IMPACT OF COMMUNAL CONTRIBUTIONS ON THE SUPPLY OF ISLAMIC STUDIES CURRICULUM IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA
This study assessed the Impact of Community Contributions on the Delivery of Islamic Studies Curriculum in Senior Secondary Schools in Kano state. The objectives of the study were to assess the contributions of the community on the delivery of Islamic studies curriculum in senior secondary schools in Kano state, assess the provision of physical infrastructures in girls‟, boys‟ and mixed senior secondary schools in Kano state, assess the impact of PTA‟s on the provision of instructional materials of Islamic studies curriculum in boarding and day secondary schools in Kano state, and assess the impact of communities on the recruitment and payment of teachers‟ salary in senior secondary schools in Kano state. These objectives were translated into research questions and hypotheses. Survey research design was used for the study and the total number of population was two thousand seven hundred and thirteen (2713) out of which 336 were selected as sample size for the study that comprised principals, Islamic Studies teachers, and PTA officials. Simple random sampling technique was used in selecting the sample. Pilot study was conducted in order to have focus and the results of the pivot study showed that Kuder-Richartson 21 was used to establish the reliability of the instrument, a reliability coefficient of 0.94 was obtained. It was based on the result of the pilot study that the research instruments were administered to the research respondents. The instrument used for data collection was a questionnaire developed by the researcher and was validated by the researchers‟ supervisors and experts in the field of curriculum were consulted for certain observations and corrections from Faculty of Education, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. All corrections made were effected. The reliability index found was 0.95 which is acceptable. Data collected were analyzed descriptively using frequencies, mean and inferentially using Chi-Square statistics. Five research questions were analyzed and five hypotheses were tested and all these were accepted. Findings from the study revealed that community members had positive impact in terms of the contributions they gave to the delivery of Islamic studies curriculum in senior secondary schools in Kano state. Physical infrastructures were not adequately provided in girls‟, boys‟ and mixed senior secondary schools in Kano state for successful delivery of Islamic studies curriculum in the schools; the PTA‟s had great impact on the provision of instructional materials of Islamic studies in boarding and day secondary schools in Kano state; the communities contributed to the process of recruitment and payment of teachers‟ salaries for the successful delivery of Islamic studies curriculum in senior secondary schools in Kano state. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that government in collaboration with stakeholders should endeavour to provide additional Islamic studies teaching materials in all senior secondary schools in Kano state; government should look at teachers‟ condition of service and remuneration and, government should create a forum where all stakeholders of education would be meeting to discuss areas of problems in senior secondary education in the state with particular reference to Islamic Studies and make suggestions for proper solutions to the problems.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
The British administration brought about a new system of education which differed fundamentally from what Kano society had known in its centuries of experience as far as education is concerned. This new western style of education was put in place to prepare people for roles in society entirely different from those which Islamic education aimed at. However, it was not in any way antagonistic to Islamic education. Thus, the colonial masters began to establish primary and secondary schools in various places in Nigeria and Kano state inclusive. On this, Fafunwa (1991) asserted that:
Similarly, outside Kano Township, the provincial school at Shahuchi with its elementary and primary sections was for many years the only school where the western education was pursued in Kano emirate. However, a new elementary school of one class was opened at Dala within Kano city in 1927. This school arose out of government sympathy for a continuous demand by members of the commercial community for the education of their own children. The acting Resident of Northern Province confessed that the school at Shahuchi had too much of an official atmosphere. Kano‟s powerful trading interests had intimate business links with township and so were quite sensitive to the challenges emanating from Southern Nigeria. They wanted to give their children the type of education which would enable them to hold their own against these stranger elements and they specifically requested that English language should be taught at Dala. The leader was well known business baron, Alhassan Dantata (p.5657).
In response to the above feeling for the establishment of more schools nearer to the people that many schools were established in Kano in 1970. It was not until this period when this type of western education was taught at various places of Kano. Even before 1970, western education in Kano state was taught under trees and other suitable places for the people of Kano to learn this new type of western education. It is therefore, important to note that secondary school education is the education children received after primary education and before the tertiary stage. The broad goals of secondary education as stated by the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2004) in the National policy on education are to prepare the individual for useful living within the society, and higher education.
According to the FGN (2004), secondary education is expected to: Provide all secondary school leavers with the opportunity for education of a higher level irrespective of sex, social status, religious or ethnic background; Offer diversified curriculum to cater for the differences in talents, opportunities and future roles; Provide trained manpower in the applied science technology and commerce at sub-professional grades; Develop and promote Nigerian languages, arts and culture in the context of the world‟s cultural heritage; Raise a generation of people who can think for themselves, respect the views and feelings of others, respect the dignity of labour, appreciate those values specified under our broad, national goals and live as good citizens; and Provides technical knowledge and vocational skills necessary for agricultural, industrial, commercial and live as good citizens.
