVERY AND PRESERVATION OF FACILITIES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

This study is on the impact of funding on the provision and maintenance of facilities in public secondary schools in kogi state, Nigeria, from (2014-2017). The study has eight (8) objectives among which are to: determine the impact of funding on the provision of infrastructural facilities in public secondary schools in kogi state, Nigeria, assess the impact of funding on the maintenance of infrastructural facilities examine the impact of funding on the provision of instructional facilities. These study objectives were designed to correspond with the research questions, hypotheses and basic assumptions. The study will be of benefit to school administrators, teachers and ministry of education officials and kogi state government. The study covered all public secondary schools in Kogi State and limited to impact of funding on the provision and maintenance of facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi State. The review of related literature is based on the issues of objectives of the study. The study adopted descriptive survey method. The population of the study was three thousand, six hundred and six (3,606). The sample size was three hundred and sixty-one (361) and stratified random sampling was used to drawn the sample. A structure questionnaire was used to collect data for the study. The validity of the instrument was determined by two supervisors and other experts in Educational Administration and Planning. The reliability coefficient of the instrument using PPMC techniques showed the reliability value of 0.87. The research questions were analyzed using Statistical Packages for Social Science (SPSS) presented in tables, frequencies, percentages and mean scores. All the eight null hypotheses were tested using One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Out of the eight hypotheses tested, five were retained while three were rejected. The findings, among others, showed thatthere was adequate funds for the provision of infrastructural facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi State and adequate funds was notprovided to maintain the available infrastructural facilities in public secondary schools.The conclusion and among others showed that adequate funds has impact on the provision of infrastructural facilities for the effective teaching and learning in public secondary schools in Kogi State. The recommendations were made,which include Kogi state government should allocate 10% of annual budget yearly for the provision of infrastructural facilities in public secondary schools.There should be stakeholders’ forum where government, private organizations, nongovernmental organizations, and alumni associations would come together to provide funds to maintain infrastructural facilities in schools for effective service delivery.

 

 

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1         Background to the Study

The quality of education delivered by teachers and the academic achievements of students of any secondary school depend on several factors of which school facilities are paramount. Secondary school facilities are material resources that enhance teaching and learning process thereby making the process meaningful and purposeful. school facilities work hand in hand with  the entire institutions which includes administrators, teachers and non- teaching staff, students hardness, allocate and utilize for the smooth and effective running of any educational institutions, for the main objective of bringing about effective and purposeful teaching and learning experience. Secondary education on its own has the broad aims of preparing students for useful living within the society and preparing them for higher education. To achieve this, adequate funding on the provision and maintenance of school facilities is paramount.

Funding for the provision and maintenance of school facilities is an aspect that concerns all levels of the educational system ranging from the pre-kindergarten to the tertiary education. Funding on the provision and maintenance of facilities in public secondary schools should be a collective responsibility of the Federal, State, Local Government authorities, Parent Teachers Association (PTAS), Non-governmental organizations (NGOS) staff and students of the schools and the community where the school is located. The state government through the ministry of education is responsible for the funding, provision and maintenance of facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi State. Several school buildings, furniture and equipment that are over fifty years old have never been renovated or any form of modernization in spite of the changes in the educational system. Some of those facilities are architecturally obsolete and therefore cannot contribute to functional education.

One of the fundamental ways of ensuring the optimum utility of available resources is through, maintenance culture. Maintenance culture of any school speaks much about such an institution. According to Akpan (2011) the general appearance of school facilities constitute the basis upon which members of the public pass their judgments about the academic performance going on in the school. The present economic recession being experienced world over has made it absolute imperative that the gospel of maintenance culture be preached very loudly in our education industry.

Having identified the economic rationale of modernization, a relevant programme of maintenance and physical plant renewal is imperative and priority for maintenance is essential because unattended deterioration and neglect of schools buildings could lead to higher out lays, in the form of replacement lost. Schools cannot afford this period of economic hardship; hence a maintenance culture should be adopted wherever school premises are occupied. Besides, maintenance enables us to pay less now, instead of waiting to pay more at a delayed point in time in the future. Hence, there is absolute need for the few available ones to be properly maintained for effective teaching and learning.

