EFFECT OF MULTIMEDIA RESOURCES ON PUPILS EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND RETENTION IN SOCIAL STUDIES IN GIWA EDUCATION ZONE, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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EFFECT OF MULTIMEDIA RESOURCES ON PUPILS EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND RETENTION IN SOCIAL STUDIES IN GIWA EDUCATION ZONE, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA  

ABSTRACT

The study examined the impact of multimedia resources on pupils‘ retention and academic performance in social studies in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna State Nigeria. The study was guided by three objectives, three research questions and three hypotheses. Quasiexperimental research design was used. The population of the study consisted of all primary school pupils in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna state, numbering 106,861. The study used purposively sampling technique to choose the participating schools for the experiment. The study also used Social Studies Pupils Retention Test (SOSPRET) and Social Studies Pupils Academic Performance Test (SOSPAPT) as data collection instruments. The instruments were validated by supervisors and statisticians for content and construct validity. The study pilot tested the instruments and they were satisfied statistically as fit for the main work. Hence, their index power stood at 0.67 and 0.76. The independent sample t-test and oneway analysis of variance were used as data analysis instruments. It was found that significant difference existed in the mean retention level of male and female pupils taught social studies using multimedia resources when compared to traditional method in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna state and that significant difference was found in the mean academic performance of male and female pupils taught social studies using multimedia resources than their counterparts taught using traditional method in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna state. No significant difference was found in retention level of pupils taught social studies using multimedia resources and their counterparts taught using traditional method among primary schools in urban and rural primary schools in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna state. The study made some recommendations among which are, there is need for Kaduna State Government to build and equip computer laboratories in each primary school in the state and the need to use Multimedia resources as it improves students‘ academic performance and retention of all sex. There should also be training of teachers in computer utilization in teaching both short-term and in-service training for teachers.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

 

                1.1      Background to the Study

The purpose of education is to develop knowledge, skills and character of students. Thus education is the process of learning and knowing, which is not restricted to schools or textbooks. Education is very important for an individual‘s life. According to Salihu (2015), education is a major aspect of development of any modern society. The importance of education is evident at every stage of education whether at primary, Junior Secondary, Senior Secondary and in Higher education. The quality of the education depends on the availability of resources in the school, and the performance of students depends greatly on the teachers‘ knowledge, skill and attitude. Schools that have qualified teachers, interactive teaching and learning materials, comfortable school compounds can provide qualitative and quantitative education for its learners (Salihu, Abdullahi, Alfa and Muhammed, 2015).The purpose of learning and teaching resources is to provide a source of learning experiences for students. Learning and teaching resources should be able to facilitate interaction among students and teachers during the learning/ teaching process, as well as to help students to learn, broaden students‘ learning experiences and meet different learning needs. If used effectively, learning and teaching resources can help students to construct knowledge for themselves and develop effective learning strategies, generic skills,values and attitudes, thus laying a solid foundation for life-long learning (Bryan and William 2016).

There are techniques that encourage the development of creativity, ability or provide experience not easily secured in any other way. These techniques are embedded in the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning has been widespread and popular with students and teachers and it promotes learning and teaching skills. One of the interesting aspects of ICT application is Multimedia resources. By multimedia resources, educators usually refer to the using of multimedia and Information Communication Technology (ICT) equipments which offer an effective dialogue between the resource materials- indirectly with the instructor and the students in comparison with traditional methods of teaching which may lack such interactivity (Nusir, Alsmadi, Al-kabi, and Shardqah, 2011). Moreover, multimedia has the potential to create high quality learning environments especially for students, with the capability of creating a more pragmatic learning context through its different medias- texts, graphics, sound, animation among others. Multimedia resources have paramount importance in teaching (Altherr, Wagner, Eckert, & Jodl, 2014). With the help of multimedia, one can present different phenomena and processes vividly, simulate complex content, and present different levels of abstraction. This helps in meaningful and authentic learning. Multimedia resources are useful especially when students have low motivation and low prior knowledge (Singh, 2013).

