EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES OF PRINCIPALS ON THE MAINTENANCE OF DISCIPLINE AND AMENITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA

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EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES OF PRINCIPALS ON THE MAINTENANCE OF DISCIPLINE AND AMENITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study assessed the Impact of Leadership Styles of Principals on the Maintenance of Discipline and Facilities in Secondary Schools in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. The study was carried out with six objectives among which are to: examine the impact of autocratic leadership styles of principals on maintenance of discipline and facilities in Secondary Schools in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja; ascertain the impact of democratic leadership styles of principals on maintenance of discipline and school facilities in secondary schools in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja; and determine the impact of laissez-faire leadership styles of principals on maintenance of discipline and facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja. Also, six corresponding research questions were raised and six null hypotheses formulated and tested in the study. Literatures were reviewed in the related areas of this study. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study. The population of this study comprised 56 principals, 3326 teachers and 55796 students in senior secondary schools in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. A sample size of 17 principals, 333 teachers and 382 students were used for the study. The sample size was arrived at using random sampling technique. A researcher-made instrument titled “Impact of Leadership Styles of Principals on the Maintenance of Discipline and Facilities” (ILSPMDF) was used to generate relevant data in this study. The instrument was validated by the researcher‟s supervisors. A quantitative analysis of inquiry was performed using the Cronbach Alpha reliability coefficient technique and reliability value of 0.79 was obtained. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used in the analysis of data. The descriptive statistics of frequencies and percentages, means and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions and the bio-data of respondents, while inferential statistics of Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to test the postulated null hypotheses at an alpha of 0.05 level of significance. Findings revealed among others that in most secondary schools, principals who were autocratic gave orders and demand total obedience without explanations or questions when maintaining discipline. They maintained discipline alone without the interference of teachers and other staff. Also, in secondary schools where charismatic leadership was practiced, principals managed subordinate impressions by constantly demonstrating courage and conviction when maintaining discipline. The principals inspired subordinates in pursuit of a vision relating to discipline in their schools. Recommendations were made that principals should avoid being autocratic and promote only traits that cause followers to respect them and consider the leader as a working personnel and proud inspirational. In addition, principals should be aware of democratic leadership style and should apply its traits and strengths in practice. This will enhance more commitment and interest in maintaining discipline and facilities in schools. School principals should pay attention to transformational leadership factors quickly for effective maintenance of discipline and facilities in schools.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

       1.1       Background to the Study

Secondary education system in Nigeria is a formal arrangement under the control and management of a principal. It is an integral part of the Nigerian educational system which is being guided by the National Policy on Education with specific objectives, which include: inculcation of the national unity;inculcation of the right values and attributes for the survival of the individual and Nigerian society; the training of mind to understand the world around; andthe acquisition of the appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical  abilities and competencies as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the Society (FGN, 2012).

Fafunwa (2014) described secondary education as the education given to pupils who might have completed their compulsory primary education and in preparation for higher (tertiary) education, or for those who may not capable to go further but might have acquired basic vocational skills to stay and survive on their own, and contributes to the development of the society. Thus in order to achieve these specific objectives of the secondary education, the managers or the administrators of this system of education (Principals) must provide basic administrative skills for the effective management of human and material resources at his/her disposal. His style of leadership and administrative structure will enhanced better job performance among the entire system and ensure academic achievement of students.

However, the effectiveness of the school principals to carry out the roles mention above has being a subject of discussion by many scholars of educational administration. Tswhe success or failure of the school principals is determined by their leadership styles or administrative skills possessed by them. No wonder Okeke (2014), cited by Jiya (2010) revealed that the gradual decline in performance of the educational sector as an industry in the process of socio-economic and political development of Nigeria, is as a result of different issues and problems whose root can easily be traced to leadership in-efficiency. This revelation was highly supported by Ovwigho (2014), Tijjani and Shehu (2015) and Igunnu (2015) who affirmed that, “the main problem of any form of educational system in the 21st century in Nigeria is leadership”. Of recent, leadership education has been given priority attention as most interesting course to be highly discussed by scholars of educational administration in any university in Nigeria. In-fact it is deceptive to assume that all principals in secondary school in Nigeria particularly FCT will behave same to their staff; maintain school facilities in the same way as wellin same manner. No group of individuals behaves or reacts exactly the same way and in the same manner when handling issues in any given circumstance. That is why Ngu (2010) said some leaders may be found utilizing their authorities or traits in most extreme cases while some may tend to be moderate in their discharge of responsibilities. Thus, Jiya (2011) concluded that, “each leader develops his own styles of leading or motivating his staff depending on his philosophy of management.”

As discussed earlier, in the achievement of educational objectives of secondary school system, Aghenta (2015), and Ige (2011), posited that, Principal must display effective management of human and material resources, ensure effective academic achievement of students and enhance better job performance among others. However, the effectiveness of school principals in carrying out the roles mentioned above remained a vital discussion by many educationists especially in the field of educational administration. That is why some principals find it difficult to manage their schools.