In Kogi state, public school enrolment has continued to increase without a corresponding increase in the provision of school facilities for effective teaching and learning. As a result of underfunding of education in the state, the government has been encouraging proper maintenance of available school facilities. School facilities maintenance entail that the facilities are kept near their original state as possible. This involve keeping the classrooms, laboratory, library, light, water, instructional aids, school sport and football field clean, periodic renovation of the school bus and generator sets repair for the purposes of restoring the facilities to optimum working condition. According to Adeboyeje (2000), maintenance enhances performance and durability; prevents wastage, corrects breakdown and shutdown service. In school, maintenance of facilities does not only stop at derivable benefit by staff and students but also on the life-span of the equipment. An equipment or instrument that is well maintained shall take more time being used than those not maintained. Facilities such as buildings offices, hostels, stores, staff quarters to mention but a few, can have long life-span when not over worked and not misused.  The importance of adequate funding on the provision and maintenance of school facilities cannot be over- emphasized. Piana (2001), however, discovered that public expenditure on education is determined by political will of the leading forces in the state. Many factors definitely come to play in public education spending across the globe, but finance is a sine-qua-non for educational development. Bello (2000) emphasized that: “Finance is the sinews of war for all functional organizations in an economy. It is a crucial prerequisite which enables an organization, public or private, to maintain it and effectively meet its commitment to individuals and groups who consume its output of goods and services. Impact of funding has been a major issue in the development of education in Kogi state and the proper management of it is also imperative.

This means that without proper funding, the school system will collapsed. According to Wikipedia (2011), funding is to provide resource, usually inform of money, financial or other values such as effort’s or time for a person, a business or public institution for the education sector to produce a good  results. The available funds must be properly managed and utilized for the indented purpose.  Good quality and standard of school depend largely on the provision, adequacy, utilization and maintenance of educational facilities. Akinsolu (2004) asserted that educational curriculum cannot be sound and well operated with poor and badly managed school facilities. From all indication, school facilities are physical resources that facilitate effective teaching and learning. They include blocks of class room, laboratories, workshop, libraries, equipment, consumables, electricity, water, visual and audio- visual aids, desks, chairs, playground, storage space and toilets. According to Adeboyeje (2000) school facilities are the physical and spatial enablers of teaching and learning which increase the production of results. School facilities serve as pillars of support for effective teaching and learning. Similarly Oyesola (2000), see school facilities to include permanent and semipermanent structures such as machinery, laboratory, equipment, the blackboard, teacher’s tools and other equipment as well as consumables.  According to Dare (2011) said that school facilities are expected to be adequately and carefully planned, developed and maintained in order to ensure their relevant to the school curriculum and towards effective teaching and learning in educational institution. Adeboyeje (2000) reported that schools with wellcoordinated plant planning and maintenance practices recorded better students’ performance. Conducive school physical environment could enhance student school attendance, involvement in academic activities and academic performance positively. According to Habibu (2011), inadequate funding is identified as one of the great obstacles to the development of secondary education in the country. It is deplorable to observe that the annual budget allocation for education is by far below the UNESCO prescribed minimum of 26% in either national or state budgets; which fell far below what is required to make a meaningful impact in this sector. Similarly, Owuamanam (2005) noted that inadequacy of teaching facilities and lacks of maintenance for available facilities were major problems facing Nigerian educational system. The school facilities are grossly inadequate to match the student’s population and the available facilities were poorly maintained.  When school facilities are not well maintained, they constitute health hazards to students and teachers who use the facilities. Large amount of money invested on school facilities are wasted when school buildings and equipment are left to deteriorate without maintenance.

It has been observed that, the administrator appears to spend much time on instructional planning, curriculum development, personnel development and community relations without proper attention to the provision and maintenance of facilities in public secondary schools. This study investigates impact of funding on the provision and maintenance of school facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi state.

            

1.2.        Statement of the Problem

The state of school facilities in the public secondary school today should be of great concern to students, parents, educators and the general public in the communities. An overwhelming number of students in public schools are being educated in deteriorating teaching and learning facilities not conducive to increasing student academic performance. There are specific problems identified that could affect funding on the provision and maintenance of facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi state.

There are problems of inadequate funding for the provision and maintenance of infrastructural facilities such as classrooms, school building, Laboratories, libraries, furniture, toilet and among others to be in an advance state of disrepairs, resulting in the poor academic performance of students, inadequate funding for the provision and maintenance of instructional facilities such as audio and visual aids, projectors, computer system which affecting teaching and learning activities. This adversely creates a discomfort to the teachers, students and inadequate operators of the schools administrative system.

Insufficient funding for the provision and maintenance of welfare facilities in schools has affected the well-being of the students and staff which lead to poor academic performance in the school, and also luck of funding on the provision and maintenance of sports facilities has further compounded the situation in public secondary schools Kogi state.

The solution to among problems stated in the study is that, Kogi state government should provide adequate funding for the provision and maintenance of infrastructural facilities in public schools.  The school administrators and parent Teachers Association (PTAs) provide funds for the provision and maintenance of instructional facilities and welfare facilities to promote academic performance of students. The school authorities should involve non-governmental, clubs, individuals and local communities for the provision and maintenance of sports facilities to enhance conducive environment for effective teaching and learning process in public secondary schools.