In the National Policy on Education (section 5) is stated that the government welcomes the participation of voluntary agencies, communities and private individuals in the establishment, funding and management of secondary schools. State government should prescribe conditions to be met by the communities and others wishing to establish secondary schools. However, government should regulate the establishment of schools, supervise and inspect schools regularly and ensure that all schools follow approved curricula and conform to the national policy on education.
Today secondary school system of education is seen with number of problems ranging from inadequate of funds to inadequate provision of effective facilities, improper planning and policies implementation which at the end may result to failure in the achievement of general goals and objectives of the National policy on education (FRN, 2013). The Kano State government called for greater participation of community towards effective delivery of the curriculum studies in senior secondary schools in the state; although, Kano State government plays a vital role in contributing to the secondary school education in Kano state. But still there is the need for the community to participate in a broader perspective in the process of funding, establishment and management of secondary school education in Kano state. Secondary education nowadays becomes very expensive instrument that needs adequate funding for its successful management and implementation. The sufficiency or insufficiency of the fund affects its management.
However, senior secondary schools are directly established, controlled, managed and supervised by Kano State government. That is to say that Kano state government is responsible for regulating the establishment of senior secondary school, supervise and inspect schools regularly and ensure that all schools follow approved curricular and conform to the National policy on education. Teachers Services Board is responsible for employing qualified teachers to various Senior Secondary Schools in Kano and also responsible for ensuring effective management, supervision, control and maintenance of all senior secondary schools in Kano state.
The researcher observed that Islamic studies curriculum in Kano State requires a lot of teaching materials which includes: textbooks, instructional aids, human resources, chemical tools and apparatus adequately, continuous purchase of other essentials such as fuel, acids and re-agents are necessary. All this cost a lot of money and the importance of equipment for teaching secondary school subject such as computer has become expensive for government. This requires the involvement of community members. Community contributions will go a long way in reducing the level of inadequacy and encourage the teaching and learning of Islamic Studies. To date, community contributions toward the delivery of Islamic Studies curriculum is yet to be appreciated, hence the need to embark on this type of study.
The main reason for this study therefore is to find out the impact of community contributions on the delivery of Islamic Studies curriculum in Secondary schools in Kano State. This has become necessary because if all needed facilities are put in place by the community, there would be positive achievements in our secondary schools. However, if the needed facilities are not well provided by the community, the delivery of Islamic studies curriculum in our various secondary schools would not be effective because government alone cannot adequately provide all the needed facilities in the secondary schools.
There have been some strategies for measuring the impact of community contributions toward the delivery of Islamic Studies curriculum in Kano State in order to ensure the effectiveness of the implementation of Islamic Studies curriculum in all senior secondary schools of Kano state. These included training and retraining of Islamic Studies teachers, constant supervision to ensure the positive impact of the system, use of questionnaires and regular interviews to both teachers and students of Islamic Studies. It is against this background that the researcher finds it necessary to find out the impact of community contributions on the delivery of Islamic studies curriculum in secondary schools in Kano state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
It is important to note that meaningful conclusions cannot be attained in every work without a defined focus. Thus, the researcher intends to find out the problems militating against the effective contributions of the community towards the delivery of Islamic Studies curriculum in senior secondary schools in Kano State.
In spite of the fact that the Federal Government in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2013) called for the participation of voluntary agencies, communities and private individuals in the establishment and management of secondary schools, yet the secondary schools‟ main sources of revenue nowadays are assumed to be grossly inadequate to support the cost of running the secondary school‟s programme (Kano State Ministry of Education, 2011). The school fees collected from students is too small to the extent that it would not even be enough to solve some of the schools‟ problems that need financial commitment. This is because government alone cannot provide all the necessary facilities in schools. The consequence of this problem is that the situation will cripple the educational system in the state and the students will turn to be performing very poor, since all the necessary supports have not been given to the system. Thus, the only way out to avoid this problem is the total support and commitments of community toward the managing, controlling and delivery of Islamic Studies curriculum in the state.
The main focus of this study therefore is to find out in what important ways the community contributions greatly help on the delivery and development of Islamic studies curriculum in secondary schools in Kano State. The researcher also investigated the problems militating against effective contributions and participation of community on the development of Islamic studies curriculum in Kano State. If conducive environment in which learning takes place, regular supervision, adequate teachinglearning materials and qualified teachers are provided in senior secondary schools there would be positive improvement; and if communities are to actively take part in funding the teaching of Islamic studies through either purchase of relevant text books or financial donations to schools there would be greater achievements and this will be enough to show the total commitment of the community towards the delivery of Islamic studies curriculum in secondary schools of Kano State.
