LEARNERS OF POWERPOINT PRESESNTATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL LEARNERS IN METALWORK TECHNONLOGY IN ZARIA EDUCATION AREA, KADUNA STATE
This study investigated the effect of Powerpoint presentationon the academic performance of senior secondary school students in metalwork technology in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study objectives were three, with three research questions andthree null hypotheses which were tested. The study adapted pre-test post-test quasi-experimental and control group design. A total number of 200 students, from a population of 2115 SSIII metalwork technology students were selected using purposive sampling technique. Metalwork Academic Performance Test (MAPT), developed by the researcher and validated by experts was used for data collection. Research questions were answered using Mean and Standard Deviation, while t-test statistics were used in testing the hypotheses. The results revealed that, there is significant difference in the academic performance of metalwork technology Students exposed to Powerpoint presentation and those taught the same concept using lecture method only. Students taught metalwork technology using Powerpoint Presentation performed better than their counterparts taught the same concept using lecture method. The result further revealed that there is no significant difference in the performance of metalwork technology students in the rural and urban areas taught using PowerPoint Presentation. There is also no significant difference between males and females students taught metalwork technology using Powerpoint presentation as instructional media. Therefore, the use of PowerPoint Presentation is gender friendly. Based on the findings from this study, it was recommended that the use of PowerPoint Presentation in teaching metalwork technology in secondary schools should be encouraged by Federal and States Ministries of Education. It was also recommended that stakeholders in the education industry such as federal and state ministries of education across the nation should be exposed to training and retraining teachers on the use of PowerPoint Presentation by organizing periodic seminars, conferences and workshops for teachers of science and technology.
1.1 Background to the Study
One of the highest goals of education concerns improving students‘ ability to think critically, reason logically and ultimately solve problems (Tandi, 2009). PowerPoint presentations in the classrooms has significantly increased globally in recent years (Connor & Wong, 2004). Few evidences have systematically investigated its effects on students‘ learning and attitudes. One study that has examined the relationship between Powerpoint presentation and students‘ learning and attitudes was conducted by Butler and Mautz (1996). In a laboratory experiment conducted during a 30-minute time period, they found that Powerpoint presentation affects students‘ recall in all situations. They also found that there was interaction between the effects of the Powerpoint presentation and the student‘s preferred class presentation style (conventional method), (i.e., whether the student was considered a ―verbal‖ or ―imaginable‖). They observed that students performed better when they use at least two of their senses; that is, senses of seeing and hearing.
Powerpoint presentation can be relevant in teaching school subjects. Supporting this view above, (Mayor, 2013) noted that an instruction delivery involving the use of VCD/DVD, power point projector or 16mm film, for example, is an instructional media presentation, in that, still pictures, motion picture background enhance students‘ understanding of concepts. In this approach, time keeping and coordination of different media are involved. It also includes the use of interactive element such as graphics, texts, videos and animation at the same time to deliver lesson. (Sambo, 2008). The use of Powerpoint presentation in the delivery of instruction has experienced tremendous changes as a result of advancement in information and communication technology (Yusuf & Afolabi, 2010).
However, decades ago, worldwide communication and information technology was not so common in the third world countries. But nowadays, there is no doubt that modern communication technology has vastly increased our exposure to information and experience (Jolly, 2012). Most instructional media have implications for education that are only now beginning to be fully understood and appreciated. In fact, there is now the pervasiveness of mass media (Reiser& Dick, 2010). Powerpoint presentation has positive effect on young people. PowerPoint presentations are specially used by every intellectual institution and people of interest. It is really essential and necessary for the secondary schools to have adequate instructional media, since it constitutes a big and rare treasure in the development of the education sector.
Metalwork technology is defined as methods used by engineers, technicians and craftsmen to produce useful items by the use of Metals in the workshops. (Luthee,2009). Metalwork technology as processes such as welding, fabrication, forging and casting molten metal in metallurgical industries for the production of small and heavy duty components that are useful in our society (Adu,2011). Another defines metalwork technology as a process of manipulation of metals into useful components Ericsson (2012). Another author asserts that metalwork technology as a means of producing useful things in our society by the use of different kinds of metals (Cary H. 2013)
A comparison of the performance on standardized tests of students from small, usually rural, schools with those from larger, often urban, schools has not produced definite results.
Several studies have not found any significant differences between the two groups. Monk & Haller (2006) found that students from smaller (often rural) schools achieved as well as students from larger schools. Kleinfeld (2005) did not find that high school size determine the quality of a student‘s education, experience or achievement on standardized tests. Ward and Murray (2008) looked at factors affecting academic performance of selected high school students and found that those attending schools in rural areas performed as well as those in urban areas. Also, Monk and Tien (2013) in their studies, failed to find any statistically significant differences between the two groups of students. Other scholars have found, however that rural-urban differences do exist. It is found that the ACT scores of rural students where two points lower than scores of urban students in each of the categories of ACT in Kansas (Downey,2009). Another examination of student‘s performance in Hawai public schools made by McCleery (1979) found substandard achievement to be a pattern in rural areas. In Nigeria, Adewale (2012) studied the effect of parasitic infections on school performance among school age children in Ilorin. He found that in rural community where nutritional status is relatively low and health problems are prevalent, children academic performance is greatly hindered.
