EVALUATION OF THE PROVISION AND SUPERVISION OF FACILITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ZARIA EDUCATION ZONE, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
The study was on the evaluation of the provision and management of facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria. To achieve the main objectives, four specific objectives were stated which are to: ascertain the provision and management of teaching facilities in Secondary Schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria; examine the provision and management of learning facilities in Secondary Schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kadunastate,Nigeria; determine the provision and management of recreational and sport facilities in Secondary Schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna state, Nigeria; assess the provision and management of welfare/health facilities in Secondary Schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna state, Nigeria. Corresponding research questions and hypotheses were stated. The descriptive survey research design was used. The population of the study consists of teachers and management of secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone numbering 1055 and 152, respectively. However, 292 respondents were purposively selected using research advisers table of sample selection. The instrument for data collection is called “Provision and Management of Facilities in Secondary Schools Questionnaire” (PAMAFASSQ). The instrument is duly validated. The data analysis tools were percentage and frequency counts, arithmetic means, standard deviation and independent samples t-test. The study among other things discovered that the provision and management of teaching facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone is very low especially on management of laboratories. There was poor provision and management of recreation and sport facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, which was not adequate provided. The study among others recommend that, there is need for adequate funds to be set aside by Kaduna State Government to assist in the provision and effective management of facilities in secondary schools in the study area; Learning facilities such as stationeries, text books, projectors be supplied by the schools from internally generated revenue instead of waiting for the state government.
1.1 Background to the Study
Governments at all levels, private individuals, organizations and other stakeholders like Parents Development Partners among others are investing on education as a means of fostering national development. The Government stated that, ‘education has witnessed active participation by non-government agencies communities and individuals as well as government intervention’ (Federal Republic of Nigeria 2013). Thus, educational institutions have been established at primary, secondary and tertiary levels, with the hope that the nation’s human resources would he transformed into competent and productive agents of development in all sectors of the economy.
In order to fulfill their objectives, educational institutions require an environment where teachers, students and other personnel will enjoy their stay and perform their duties effectively. According to Akubue (1991), good school environment would foster desirable behavior, creativity, harmonious relationship and problem-solving skills among students. In the educational institutions, facilities constitute essential inputs which could generate favorable learning environment, facilitate interaction and enhance achievement of educational objectives. In fact, school curriculum would be meaningful and functional if required facilities are provided in adequate quantity at appropriate time.
School facilities are a key resource in meeting teaching and learning objectives. The effective management of school
plants/facilities involves the alignment of asset planning and decision making with educational priorities and strategies. Sound management across the facilities life cycle facilitates better decision-making about the acquisition, ongoing use or operation and ultimately the disposal of assets at the right time, and in a cost effective manner (Adeboye, 2010).
The public school administrator as stated by Evans (2009) is the executive head of one of the largest businesses in any city or country. His functions are unique and complex, for he is responsible for tremendous investments in real property and for the lives, safety, and well-being of thousands of students. In the day to day exercise of his function, the demands made upon his time, ability, and judgment are many and varied. The most important function of the school head is the administration of the instructional program. To this responsibility he should devote the major portion of his time. Good teaching requires a good learning environment. According to Abdulkarim (2007), the atmosphere of a school depends considerably upon the quality of care given the plant and its equipment. Schools can be truly effective only in a system which provides a well-planned, well-supervised program of services to enhance the educational climate.
The administration of public schools has become a complex array of tasks which require a high order of management skills. Although emphasis may be placed on a specific tale at various times, public school management is a total skill, a sum of many tasks, each bearing a relationship to the whole. Good educational management comprehends this responsibility and gives due emphasis to the separate tasks as becomes necessary. The work of school plant management therefore depends upon an understanding of the total philosophy and purposes of the school. It is a complex of its own within the total pattern faced by the school administrator. The administrative responsibility for plant management may be divided into functions or areas (Black, 2003). In an attempt to discuss the management role in school plants Fasasi (n.d) identified two stages in the management of facilities in secondary schools where the management role can be manifest. They are
provision and utilization stages. Fasasi (n.d) further asserts that in the process of utilization, two other functions emerge. They are maintenance and improvement stages.