This problem therefore, has been linked to lack of possession of appropriate skills and training by the school principals who has invariably led to low morale, poor communication skills by the principals, lack of good leadership styles and interpersonal relationship skills to mention but few. Thus the acquisition, utilization and varying abilities of principals in the use of acquired skills for better performance and educational achievement at secondary school level is the major focus on this paper. Dogra (2010) defines managerial skills as knowledge to fulfill some activities or tasks. He concluded that this knowledge can either be learnt or acquired via the fulfillment of the activities stated above. Among the skills to be learnt and acquired by the secondary school principals as highlighted by Dogra (2010) and Manali

(2011) are summarized thus;

i). Communication Skills: This has to do with passing information and making meaning out of it by the use of meaningful symbols for the attainment of educational development, from the head to the subordinates and stakeholders [teachers, students, parents, community etc.]  ii). Leadership Skills: This is mainly acquisition of certain skills by the manager of an organization in controlling, directing, commanding and managing human and material resources, as well as guiding them towards achievement of common objectives.

iii). Interpersonal Skills: These are abilities acquired by the head of a school or an organization, to bring people of different backgrounds and educational qualifications by working together for the accomplishment of a common goal.

iv). Motivational Skills: These are psychological process of influencing subordinates‟ behavioural patterns for a purpose and direction by getting the best out of them. Barbara (2005), adjudged Secondary school principals as a good and effective leader, when he is able to provide consistent motivation to the teachers and students; encouraging them to attain excellence and quality in their performance. A good principal is always looking for ways of improving job performance and academic standards in a school.

v). Decision-Making Skills: These are abilities by the school heads to choose best alternatives from among set of alternatives by involving others to partake in the process.

However, in the event of decline in the standard of education, or in-ability to achieve the set goals, one would be left to ask questions as; who is responsible for the declination? Who is to blame? In trying to provide answers to this teething rhetoric; which may include the government, the heads of the school, the staff, the students, the communities where the schools are located, and so forth, are possible answers to these questions. Findings revealed that the heads of the schools [the principals] are more responsible based on their styles of managing human and material resources, [that is, maintenance of discipline among staff and the school facilities] . Indeed the objective of this research work is to look for amiable solutions to issues and problems of educational development at secondary school level caused by lack of discipline among staff and students, as well as improper management of the school facilities, using an instrument titled: “Impact of Leadership Styles ofSchool Principals on the Maintenance of Discipline and Facilities in Secondary Schools in FCT, Abuja”.

       1.2       Statement of the Problem

Principals are the administrative heads and managers of secondary schools in Nigeria. As the heads of an institution at the post primary level, it is incumbent on them to possess and display certain managerial skills and effective leadership styles which assist them in managing the school for the accomplishment of set goals. These skills include; authocratic, democratic, laissez-faire, situational, transformational and charismatic leadership skills. These will go a long way to make impact on the principals in their maintenance of discipline among staff and students, as well assist them in the management of school facilities. However, there is an expressed concern by the educational administrators in various institutions of higher learning and public offices over the decline in educational system in Nigeria, these problems have been linked to administrative in-efficiency and lack of effective leadership skills. The relationship between leadership styles of principals and maintenance of discipline and school facilities has been a matter of concern to many researchers. Nwadian (1988) and Adeyemi (2006), argued on whether or not leadership styles of principals influence the level of discipline among staff and students and educational facilities in secondary schools. Observation by the researcher revealed that the leadership styles of principals could perhaps have impact on the maintenance of discipline and facilities in the secondary school system particularly in FCT.

It is in the light of this that the researcher drew the problem of the study to include examine, determine, assess, ascertain and establish the impact of principals‟ various leadership styles (such as autocratic, democratic, laissez-faire, situational, transformational and charismatic leadership styles) onthe maintenance of discipline and facilities in secondary schools in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The study was set to:

  1. examine the impact of autocratic leadership styles of principals on maintenance of discipline and facilities in Secondary Schools in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria;
  2. ascertain the impact of democratic leadership styles of principals on maintenance of discipline and school facilities in secondary school in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria;
  3. determine the impact of laissez-faire leadership styles of principals on maintenance of discipline and facilities insecondary schools in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria;
  4. establish the impact of situational leadership styles of principals on maintenance of discipline and facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria;
  5. assess the impact of transformational leadership styles of principals on maintenance of discipline and school facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria; and
  6. examine the impact of charismatic leadership styles of principals on maintenance of discipline and facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria.

