IMPACT OF ANIMATION CARTOONS ON SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR OF PRIMARY SCHOOL LEARNERS IN KADUNA CITY, KADUNA STATE NIGERIA
The study examined the Influence of Animation Cartoons on Social Behaviour of Primary School Pupils in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Three research objectives, three research questions and three hypotheses guided the conduct of the study. The research adopted the ex-post-facto research design. Data were collected from a total sample of three hundred and eighty-one (381) upper primary school pupils in two Local Government Areas (Kaduna North and Kaduna South) within Kaduna Metropolis using three different questionnaires: Aggression Scale, Assertive Scale and Friendly Scale with Cronbach alpha reliability of 0.809, 0.825 and 0.851 respectively. The data collected were analysed using the inferential statistics of t-test. Each hypothesis was tested at 0.05 alpha level of significance. The results of the study revealed that significant difference exist in the influence of animation cartoons on aggressive behaviour of frequent and less frequent viewers (t= 10.641, p=0.000), on assertive behaviour of frequent and less frequent viewers (t= 25.251, p=0.026) and on friendly behaviour of frequent and less frequent viewers(t= 18.47, p=0.000). The following recommendation was made; Counsellors should guide and advise Parents and School Administrators on how to choose and use appropriate animation cartoons for children to view that will enhance the development of positive social behaviour.
1.1 Background to the Study
Animation Cartoons are entertainment part in life which gives lots of fun to the different age groups. Animation Cartoons are the most frequent and easily accessible source of entertainment which keeps children occupied. With the vastness of the media and extension of channels it has become easier for children to watch their favourite cartoons on a single click, while also making more convenience for parent to provide their children with this all-time activity. Odukomaiya (2014) stated that cartoon is a major medium of dissipation of information that exists in our world today; either deliberately or indeliberately, children are influenced by it because we are living in a media concentrated society.At present, many Nigerian children have become interested in viewing cartoons and they spend most of their leisure time watching animated cartoon programmes, whereas previously children spent their leisure time in outdoor activities, playing with their peers and enjoying different games. Now, they prefer watching their favourite characters on television and get stuck in front of television sets at home for long hours. According to American Academy of Paediatrics (2012) nearly 60% of children have televisions in their homes and the growth of satellite and digital TV has brought new channels devoted to cartoons.
Children often model social behaviour from their social environment;those have easy access to television media want to inculcate all that is shown on the television.These social behaviours can be negative such as, aggression, scapegoating and bullying or they can be positive such as, the use of please and thank and having empathy feelings. Cartoon is one of the tools used for creating and maintaining social behaviour in the society (Odukomaiya, 2014). Jones (2012) affirmed that children social behaviours are learned through circumstances and situations such as home life conditions, television and peer group influences.
Watching Cartoon can be a good thing to primary school children when they get help learning the alphabet on some cartoon programmes such as, Dora the Explorer, primary school children can learn about wildlife on nature cartoons such as, the Dinosaurs Squad. Animation Cartoon can be an excellent educator and entertainer. But despite its advantages, children who watched violent acts are more likely to show aggressive behaviour and also may fear that the world is scary and that something bad will happen to them (Aliyeva, 2013). Some animated cartoon characters often display some negative social behaviour, such as kicking, pinching, killing, jumping, flying and other mischievous behaviours. Tom and Jerry is a very popular cartoon, with fictional characters, where Jerry is very clever and Tom is viewed as a fool. The cartoon though funny, has dangerous scenes which could be harmful to children who learn from what they see and want to apply to real life.
Children consider what they watch in cartoons to be real, they are unable to differentiate between fantasy and reality of what they watch on animated cartoons shows in which violence is very realistic, frequently repeated or unpunished imitates what they see (Godwin, 2011). The understanding that children have on what they view on television may affect how they are influenced by cartoon violenceand children are more likely to focus on observable actions rather than internal causes (Oyero & Oyesomi, 2014).Many cartoons often show cased explosions, gunshots, physical deformations and weapons. Cartoon characters however always survive these actions which are an unrealistic message to children, making them believe when you hurt or kill someone you will remain unharmed. It increases aggressiveness and anti-social behaviour, makes children less sensitive to violence and to victims of violence, and it increases their appetite for more violence in entertainment and in real life. Pupils always pick up fights in the class and exhibit antisocial behaviours, which are easily modelled from environment.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In the last two (2) decades there has been an overwhelming interest on the influence of animation cartoons on social behaviour of children. Scholars like Iamurai (2012), Sudha (2011), Hassan and Daniyal (2013), Habib and Soliman (2015) have focused on both the negative and positive influences of animation cartoons relating it to different social behaviours of children. Despite, the increasing interest however little or no study have been conducted in relation to the primary pupils in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State. This study therefore, seeks to fill this gap by exploring the influence of animation cartoons on social behaviour of primary school pupils in Kaduna State.
