EVALUATION OF ACCESSIBILITY, ORGANIZATION AND APPLICATION OF MULTIMEDIA RESOURCES FOR TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN INSTITUTIONS OF EDUCATION IN NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA

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EVALUATION OF ACCESSIBILITY, ORGANIZATION AND APPLICATION OF MULTIMEDIA RESOURCES FOR TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN INSTITUTIONS OF EDUCATION IN NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA  

ABSTRACT

The study examined the Evaluation of Availability, Organization and Utilization of Multimedia Resources for Teaching Social Studies in Colleges of Education in North-Central Nigeria. The study is guided by six specific objectives, six corresponding research questions null hypotheses. However, the study used male and female lecturers of Social Studies selected from state and federal colleges of education in the study are (north-central, Nigeria). Furthermore, survey research design is used. The study used census purposive sampling because of the manageability of the population of the study. The study also used structured questionnaire titled ―Availability, Organization and Utilization of Multimedia Resources Questionnaire (AOUMREQ) as data collection instrument. The instrument is validated by supervisors and statisticians for content and face values. The study pilot tested the instrument and it is certified as statistically fit for the main work. However, the study used independent samples t-test to validate the study’s null hypotheses and arithmetic mean, standard deviation to answer the research questions. The study among other thing discovered that there is no significant difference in the opinions of male and female respondents (Lecturers) on the availability of multimedia resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone and no significant difference in the opinions of male and female respondents (Lecturers) on the organization of multimedia resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone. the study made some recommendations among which are the Federal Government through its agencies like National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE), TETFUND and the likes should organize more workshop, seminar and in-house training for its academic staff in colleges of education to widen their awareness, organization and effective utilization of multimedia resources the utilization of multimedia resources can be improved by providing virtual libraries with uninterrupted internet facilities and power supply. This will assists Social Studies Lecturers to access these resources at no cost.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 

                    1.1       Background to the Study

The availability, effective organization and utilization of multimedia resources by a qualified Social Studies teacher putting into consideration the topic to be taught and the students’ level and ability are the starting point and foundation for attaining effective interaction and communication between teacher and students in Social Studies classroom. For the success or failure of Social Studies lessons depends on the choice, organization and utilization of multimedia resources by the social studies teacher. Integration of multimedia resources into instructional process can help to reduce curriculum barriers and improve learning for all students.

The introduction of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching remains one of the important dimensions of human technological advances in contemporary times. It is regarded as one of the main innovations in the education sector due to the fact that it has the potential to bring about substantial system-wide benefits in terms of improving the quality of teaching and learning process. In the light of this, Abdallah (2013) stated that there is of course a need to emphasize the added value that ICT can bring about to teaching and learning and that effort should be geared towards effective development of learning resources. The renewed interest and the euphoria in ICT today might have been borne out of the fact that Nigeria does not want to lag behind in the global race that is basking or being controlled by the upsurge of ICT revolution in all aspects of life including education. Many countries around the world have introduced Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) into schools via different courses of action. Their use is also underlined by Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development [OECD] (2001) as a necessity for improving quality in teaching and learning. Technologies such as multimedia are seen to have special significance for teacher education because of the growing expectation that teachers must be technologically literate in order to provide relevant instruction in schools. Many scholars argued that it is the responsibility of teacher education programme to produce students who are confident and competent users of technology. Because students needed to see technology modelled for them by their teachers (Davis, Willis, Fulton, & Austin, 1995), teacher educators faced mounting pressure to be skilled in the use of a range of technologies in order that these skills are passed on to prospective teachers in school systems. Interactive multimedia resources are examples of these technologies.

The term multimedia means more than one media. Multimedia are instructional programmes that can be highly interactive and feature combinations of sound, animation, video, graphics, and text. According to Hostetler (2001), ―Multimedia is the use of computer to present and combine text, graphics, audio and video with links and tools that let the user navigate, interact, create and communicate‖. In other words, multimedia is the combination of various digital media, into an integrated multi-sensory interactive application or presentation to convey information to an audience, (Butcher and Powell 2005; Demodharan and Rengaranjan 2007). Therefore, multimedia is a learning tool that allows learners to organize, represent and construct knowledge in multiple modalities that include text, audios, graphics, animation and videos, (Wang 2006: 316). In addition, multimedia programmes do not necessarily require Internet access.

 

Other than that, interactivity is also part of the elements that are required in order to compel interactive communication process through the use of multimedia. This involves combination of visual materials. It is considered therefore as a learning resource package which can be effective when several media are used concurrently for specific instructional purpose. When two or more pictures are projected simultaneously, on one or more screen for group viewing, the compound concept multi-image is used. However, when two or more different types of media are used, sequentially in a single instruction for self-paced learning package, the term multimedia is used. In this regard, in using multimedia or multi-image, a large amount of information can be passed across to students, and high interest can be created in students. Furthermore, media can be tailored towards different objective outlined for the lesson. Multimedia can be effectively used for instructional purposes, (Burden & Byrd, 1999). The use of multimedia in teaching and learning Social Studies is not only able to maintain students’ interest but also able to make them enjoy learning. Furthermore, Cairn-cross and Mansion (2001) pointed out that multimedia has the potential to create high quality learning environments.