This is an era of science and technology which are the backbone for the prosperity of a nation. Nigeria‘s education policies emphasized functional education for learners at all levels to trigger students‘ curiosity in scientific inquiry and understanding of scientific concepts and processes. The current teaching strategies have failed to enhance problemsolving skills, curiosity, and critical and logical thinking among pupils. There is a need to move from traditional approaches to more innovative information and communications technologies (ICTs) enriched approaches for meaningful learning. The fast-paced, diverse, and technologically advanced world has posed challenges for both teachers and students. The use of ICTs in the teaching and learning process has become an important feature. Multimedia-aided teaching (MAT) is a means of instructional delivery usually used with the traditional method of teaching (Rolfe & Gray, 2011). It is a presentation consisting of words, sound, and pictures that is designed for meaningful learning (Mayer, 2015a; 2015b; 2015c).

One of the teaching technologies included in the teaching-learning process is a series of multimedia applications developed due to advances in information technologies and cognitive theories. Considering the technology available today, The rapid growth of the internet highlights the importance of web-based learning environments and paves the way for educators to more greatly benefit from multimedia applications. Yui, Liu &Wai (2012) emphasize some of the most significant features of web-based learning environments, including less need for a multitude of devices; accessibility by anyone, anywhere, and anytime; independence of time and space limitations; and worldwide support for communication and cooperation.

However, it is apparent that many of today‘s teachers of Social Studies at primary schools are caught in the midst of a change for which they may not have been professionally prepared. Many teachers were educated in the classrooms where the role of the student was to memorize information, conduct well-regulated experiments etc. and were then tested on their ability to repeat these tasks or remember specific facts. It is against this background that this study examines the impact of multimedia resources on pupils‘ retention and academic performance in Social Studies in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria as a contribution towards the development of knowledge and literary presentation in the study area and beyond.

                1.2      Statement of the Problem

Multimedia resources play an increasingly vital role in efforts to move Social Studies from the rote memorization of dates and information toward a more student-centred, hands-on, authentic learning experience. Despite movements within the discipline to promote students computer use to facilitate reflective inquiry, decision making, and problem-solving, Social Studies education, for the most part, continues to focus on traditional, teacher-directed, lecture-and textbook-based approaches and activities at primary schools in the study area. The research base on the effectiveness of technology as an instructional component for teaching Social Studies is quite limited. Nonetheless, data are indicating that when integrated effectively, multimedia technology can support Social Studies learning by promoting student-centred instruction, increasing learner motivation, and extending and deepening understandings of historic and civic concepts. Some studies have reported modest positive outcomes for several groups of students who used multimedia resources for the practice of Social Studies skills.

Many of the difficulties students face in content area learning stem from mismatches between the teachers‘ instructional approaches and students‘ strategies for cognitive intake and processing of the material presented. These mismatches, along with disparate levels of literacy development for students within the same grade level, combine to create formidable challenges for the teaching of subject areas where student interest is already low. Mounting evidence suggests that students generally find Social Studies so dull and unimportant, that they have difficulty understanding their textbooks, and that overall, they remember very little of what they learned.

The problem of this study hinges on a determination of the extent to which multimedia resources are used to achieve instructional effectiveness for enhanced retention and academic performance among Social Studies pupils in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna State-Nigeria when compared to the use of traditional methods in achieving the same design among pupils.

                1.3      Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study was to examine the impact of multimedia resources on pupils‘ retention and academic performance in Social Studies in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was guided by the following specific objectives which are

to:

  1. Determine the differences in retention level of pupils taught Social Studies using multimedia resources and their counterparts taught using traditional method among primary schools in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna State; ii. find out the differences in the academic performance between male and female taught Social Studies using multimedia resources are those taught using traditional method in primary schools in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna State; iii. Determine the retention level of pupils taught Social Studies using multimedia resources and those taught using traditional method in urban and rural primary schooling Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna State.