Children who view animation cartoons are mostly influenced by the contents they consume and they often re-enact the actions seen or heard in the animation cartoons. Most animation cartoon programmes are presented in entertainment form, as a result of this, children’s social behaviour may be influenced by what they view. Individual children may exhibit different social behaviour patterns due to the types of animation cartoons they view and this may influence their social behaviours making them to behave aggressively, unassertively or unfriendly.
Sometimes, children become aggressive, unfriendly and unassertive after viewing their favourite characters kicking, jumping, fighting, hitting, diving and climbing high wallswithout being harmed. The emulation of such actions can be considered as dangerous to the wellbeing of children. Many children seem to break into fights, play rough with their peers or siblings after viewing such violence filled animation cartoons.A lot of animation cartoons that children view arm themwith attributes like impatient and disobedient. For instance, Leonardo one in―Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles‖ (the blue one), viciously beats up and destroys the army of evil Krang, which results in broken arms and legs, smacked faces, ruined buildings and total destruction. ―Tom and Jerry‖ always fight and chase each other all the time, seeking some sort of revenge. The same situation in ―Wile E. Coyote‖ and ―The Road Runner‖ someone always gets beaten, shot or injured in an explosion. All of these are direct messages that can influence aggressive, unfriendly and unassertive behaviours in children.Children observe these scenes and accept the behaviours as something normal believing that violence or violent acts do not result in death or injury.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are to determine
- the influence of animation cartoons on aggressive behaviour of frequent and less frequent primary school pupil’s viewers in Kaduna Metropolis.
- the influence of animation cartoons on assertive behaviour offrequent and less frequent primary school pupil’sviewers in Kaduna Metropolis.
- the influence of animation cartoons on friendly behaviour offrequent and less frequent primary school pupil’sviewers in Kaduna Metropolis.
1.4 Research Questions
In order to guide this investigation the following research questions are raised:
- What is the influence of animation cartoons on aggressive behaviour between frequent and less frequent primary school pupil’s viewers in Kaduna Metropolis?
- What is the influence of animation cartoon on assertive behaviour between frequent and less frequent primary school pupil’s viewers in Kaduna Metropolis?
- What is the influence of animation cartoons on friendly behaviour between frequent and less frequent primary school pupil’sviewers in Kaduna Metropolis?
The following hypotheseswere tested in the study:
HO1. There is no significant influence of animation cartoons on aggressive behaviour of frequent and less frequent primary school pupil’s viewers in Kaduna Metropolis.
HO2 There is no significant influence of animation cartoons on assertive behaviour of frequent and less frequent primary school pupil’s viewers in Kaduna Metropolis.
HO3 There is no significant influence of animation cartoons on friendly behaviour of frequent and less frequent primary school pupil’sviewers in Kaduna Metropolis.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
It was assumed in this study that:
- Animation cartoons may influence aggressive behaviour of frequent and less frequent primary school pupil’s viewers in Kaduna Metropolis.
- Animation cartoons may influenceassertive behaviour of frequent and less frequent primary school pupil’s viewers in Kaduna Metropolis.
- Animation cartoons may influence friendly behaviour of frequent and less frequent primary school pupil’s viewers in Kaduna Metropolis.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The awareness created by the study would be beneficial to students, parents, school administrators, guidance counsellors, psychologist and curriculum planners. The study would help guidance counsellors and psychologist to understand and assume responsibility for providing suitable animation cartoons to be introduced in schools and homes. The study would be of immense help to the school administrators because it will assist them in selecting animation cartoons that influence positive social behaviours and how to use them to impact knowledge.The study would also help parents to understand various influences of animation cartoons have on social behaviours of their children and their roles in helping them spend less time viewing animation cartoons.
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The scope of the study covers upper primaryschool pupils (classes 4-6)within primary schools in Kaduna Metropolis.This research work was carried out in nineteen (19) public and private primary schools within Kaduna North and Kaduna South Local Government Areas. The social behaviours used in this study are restricted to aggressive, assertive and friendly behaviours. In this study it is assumed that each pupil has viewed at least one animation cartoon in his/her life time.
Therefore the study is delimited to lower primary school pupils (classes 1-3) in both public and private primary schools who have viewed animation cartoon at least once in their life time. The study is also delimited to other social behaviours such as: tantrums.
IMPACT OF ANIMATION CARTOONS ON SOCIAL BEHAVIOUR OF PRIMARY SCHOOL LEARNERS IN KADUNA CITY, KADUNA STATE NIGERIA