INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOLISM ON CHRISTIAN YOUTHS IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA
The researcher is titled ―Effect of Alcoholism on Christian Youths in Benue State, Nigeria. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of alcoholism on the health, social, academic and morals of Christian Youths in Benue State. Chapter two focuses on the review of literature, the empirical studies and summary. Chapter three deals with the methodology of the study. The survey research design was employed in the study. The target population was on all the registered Churches under Christian Association of Nigeria (CAN) bloc in the three senatorial zones in Benue State. Also, random sampling was adopted. Two instruments were usednamely: structural questionnaire and oral interview. The questionnaire was framed based on modified Likert scale of four points. The interview was also adopted in order to reach other respondents who were not privileged to be sampled. Chapter four presents a statistical analysis of the data collected from the respondents on the effects of alcoholism on Christian Youths in Benue State, Nigeria. The statistical analysis was carried out with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) IBM version 23. A total of 354 questionnaires was successfully retrieved out of 384 administered, giving a total response rate of 98.3%.The findings shows that alcoholism has: health complications on Christian Youths in Benue State,negative effects on the academic performance of Christian Youths in Benue State,it makes the Youths not to be serious with their religious activities. Therefore, it is recommended that:the government should make policies to regulate the sale of alcohol and youth should be prohibited from drinking until they have reached certain age, there should be more preaching on the effects of alcoholism,there should be more adverton television and radio about the negative effects of alcohol and finally there should be a rehabilitation center for those who are alcoholics.
1.1 Background to the study
Alcohol consumption dates back to time immemorial in the history of man. In traditional Nigerian societies, alcohol consumption was gender and age based. It was mainly consumed by adult males in social engagements. Customs andtraditions regulated production and consumption of locally made alcoholic drinks. Though, young people in a fewcommunities were permittedto drink, this was usually in the presence of adults who monitored the quantity they consumed Emeka, (2013). Alcoholconsumption was not a daily affair and it was restricted for use in religious rituals, marriageceremonies, kingship enthronements, cultural festivals and child namingceremonies. Even on these occasions, excess consumption among adults was culturally controlled. Elders would drink first, served by the younger members of the tribe and because the wine was not produced in commercial quantities,this often meant that little would be left for the latter group.This trend was altered in Nigeria following the Group Changing Patterns of Alcohol Consumptionin Nigeria with the influx of European slave traders and their ‗trade spirit‘ in the fifteenth century.
The fact that alcohol was not new to the indigenous people, theinfluence of the Western traders popularized the sale of liquor and facilitated alcohol abuse.
This trend was sustained during the colonial era and beyond, leading to the establishment of the first Brewery (Nigerian Brewery limited presently known as Nigerian Breweries or NB Plc.) in 1946.This signified,a new trend, in alcohol consumption in the country. In more recent years, there have been some striking changes in the patterns ofconsumption, brought about by the development of the socio-political and economicstructures of the countryGotman, (2008). Consumption is no longer solely regulated by customof the people and it is no longer reserved for social gatherings or entertainments of guests alone. The patterns of use, the users and reason(s) for consumption arechanging rapidly, especially among young drinkers.A sharp contrast from what hitherto existed is the alcohol contestamong Youths in bars, restaurants, drinking joints, hotels and nightclubs that are strategically located near various places in Nigeria.
This has serious implications because researches have revealed that parents and siblings are terribly affected by the drinking behaviour of young people. This perceived as a serious malady and its consequences are diverse and transcend beyond the alcoholic persons/ individuals to affect relatives, friends,neighbours and the society alike.
In Benue state, alcohol consumption is recognized as an important cultural aspect of all ceremonial occasions from the celebration of a child‘s birth, wedding and funerals.Apart from the festive season drinking during events, there is the usual recreational drinking that occurs during leisure time on weekends.This particular activity is however, having disastrous effects on the lives of the young, old, rich and poor, men and women as well as successful business men, skilled mechanics, laborers, home makers and Church members of all denominations. Sad as this may be, majority of the perpetrators are the Youths.The Youths who persistently abuse alcohol seem to be going through an array of problems. This has remained a source of worry to parents, schools, society and even the government because of the attendant behaviour that usually follow itGotman, (2008).
Governments and non-governmental organizations as well as religious leaders are making concerted efforts to reduce, if not eradicate alcohol misuse and its related consequences by providing useful and intensive information so that they can be aware of the effects in the excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages.However, despite the warning messages, immoderate consumption of alcoholic beverages still persist.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Alcoholism is a chronic and progressive deadly social disease related to continuous consumption of alcoholic drinks and in which genetic, psychosocial, economical and environmental factors correlate to its development and manifestation, (office of applied studies, substance abuse and mental health service administration, 2002). It has been identified as one of the most important risk factors of non-communicable diseases and the third largest global disease burden risk factors.