1.3        Objectives of the Study

The study was set to achieve the following objectives:

  1. determine the impact of funding on the provision of infrastructural facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi state, Nigeria;
  2. assess the impact of funding on the maintenance of infrastructural facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi state, Nigeria;
  3. examine the impact of funding on the provision of instructional facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi State;
  4. find out the impact of funding on the maintenance of instructional facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi State;
  5. ascertain the impact of funding on the provision of welfare facilities in public Secondary schools in Kogi State;
  6. identify the impact of funding on the maintenance of welfare facilities in public

Secondary schools in Kogi State;

  1. find out the impact of funding on the provision of Sports facilities in public

Secondary schools in Kogi state, and

  1. examinethe impact of funding on the maintenance of Sports facilities in public

Secondary schools in Kogi state.

1.4         Research Questions

The research questions raised for the purpose of this study are as follows:

  1. Does funding have any impact on the provision of infrastructural facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi state?
  2. Whatis the impact of fundingon the maintenance of infrastructural facilities in public secondary schools in Kogistate?
  3. In what way does funding have impact on the provision of instructional facilities in public secondary schools?
  4. Does funding have any impact on the maintenance of instructional facilities in public secondary schools?
  5. How does funding impact on the provision of welfare facilities in public secondary schools?
  6. What is the impact of funding on the maintenance of welfare facilities in public secondary schools?
  7. In what ways does funding impact on the provision of Sports facilities in public secondary schools?
  8. How does funding impact on the maintenance of Sports facilities in public secondary schools?
1.5 Hypotheses

The study formulated the following hypotheses;

H01 There is no significant difference in the opinions of principals, teachers and Ministry of Education officials on the impact of funding on provision of infrastructural facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi state;
H02 There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of funding on maintenance of infrastructural facilities in public secondary schools in

Kogi state;

H03 There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of

funding on provision of instructional facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi

state;

H04 There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondentson the impact of funding on maintenance of instructional facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi state;
H05 There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of funding on provision of welfare facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi state;
H06 There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondentson the impact of funding on maintenance of welfare facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi state;
H07 There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of funding on provision of sports facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi state; and
H08 There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of funding on maintenance of sports facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi state.
1.5 Basic Assumptions
  Educational system cannot successfully function without adequate funding on the

provision and maintenance of facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi state. The researcher therefore, assumes that quality of education in the public secondary schools depends on:

  1. Whenever there are adequate funding on the provision of infrastructural facilities in public secondary schools effective teaching and learning will be promoted;
  2. If adequate funding is provided for the maintenance of infrastructural facilities in public secondary schools there will be conducive atmosphere for effective teaching and learning;
  3. Whenever adequate funding is available for the provision of Instructional facilities there will be encouragement for better academic performance of students in public secondary schools;
  4. It is assumed that adequate funding will lead to better maintenance of Instructional facilities and effective teaching and learning will take placein public secondary schools;
  5. If adequate funding is provided for the provision of welfare facilities there will likely be contentment which will lead to the smooth running of secondary schools;
  6. Provision of adequate funding for the maintenance of welfare facilities will affect the moral of teachers and students positively leading to the smooth teaching and learning in the school;
  7. If adequate funds are made available for the provision of sport facilities will promote schools; and
  8. If adequate funds are available for the maintenance of sport facilities, it will aid students to perform better in their academic in public secondary schools.

1.6         Significance of the Study

It is believed that the life wire of any educational system is the extent of availability of school facilities in terms of quantity which occupies a crucial place in the realization of its goals. However, the result of the findings of this research work shall assist every stakeholders, policy makers, school administrators, teachers, government and the students in playing a sensitive role aimed at improving the standard of education through the provision of a conducive infrastructural environment.

The study intends to reveal to government and educational planners on the important of adequate allocation of funds on the provision and maintenance of infrastructural facilities in public secondary schools, it will also provide an extensive knowledge of instructional facilities provision and maintenance to the school administrators on how to initiate, sustain and put to use.

The study revealed to Kogi state government, principal, parents, teachers and nongovernmental agency on providing adequate funding on the provision and maintenance of welfare and sports facilities in the public secondary schools and the study would encourage and promote further related researches.

1.7      Scope of the Study

This study investigated the impact of funding on the provision and maintenance of facilities in public secondary schools in Kogi state. The study covered all the 366 public secondary schools in Kogi State. The study covered 366 principals, 3114 teachers and 126 ministry of education officials in all public secondary schools located in Kogi state. The ministry of education officials are involved in this study because, it is believed that they would have learnt a lot of things concerning provision and maintenance of school facilities. Therefore, the study waslimited to the impact of funding on the provision and maintenance of facilities in public secondary schools in KogiState,also, 35 principals, 295 teachers and 30ministry of education officials in kogi state.

Similarly, it would be reasonable to use the result to make generalization in Kogi State because of the random distribution of the sample respondents and of the uniformity of the public secondary schools in Kogi State, Nigeria

IMPACT OF FUNDING ON THE DELIVERY AND PRESERVATION OF FACILITIES IN PUBLIC SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KOGI STATE, NIGERIA

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