 

 

                1.4      Research Questions

The study answered the following research questions:

  1. Is there any difference in the mean retention level between male and female pupils taught Social Studies using multimedia resources and their counterparts taught using traditional method in primary schools in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna State?
  2. To what extent is the mean academic performance between male and female taught Social Studies using multimedia resources and their counterparts taught using traditional method in primary schools in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna State?
  • What is the difference between the mean retention levels of pupils taught Social Studies using multimedia resources and their counterparts taught using traditional method in Rural and Urban primary schools in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna State?

1.5 Null Hypotheses 

The following null hypotheses were stated and was tested at p≤ 0.05 level of significance:

HO1 there is no significant difference in the mean retention level between male and female pupils taught Social Studies using multimedia resources and their counterparts taught using traditional method in primary schools in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna State.

HO2 there is no significant difference in the mean academic performance between male and female pupils taught Social Studies using multimedia resources and their counterparts taught using traditional method in primary schools in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna State.

HO3 there is no significant difference between the mean retention levels of pupils taught

Social Studies using multimedia resources and their counterparts taught using traditional method in Rural and Urban primary schools in Giwa Education Zone,

Kaduna State.

                1.6      Significance of the Study

Research works are embarked upon to extend the frontier of knowledge. The present study was therefore carried out with this same objective, especially in the field of multimedia resources and its impact on pupils‘ retention and academic performance. It will, therefore, contribute to the extension of the frontier of knowledge in the following ways. First, the study revealed the predictive power of multimedia resources in the determination of the academic performance and retention of pupils in the study area and beyond. The findings are meant to provide an idea about the multimedia resources aspects and academic performance to provide key information to further research work in such areas. In the same way, the study provides knowledge and guidelines that may be of help to the policymaker. The research is therefore of importance for planners. This study will also provide input to the students, teachers and researchers in the areas of multimedia resources.

This research is significant in the sense that the impact of multimedia resources is emphasized in the research work. This study is also aimed at making the Social Studies teachers generally aware of the importance of the need of using multimedia resources in the teaching-learning process and to make them realize that students learn better when they come in contact with resources that appeal to multiple senses. The findings of the study among others are expected to ascertain the impact of multimedia resources on teaching

Social Studies among primary school pupils in the study area.

The study would also explore how multimedia resources enhance active participation in the classroom and this could facilitate effective learning. Thus, learners could profit from instruction when they are involved.

This study was also aimed at making the social studies teachers at primary schools in the study area generally aware of the importance of the need of using multimedia aids in the teaching-learning process and to make them realize that pupils learn better when they come in contact with materials and resources that appeal to their many senses.

The study is expected to be useful to policymakers at various levels of decision-making processes especially in primary schools in the study area. This is because their decision affects teaching and learning. The study’s literature revealed some of the hitches militating against multimedia resource use in primary schools. Besides, the authorities of Kaduna State Universal Basic Education Board (SUBEB) could also find the research useful as it will assist in the provision and use of multimedia resources especially for Social Studies teaching and learning.

Moreover, researchers in the field of multimedia resources in Social Studies, especially in primary schools, could find it rich in contents and facts which could also serve as reference sources. The study would also serve as a contribution to knowledge and literary presentations but most especially relevant to stakeholders in the teaching and learning in the education industry at large and Social Studies specifically.

                1.7      Scope of the Study

The study examines the impact of multimedia resources on pupils‘ retention and academic performance in Social Studies in Giwa Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria.

The study will cover primary VI Pupils of Social Studies in Giwa Education Zone. The concept of culture, its types and examples extracted from primary VI syllabus will be treated with the pupils. The pupils‘ retention and academic performances will be measured.

EFFECT OF MULTIMEDIA RESOURCES ON PUPILS EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND RETENTION IN SOCIAL STUDIES IN GIWA EDUCATION ZONE, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA  

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