According to WHO, 2014 estimates, 4 percent of all deaths worldwide are alcohol related problems; this account for 2.5 million deaths, with over 320,000 between 18 and 35 years of age. The United Nations drug program control (2012) revealed that the overall use of drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, heroine among the Youths is on the decline but the proportion of Youths continuing to partake in excessive alcohol consumption across drinking places remain troubling. The impact of alcohol abuse among the Youths has been considered a moral decadent and has made the face of the Youths rough and brought shame to the society.Hanks, (2011)
There is no doubt that civilization and science have increased the number of alcoholic drinkssuch as spirits, beer and wine in the society. Based on this, many people especially Youths now indulge in alcoholic drinking.Majority consume it without control while others have made it part of their lives Peter, (2002). The trend is such that, some see it as an alternative to foodKazah, (2002). Some young adults indulge in it mostly for ego assertion, the desire to be independent, to reduce frustration, to relieve boredom, fatigue and help them escape the harsh realities of their world.
Against this background, the Youths are always advised to live a good moral life worthy of emulation as they are considered the leaders of tomorrow. For the Christian Youths, they are considered to be the future of the Church. But considering how Youths especially the Youths in Benue stateactively engage in the consumption of alcohol more than their daily commitments and activities in the Church is a thing of worry. Hence, this study is undertaken to highlight the effects of alcoholism in their lives.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of the study is to find out the effects of alcoholism among Christian Youths in BenueState.The specific objectives of this study are to:
- identify the effects of alcoholism on the health of Christian Youths in Benue state;
- examine the effects of alcoholism on the moral life of Christian Youths in Benue
- evaluate the effects of alcoholism on the academic pursuits of Christian Youths in Benue state;
- findout the effects of alcoholism on the social life of Christian Youths in Benue
1.4 Research Questions
This study seeks toanswer the following questions:
- What are the effects of alcoholism on the health of Christian Youths in Benue State?
- What are the effects of alcoholism on the moral lifeof Christian Youths in Benue
- What arethe effects of alcoholism on theeducationalperformance of Christian Youths in Benue State?
- What are the effects of alcoholism on the social disposition of Christian Youths in
The following hypotheses were postulated for this study:
|Ho1||There is no significant difference in opinion between male and female Christian
Youthson the effects of alcoholism on the health of Christian Youths
|Ho2||There is no significant difference in opinion amongCatholic, Protestant and
PentecostalYouths on the effects of alcoholism on the moral life of Christian Youths
|Ho3||There is no significant difference in opinion amongpastors and members on the effects of alcoholism on the academic performance of Christian Youths|
|Ho4||There is no significant difference in opinion amongYouths of different age groupings on the effects of alcoholism on the social life of Christian Youths|
|1.6||Significance of the Study|
It is hoped that the findings from this study will benefit the Youths,the Church, parents and schools it is obvious that the Alcoholism makes most youths the victims socially misfit. Their behavior makes them a nuisance within their peer group. Thus, this study will guide youth leaders in their conscious efforts to help their alcoholic counterparts. Also, it is hoped that the findings will be a resource material for youths to guide their peer group against addiction and related vices.Churchis a major stakeholder in the formation of the Youths. The moral inaptitude of the Youths in the society is an affront on the evangelical mission of the Church. Thus, this study will give priests, bishops and pastors etc a blue-print on how to direct their Youths.
It is mostly observed that Parents are those directly affected by the behavior of children who are alcoholic. Sometimes, they struggle to contain the violence of their alcohol children. It is believed that suggestions from this study will help them to properly inhabitants and live with their children with care. Also, it will give them an insight on how to take preventive measures against alcoholic behaviours of their wards.
School: the school is a learning centre, it is a place where Youths receive intellectual and moral formation. The findings of this study will help school administrators, teachers and counselors in tackling alcoholic related crises. It will also help them to take preventive measures against the spread of alcoholism.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study covers all Christian Youthsin Benue state. Benue State is a state in the middle-belt region of Nigeria with a population of about 4,253,641 in 2006 census. It is inhabited predominantly by the Tivand Idoma people, who speak the Tiv language and Idoma, respectively. The Tivs are comprisedby the Etulos while the Idomasare comprised bythe Ufia’s (Utonkon), the Igedes, and the Agatu’s. There are other ethnic groups, including the Etulo, Abakwa, Jukun,Hausa,Igbo, Akweya and Nyifon. With its capital at Makurdi, Benue is a rich agricultural region; some of the crops grown there are potatoes, cassava,soya beans, guinea corn,yams,sesame, rice, and groundnuts.
Benue State is named after the Benue River and was formed from the former Benue–Plateau State in 1976, along with Igala and some part ofKwara State. In 1991 some areas of Benue state (mostly Igala area), along with areas in Kwara State, were carved out to become part of the new Kogi State.Igbo people are found in the boundary areas of Ebonyi State andEnugu State in local government areas like the Obi,Oju etc.As at the time of conducting thisresearch, Samuel Ortom was the governor and Benson Abounu was deputy governor of Benue state.
The choice of Benue State as a case study is because itis generally believed that the Youths in Benue State consume more alcohol than Youths elsewhere. Secondly, Benue State is a State where Youths from different parts of the country are represented. It follows by implication that the result of this study could be applied to other parts of Nigeria.
INFLUENCE OF ALCOHOLISM ON CHRISTIAN YOUTHS IN BENUE STATE, NIGERIA