 

1.4 Research Questions

In trying to address the problems identified in the study, the following research questions were raised:

  1. How does the autocratic leadership style of principalsimpacton the maintenance of discipline and facilities in secondary schools in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, Nigeria?
  2. Does democratic leadership style of principalsimpact on maintenance of discipline and facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria?
  3. How does laissez-faire leadership style of principals impact on maintenance of discipline and facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria?
  4. Does situational leadership style of principalsimpact onmaintenance of discipline and facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria?
  5. Does transformational leadership style of principals impact on maintenance of discipline and facilities in secondary school in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria?
  6. How does charismatic leadership style of principals impact on the maintenance of discipline and facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Based on the research questions raised, the following null hypotheses were postulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of autocratic leadership style of principals on maintenance of discipline and facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria.
  2. There is no significant difference in sthe opinions of respondents on the impact of democratic leadership style of principals on maintenance of discipline and school facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja.
  3. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of laissez-faire leadership style of principals on maintenance of discipline and facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja.
  4. There is no significant difference in theopinions of respondents on the impact of situational leadership styles of principals on maintenance of discipline and school facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja.
  5. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of transformational leadership style of principals on the maintenance of discipline and school facilities in secondary schools in Federal Capital Territory, Abuja.
  6. There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the impact of charismatic leadership style of principals on maintenance of discipline and school facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja.

 

1.6 Basic Assumptions

For the purpose of this research work, the following assumptions were made about the principals that:

  1. they are academically qualified and relatively possess autocratic leadership skills to enable them examine the impact, on maintenance of discipline and school facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria;
  2. their knowledge of democratic leadership styles has positive bearing to ascertain the impact on the maintenance of discipline and school facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja, Nigeria;
  3. they have potentials to utilize their laissez-faire leadership skills todetermine the impact on maintenance discipline and facilities in secondary schools in FCT, Abuja,

Nigeria;

  1. staff, students, and community representatives would respond objectively as regards to their views on the situational leadership styles of principals on the maintenance of discipline and facilities in their schools;
  2. Transformational leadership quality of principals in FCT secondary schools has promoted in the assessment of mutual discipline and maintenance of facilities in their respective schools; and
  3. they have full control of their schools and impact on maintenance of discipline and facilities as a result of their charismatic leadership experience.

1.7 Significance of the Study

The importance of this study lies in the fact that the expected outcome will improve the management of secondary schools in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja and other part of Nigeria. This is because managers will be well equipped with theories and knowledge of various leadership skills and with the right sets of managerial skills which will help in motivating staff and instill discipline to get the best out of them for the accomplishment of the set objectives.

Apart from this, managers will be well equipped with administrative skills and stand out among their equals, and they are liable to be effective and efficient in the running of the schools. In this regard, the outcome of this study will assist the principals to improve in inculcating discipline among staff and students, as well as ensuring an effective utilization of physical and human resources in FCT secondary schools via the adoption of relevant leadership styles in their administrative process.

This study will also help in solving or reducing nonchalant attitude of some staff   in the handling of school facilities in FCT secondary schools and elsewhere in Nigeria. It is hoped that this study shall gear up principals to become conversant and more conscious of their managerial dispositions and improve on them for the attainment of set objectives for FCT secondary schools.

In addition to the above, this study will help reveal the concept of management based on the assertion that the efficient, viable and effective way to get results in the schools is to work with people in an organization instead of working through the people. Expectantly, the findings of the study shall assist the school managers to adjust positively; discovering the enormous task confronting them as parents, teachers, leaders, supervisors, and so on. It will help to see the need for a close communication relationship as it affects the desired goals of the organizations. Of course, it will inspire teachers who may aspire to leadership positions to identify the need for professionalism and go for further studies. This study brings out the importance of eradicating outdated principals and practices and usher in new breed of administrators who are adequately fortified with new technologies that can combat the bottle necks of modern times. The officials of the ministry of education and state schools boards will need the available information of a research work as this in order to help them formulate policies and make decisions regarding stakeholders and principals of secondary schools.

Thus the expected results of this study shall assist the principals in tackling the issue of indiscipline among staff and students and help them to improve their knowledge of leadership skills for effective maintenance of discipline and facilities in secondary schools. The research finding will help the professional organization involving in the management training to develop a module for educational administrators to acquire effective leadership skills. Finally, this study serves as literature materials for students and researchers who may wish to embark on similar research work.

1.8 Scope of the Study

This study was delimited to assess the impact of the leadership styles of principals of public secondary schools in selected area councils in FCT Abuja, Nigeria, on the maintenance of discipline and school facilities for the accomplishment of educational objectives of secondary schools as stipulated in the National Policy on Education (NPE) 2004. The study also relied on data and information collected using an instrument tagged: “impact of leadership styles of principals on the maintenance of discipline and facilitiesin public secondary schools in selected area councils of FCT, Abuja”. It is not the intention of this study, to castigate or praise any principal or an individual that is a subject in this study. Thus, the study is a descriptive survey which specifically identifies the impact of leadership styles of principals on the maintenance of discipline and facilities in public secondary schools in selected area councils of the federal capital territory, Abuja, with the view to improving them for the accomplishment of educational objectives of secondary schools in Nigeria.

EFFECT OF LEADERSHIP STYLES OF PRINCIPALS ON THE MAINTENANCE OF DISCIPLINE AND AMENITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN FEDERAL CAPITAL TERRITORY, ABUJA, NIGERIA

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