The researcher is of the opinion that the community is reluctant at contributing to the effective delivery of Islamic studies curriculum, the reason was given by most people in the study area when interviewed; while such contribution greatly influences effective teaching of the curriculum. The main issue for investigation therefore is the relevance of community participation for effective delivery of Islamic studies curriculum. This is because the community is highly expected to fully engage in supporting senior secondary schools in Kano State. The participation of community toward the delivery of Islamic Studies curriculum will greatly help in producing an excellent result. However, many of the community members do not adequately contribute to Islamic Studies curriculum and situation produces negative impact on the system.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study sought to:
- determine the extent to which urban and rural communities contribute to the delivery of Islamic Studies curriculum in Secondary schools in Kano State;
- assess the extent to which communities contribute to the provision of physical infrastructure in girls‟, boys‟ and mixed senior secondary schools in Kano State;
- examine the impact of PTA‟s on the provision of instructional materials of
Islamic Studies curriculum in boarding and day secondary schools in Kano state;
- assess the impact of communities on the recruitment and payment of teacher‟s salary in senior secondary schools of Kano State.
1.4 Research Questions
The study provided answers to the following questions:
- To what extent did urban and rural communities in Kano state contribute to the delivery of Islamic Studies curriculum in secondary schools in Kano State?
- To what extent did community members or associations provide physical infrastructures in girls‟, boys‟ and mixed senior secondary schools of Kano State?
- What impact did the PTA make in the provision of instructional materials of
Islamic Studies curriculum in boarding and day secondary schools in Kano State?
- To what extent did communities contribute to the recruitment and payment of teacher‟s salaries in senior secondary schools of Kano State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were tested for the study:
- There is no significant difference in the contributions of urban and rural communities towards the delivery of Islamic Studies curriculum in secondary schools in Kano State.
- The contribution of communities towards the provision of physical infrastructure for girls, boys and mixed schools in Kano State was not significantly different from each other.
- There is no significant difference in the provision of instructional materials of Islamic Studies curriculum by PTA‟s in day and boarding secondary schools in Kano State.
- Communities made no significant impact in the recruitment of teachers and payment of their salaries in Kano State.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The research is based on the assumptions that:
- Communities have a role to play in the provision of Islamic studies curriculum in secondary schools in Kano State.
- The Islamic studies teachers of senior secondary schools in Kano state are complying with Islamic studies curriculum provided by ministry of education.
- The students of senior secondary schools in Kano state understand the subject of
Islamic studies very well.
- The Parent Teachers Associations were contributing to the development of
Islamic studies curriculum of senior secondary schools in Kano State.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The educational administrators, Parent Teachers „Association, Inspectorate division of ministry of education, Non-governmental Organization, the teachers, students and Kano state government are expected to benefit from this study and it will be very useful to them for obtaining good output in educational sector. Their main area of concern is how to source, utilize and manage all sort of resources will find the outcome of the study relevant to them and the local communities, since it will reveal the extent to which community has impacted on secondary education in Kano State.
The parent Teachers Association and Community based organizations are also expected to benefit from this study. The outcome of this study will reveal to them the significance of financing Islamic studies curriculum in secondary schools and through this study they will be able to know the extent to which they have impacted on secondary education in Kano State. The study also serves as a guide to inspectorate division of the ministry of education since it can be seen that it is an area of exploration during school inspection and supervision. It will greatly help in knowing the physical contributions of the community based organizations, NGOs, PTA and so forth, to the secondary school education.
The study is useful to Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) as it will assist them to continue contributing to the progress and development of Islamic studies curriculum in secondary schools. Through this study, the NGOs will come to know that they are strongly demanded to take part in the establishment and management of secondary schools (NPE, 2011). This will therefore motivate them to give their support hundred percent to secondary school education across the state. Through this study the Kano State government can be motivated and to add more efforts in regulating the establishment of secondary schools, supervise and inspect schools regularly and ensure that all schools follow approved curriculum and conform to the National policy on Education. In fact this study will be relevant to Kano state government, parents, nongovernmental organizations, students and teachers and well as the general public are to benefits from this study.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The scope of this study was limited to finding out the Impact of Community Contributions on the Delivery of Islamic Studies Curriculum in Secondary Schools in
Kano State. Although, there are different levels of education, the study was limited to the secondary level. The secondary school level of education is expected to be a joint venture between the community, private and government, but this study was delimited to examining the contributions of the community to the development of Islamic studies curriculum in secondary schools. The study variables are the communities, teachers, students and learning environment.
IMPACT OF COMMUNAL CONTRIBUTIONS ON THE SUPPLY OF ISLAMIC STUDIES CURRICULUM IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN KANO STATE, NIGERIA