 

With multimedia technology becoming such an integral part of students’ lives, educators are incorporating it into projects to promote learning in their classrooms. The trend toward technology enhanced classrooms has escalated quickly at the turn of the millennium in Nigeria and students are increasingly becoming tech-savvy day by day. Students are using multimedia to connect with different cultures and societies that can broaden their learning experience, (Warschauer, 1999). Technology provides an innovative way to reach and collaborate with students and educators all over the world. However, not only is technology useful in communicating with others, it also provides unique ways to complete assignments. Additionally, students learn better and faster when they are actively engaged in their learning. Digital media can be a great vehicle for student engagement with classroom technology…‖, (Quinones, 2010:28).

 

Social Studies as a field of study is not excluded in whatever effects ICT is making in the educational arena. Technology’s capacity to reach learners in any place and at any time has the potential to promote revolutionary changes in the educational paradigm. This means eliminating the premise that learning time equals classroom time. Students can be encouraged to revisit the lessons/topics to reinforce learning without active intervention by teachers,(Dania & Enakrire

2012). Buttressing on the above, Mezieobi (2013) posits that ICT has made possible effective

Social Studies instruction by institutionalized electronic field trip among others. According to Acikalin & Duru (2005), special attention has been given to the adaptation of computer technology into teaching-learning process for effective learning and increasing students’ achievement. In recent years, it has been realized that there is an immense benefit in applying computer technology in the Social Studies classroom. There is an increasing research on the effectiveness and benefits of the integrating computer technology in education in recent years. Sheffield (1996) stated that as a result of the recent developments in technology, computers and the Internet have become more important teaching tools in the Social Studies classroom. In addition, Whitworth & Berson (2003) point out that, “within the Social Studies, technology has served a dual role as an important instructional tool that may have a significant effect on the global, political, social, and economic functioning of society”. According to Whitworth and Berson (2003), as a method or topic instruction, computers and technology may have significant impacts on Social Studies Education.

As new concepts of learning have evolved, teachers are expected to facilitate learning and make it meaningful to individual learners rather than just to provide knowledge and skills. Modern developments of innovative technologies has provided new possibilities for teaching professions, but at the same time have placed more demands on teacher to learn how to use these new technologies in their teaching, (Robinson and Latchem, 2003). These challenges posit, Carlson and Gadio (2002), ask teacher to continuously retrain themselves and acquire new knowledge and skills while maintaining their job.

 

Despite the fact that Nigeria has accepted ICT as an innovation that should be incorporated, as an integral part into our instructional delivery system in all school subjects including Social Studies, it is lamentable that a number of factors have beset the effective organization and utilization of multimedia resources toward teaching and learning Social Studies in Nigeria’s

Colleges of Education. While many writers blamed conservative or negative faculty attitudes

(Murphy, 1994; Benavides & Surry, 1995; Massy & Zemsky, 1995; Forgo & Koczka, 1996; Heron, 1996), some studies revealed that technology use is impeded by a range of factors including lack of time, training, equipment, resources and higher managerial support, (Spotts & Bowman,

1993; Wetzel, 1993; Davis, Willis, Fulton & Austin, 1995; Lyons & Carlson, 1995; Spotts & Bowman, 1995). In addition, research in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States suggested that lack of recognition, rewards or incentives may be hindering technology use, (Davis et al., 1995; Hesketh et al., 1996; Ramsden & Martin, 1996; Willis et al., 1995). This is true to Nigerian situation especially in Colleges of Education where prospective teachers are trained.

 

Nonetheless, it is quite disturbing that the fact that ICT facilities (multimedia resources) are in gross short supply particularly in some Colleges of Education and there is dearth of Social Studies teachers versed in the knowledge of the usage and application of ICT. The few that have the knowledge do not often utilize it for teaching and learning purposes. The government has not demonstrated adequate commitment to ICT infrastructure (multimedia inclusive) provision in Nigeria’s tertiary institutions. At best governments in Nigeria are mouthing ICT without adequately funding it to engineer ICT revolution in the classroom.

                    1.2       Statement of the Problem

The current teaching strategies in Social Studies in Nigeria’s Colleges of Education have failed to enhance problem-solving skills, curiosity, and critical and logical thinking among students. There is a need to move from traditional approaches to more innovative Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) enriched approaches for meaningful learning. The fastpaced, diverse, and technologically advanced world has posed challenges for both teachers and students. It is against this background that this study evaluated the availability, organization and utilization of multimedia resources for teaching Social Studies in colleges of education in NorthCentral Zone, Nigeria.