Educational researchers have examined rural and urban differences in their academic performances. Many educators, researchers, legislators and the general public believed that students from rural schools mostly receive an education that is inferior compared to the students that live in urban areas. Students‘ background also has impact on their performance where we can see that many of the students that live in rural areas have low academic achievement when we compared with their counterparts who are living in urban areas. There are many factors that caused the gap performance between students in rural and urban areas. Students in urban schools get access to educational facilities as compared to students in rural schools (Khan, 2011). The excellent performance of urban students is because of their better quality in their education, availability of the information that they get from various sources like mass media and electronic media, their educated families and peer groups which help them for better understanding of concepts. They have many advantages and facilities in their education compared to rural students who do not have the facilities. Students in rural areas are less- exposed to the outside world and also lack of knowledge about the currents issues that is happening. Education is proving to be an effective instrument that can raise students’ self-belief, forethought, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Students that lives in undeveloped village must try to attain the best education for them and do not make their living environment as one of the factors that be a barrier in their success. One can see that students in rural areas are much less likely to earn a college degree than students of urban areas (Khan, 2011).
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The performance of senior secondary school students in SSCE in metalwork technology is not encouraging. Statistics obtained from Zaria Education Division, revealed a progressive decline in the performance of students in metalwork technology subject. For instance, a survey of performance of students from 2007 to 2016 who registered metalwork technology and sat for WAEC 30.7% success was recorded, as can be seen in appendix A.
2010 to 2013 in some Secondary Schools of Zaria Education Zone revealed that out of 310 students who registered for metalwork technology and sat for WAEC in 2010, only
37.9% of students pass at credit level. The situation is not different in 2011 with just
42.8%t. In 2012 the figure dwindled to 40.3% (Kaduna State Ministry of Education, 2013).
The poor performance is attributed to some factors which include lack of use of instructional media such as computer in conjunction with projectors, the use of conventional method in teaching metalwork technology, lack of encouragement from parent towards learning metalwork technology.
This prompted the researcher to assess the situation on the effects of PowepPoint presentation on students‘ academic performance in metalwork technology in senior
secondary schools with particular reference to Zaria Education Zone Ministry of Education, Kaduna State. The researcher deliberately chose this category of institution bearing in mind that a lot of emphasis has been given to technology education at both federal and state levels of education. From all indications, students taught with real objects, power point presentation, models, charts, graphics in addition to the chalkboard, absorb more knowledge from demonstrations they see and exercises they do with the resources and understand better and faster than students whom were taught without the use of projector and other instructional materials, Owusu (2009).
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of this study are to:
- Find out the difference in the academic performance of students taught metalwork technology with Powerpoint presentation and those taught with conventional method,
- Examine the difference in the academic performance of urban and rural students taught metalwork technology with Powerpoint presentation and those who are taught with lecture method.
- Ascertain the difference in the academic performance of male and female students exposed to Powerpoint presentation in learning metalwork technology.
1.4 Research Questions
- What is the difference between the academic performances of students taught metalwork technology with Powerpoint presentation and those taught with lecture method?
- What is the difference between the academic performance of urban and rural students taught metalwork technology with Powerpoint presentation?
- What is the difference between the academic performance of male and female students exposed to Powerpoint presentation in learning metalwork technology?
1.5 Null Hypotheses
The following Hypotheses were formulated based on the research problems in order to guide the researcher.
- There is no significant difference between the mean score of students taught metalwork technology with Powerpoint presentation and those taught using lecture method.
- There is no significant difference between the performance of urban and rural students taught metalwork technology with Powerpoint presentation.
- There is no significant difference between the academic performance of male and female students exposed to Powerpoint presentation in learning metalwork technology.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
In an attempt to investigate the effect of Powerpoint presentation on students‘ learning when learning metalwork technology in some selected secondary schools in Zaria Education Zonal Inspectorate Division, Kaduna State. The following assumptions were made.
- Students who learn metalwork technology with Powerpoint presentation will perform better than those who are exposed to conventional method.
- The students in the study that were sampled have the same exposure to the metalwork technology concepts through conventional method of teaching but are not exposed to learning by the use of PowerPoint presentation.
- The use of instructional media like Powerpoint presentation in learning metalwork technology subject will by far improve students‘ performance, compared with conventional teaching method in both rural and urban secondary schools of Zaria
Education Zonal Inspectorate Division, Kaduna State.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This research would be of benefit in the following ways.
The study is hoped that students‘ performance in the urban and rural areas improve when taught metalwork technology using Powerpoint presentation. Teachers who teach metalwork technology in senior secondary schools in Kaduna State would benefit from the research work for effective teaching and learning metalwork technology in their schools.
The study is also going to be of significance to curriculum designers to consider modern technology in the use of Powerpoint presentation in learning technical subjects. It is also going to be of significant to text book writers for the consideration of the use of Powerpoint presentation in writing their books in order to enhance learning and teaching process. The study would be significant to schools‘ administrators who are the supervisors of the academic activities and the administrators of teachers, learners and facilities in their respective schools. The research work would be of benefit to prospective researchers in the field of teaching and learning technical subjects. The study is also going to be of significance to Non-Governmental Organizations. The study is also help the NGOs to understand the importance of using Powerpoint presentation in teaching technical subjects in secondary schools for them to provide the schools with the facilities.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study covered Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria Zonal Education. There are three local governments in Zaria Zonal Education. These are: Sabon Gari, Soba and Zaria Local Government areas. It also covers production of pig iron, types of iron ore, classification of metals and metalwork tools. The scope covers urban and rural areas, and both male and female in the study area.
LEARNERS OF POWERPOINT PRESESNTATION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL LEARNERS IN METALWORK TECHNONLOGY IN ZARIA EDUCATION AREA, KADUNA STATE