The provision of Educational Facilities is the combined responsibility of the public and the private sectors. Execution of educational programmes demands that facilities are provided if success is to be achieved. Government, school proprietors, parents and other stakeholders are expected to provide the facilities for their schools. The Government stated that all stakeholders would be involved in every aspect of school management. This undoubtedly includes the provision of school plants. However, this aspect is one of the most neglected areas in the school system (Olagboye, 2004). As a result there is disparity in provision of facility from one school to another in urban center. While the schools located in rural areas are neglected. However, on the aspect of utilization of school plants in secondary schools, Adeboyeje (2000) stated that utilization is the-degree or extent to which an item has been rut into effective use. According to him, various degrees of utilization include non-utilization, under-utilization, maximum utilization, optimum utilization and over-utilization. Nonutilization occurs when a facility is not put into use all. When a facility is not used in its full capacity, under utilization occurs. There is overutilization when a facility is used more than its capacity. These degrees of utilization constitute a waste of resources and are counterproductive. On ‘the other hand maximum utilization occurs when facilities are put into effective usage in line with primary objectives.
Optimum utilization occurs when facilities are used for many purposes by the school and members of the community resources put into maximum and optimum usage are not wasted. They are likely to enhance achievement of educational objectives.
Nevertheless, facilities tend to depreciate as soon as they are provided and put into use. Therefore, there is need for maintenance through repair and servicing of components in order to restore their physical condition and sustain their working capacity. Maintenance enhances performance and durability. It also prevents wastages. There are preventive, corrective, breakdown and shutdown maintenance services (Adeboyeje, 2000). Preventive maintenance occurs regularly by checking and rechecking the available facilities and taking necessary measures to prevent mal functioning or non-functioning of a particular facility. Prevention is not only better: it is also cheaper than any other measures. It is ‘ proactive in nature. Corrective maintenance involves reactivation or replacement of facilities in order to normalize their performances. When a Facility or equipment breaks down completely, a major repair or replacement may be needed. There may be a time when the institution may need to close down in order to allow a major repair to be carried out. Flood, fire or wind disaster may warrant closure of an institution for a major repair to be effected. Apart from depreciation Galadanchi (2006) opine that facilities tend be outdated as a result of changing needs of the society which necessitate a change in school curriculum. In this regard, facilities will need to be improved different periods. Improvement of facilities implies alteration or modification of Facilities to suit a new demand, new situation or new programme. Whenever there are changes in any part of the education system, the existing facilities will require modification or replacement. The management role in the above can be seen in the areas of planning, organizing, coordinating, directing, controlling, staffing, budgeting and reporting. The school management has to plan for the provision, utilization, maintenance and improvement of the school plant. This also applied to other functions of the management.
Demand for educational facilities is on increase in Nigerian secondary schools. This is partly due to the Federal Government’s efforts, through educational policies such as Universal Basic Education, to bring all categories of citizens into school and to ensure their retention till graduation. Also, the Government is highly committed to the actualization of objectives of developmental1 programmes such as
“the Millennium Development Goals, Vision 20:2020, and the Agenda 2063 among other developmental programmes. The commitment, as demonstrated in the implementation of educational policies, implies a further increase in number of schools and consequently in facilities required. In this situation, greater demands would be mounted on the available facilities. Nwadiani (2001) observed that the facilities are not only over utilized, they are also poorly maintained. Similarly, in a study conducted by Aigboje (2007) on Universal Basic Education in Nigeria, he found out that some school facilities were inadequate while others were not available at all .These situations are posing challenges to administrators of schools who are supposed to manage available facilities efficiently and effectively. Sequel to the above, this study attempts to evaluate the provision and management of school plants in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State-Nigeria as a contribution towards the development of knowledge and literary presentation in the study area and Nigeria at large.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The relevant literature reviewed for this study revealed that many of the Nigeria‟s secondary schools face the combined challenges of deteriorating conditions, out-of-date design and capacity utilization pressures. These combined deficiencies impair the quality of teaching and learning and also create health and safety problems for staff and students. The effects of deteriorating condition and poor maintenance of school infrastructure are threats to school management, curriculum delivery and students‟ academic performance. The results of Senior School Certificate Examination conducted by the West African Examination Council and the National Examination Council were not commendable in Nigeria between 2007 and 2014. The percentage of students who obtained credit level passes in five subjects and above including English Language and Mathematics was about 25% in Nigeria and 35-45% in Kaduna State during the period under review.