 

 

 

                    1.3          Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to evaluate the Availability, Organization and Utilization of Multimedia Resources for teaching Social Studies in Colleges of Education in North-Central Zone, Nigeria. The study is guided by the following specific objectives:

  1. To determine the opinions of male and female Lecturers on the Availability of

Multimedia Resources for effective teaching  of Social Studies in colleges of education in

North-Central Zone;

  1. To examine the opinions of male and female Lecturers on the Organization of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in

North-Central Zone; iii. To find out the opinions of male and female Lecturers on the Utilization of

Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in

North-Central Zone; iv. To ascertain the opinions of state and federal college lecturers on the Availability of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone;

  1. To investigate the opinions of state and federal college lecturers on the Organization of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone; vi. To ascertain the opinions of state and federal college lecturers on the Utilization of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone.

                    1.4       Research Questions

The study answers the following questions:

  1. What is the difference in the opinions of male and female Lecturers on the Availability of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone?
  2. What is the difference in the opinions of male and female Lecturers on the Organization of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone?
  • What is the difference in the opinions of male and female Lecturers on the Utilization of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone?
  1. What is the difference in the opinions of state and federal college Lecturers on the Availability of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone?
  2. What is the difference in the opinions of state and federal college Lecturers on the Organization of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone?
  3. What is the difference in the opinions of state and federal college Lecturers on the Utilization of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

In the light of the above, the following hypotheses are formulated for the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of male and female Lecturers on the Availability of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone; ii. There is no significant difference in the opinions of male and female Lecturers on the Organization of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone; iii. There is no significant difference in the opinions of male and female Lecturers on the Utilization of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone;
  2. There is no significant difference in the opinions of state and federal college Lecturers on the Availability of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone;

 

  1. There is no significant difference in the opinions of state and federal college Lecturers on the Organization of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of

Social Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone; vi. There is no significant difference in the opinions of state and federal college Lecturers on the Utilization of Multimedia Resources for effective teaching of Social

Studies in colleges of education in North-Central Zone.

                    1.6       Significance of the Study

Nigeria considers education as an instrument par excellence, which it intends utilizing to attain development in all its ramifications. Social Studies education is out to assist Nigeria in this direction by instilling moral values and decorum among other things to its learners aimed at producing effective citizens who are useful to themselves and their country at large. Therefore, if the above statements are true, then availability and effective organization and utilization of multimedia resources are inevitable to make the vision and mission a reality especially in Social Studies teacher training programme. This is because no education system can rise above the quality of its teachers.

The findings of the study is expected to be useful to policy makers at various levels of decision making processes especially in colleges of education in the study area. Beside, the authorities of National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) will also find the research useful as it will assist in ascertaining the levels of availability, organization and utilization of multimedia resources in the colleges of education especially in Social Studies departments.

This study is also aimed at making the Social Studies teachers generally aware of the importance of the need of using multimedia resources in the teaching learning process and to make them realize that students learn better when they come in contact with resources that appeal to multiple senses. Besides, this work would be very useful to education policy makers since it will expose extent of the availability, organization and utilization of multimedia resources for teaching Social Studies in colleges of education in Nigeria. Moreover, some of the problems associated with the use of multimedia resources and their solutions provided will go a long way in helping them in the formulation of policies.

The research work would be of immense help to would-be teachers coming from Colleges of Education in the implementation of the new National Policy on Education and one will see that it is highly essential to use multimedia resources for teaching learning process. This work would be another contribution to knowledge and would definitely expand its frontiers. This will lead to further research development.

Further, the study would be of great significance to the education policy administrators. This is because, their decisions affects all and sundry in the business of teaching and learning in education industry at large. The study’s literature revealed some of the hitches militating against adequate utilization of multimedia resources. This will assists the policy makers to identify the problems with a view to finding sustainable solution especially the issue of funding training need of social studies teachers on Information and

Communication Technology (ICTs) for effective service delivery.

The study also identified areas of caution for the teacher and the co-assistants in order to reduce the risks associated with the worthy course to the barest minimum.The study would also serve as a contribution to knowledge and learning to all and sundry but most especially relevant to stakeholders in the teaching and learning in the education industry at large and Social Studies specifically. Furtherstill, researchers in the field of multimedia in Social Studies in particular and beyond would find it rich in contents and facts which serve as a reference source and a point to build upon for future researches.

Besides, this work would be very useful to education policy makers since it would expose some problems associated with the use of multimedia aids and the solutions provided would go a long way to help them in the formulation of policies. Beside, researchers would find this work rich in contents.

1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the Study

 

The study evaluates the availability, organization and utilization of multimedia resources for Teaching Social Studies in colleges of education in Nigeria. The study is delimited to

Colleges of Education in North-central Geo-political Zone that offers Social Studies

Education as a course.

EVALUATION OF ACCESSIBILITY, ORGANIZATION AND APPLICATION OF MULTIMEDIA RESOURCES FOR TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN INSTITUTIONS OF EDUCATION IN NORTH-CENTRAL NIGERIA  

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