Also in 2011 May/June Senior School Certificate Examination conducted by the West African Examination Council, only 30.99% of the 1,540,250 candidates obtained credit level passes and above in five subjects including English Language and Mathematics in the 36 States of the Federation, and the Federal Capital Territory. The abysmal performance of students in examinations had been largely attributed to inadequate provision and management of school plant which include teaching facilities, learning, recreational and sport and welfare facilities. This consequently leads to ineffective implementation of the school curriculum. Hence, there is a big gap in quality, resulting from large number of students in crowded classrooms, using inadequate and obsolete equipment and with disillusioned teachers. These combined deficiencies perhaps constituted a major gap in the quality of school plant, thus, many challenges bear on teaching and learning that prevent the education system from getting the best out of its efforts to achieve the required level of attainment in teaching and learning activities in secondary schools.
This situation has been a source of concern to the school administrators, government and other stakeholders. It is against this background that this study assessed the provision and Management of
School facilities in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The main objective of this study is to evaluate of the provision and management of school facilities in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State-Nigeria. The study seeks to attain the following specific
- ascertain the provision and management of teaching facilities in Secondary Schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria;
- examine the provision and management of learning facilities in Secondary Schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria;
- determine the provision and management of recreation and sport facilities in Secondary Schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State,
- assess the provision and management of welfare/health facilities in
Secondary Schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
1.4 Research Questions
Based on the specific objectives stated above, the following
Research Questions are stipulated to guide the study:
- Are teaching facilities provided and managed in secondary schools in
Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria?
- Is there provision and management of learning facilities in Secondary
Schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria?
- Is there provision and management of recreation and sport facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria?
- Are welfare/health facilities provided and managed in Secondary
Schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null Hypotheses were formulated for the study:
H01: There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and management on the provision and management of teaching facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria;
|H02:||There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and management on the provision and management of learning facilities in secondary Schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria;|
|H03:||There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and management on the provision and management of recreational and sport facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna
|H04:||There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers and|
management on the provision and management of welfare/health facilities in secondary schools in Zaria Education Zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study assessed the provision and Management of School facilities in Zaria Education zone, Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study if well utilized will be of utmost importance to all stakeholders in the business of education in the study area, Kaduna state and Nigeria at large.
The study will assist government in its effort to provide adequate, time-tested and relevant educational facilities to promote effective transaction and communication between teacher and the students. The study will also bring to the limelight the state of the school facilities in the study area with a view to finding solution to their inadequacies where necessary. The study will also reveal the management attitude towards school facilities provision, utilization, maintenance and improvement. The study will also reveal the competencies of the school management teams and their approaches towards effective school facilities management.
Furthermore, the study will bring to the limelight areas that need adequate and prompt attention with regards to school facilities management. The study will also provide parents and philanthropists on areas that need their helping hands with regards to school facilities provision, utilization, maintenance and improvements with a view to providing optimum school facilities utilization.
The study will serve as a viable source of literature for future researchers who want to delve further in the area of school facilities management in the study area and beyond. It will assist future researchers‟ with choice adequate research methodology for effective results.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study assessed the provision and management of school plants in Zaria education zone, Kaduna state-Nigeria. The study is delimited to secondary schools in Zaria education zone, Kaduna state. The study also covered school management team and teachers in the study area. The school management team in this study refers to the following: The
Principal; Vice Principal Administration; Vice Principal Academic; Senior Master and Maintenance officer. The study considers them as the management team and should have adequate knowledge with regards to schoolfacilities provision, utilization, maintenance and improvement. The study covered the provision and management of the following categories of school facilities:
i. Teaching facilities; ii. Learning facilities; iii. Recreational and sport facilities; and iv. Welfare/Health facilities;
EVALUATION OF THE PROVISION AND SUPERVISION OF FACILITIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ZARIA EDUCATION ZONE, KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA