EFFICACY OF SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM IN PROMOTING DEMOCRATIC VALUES AND POLITICAL INVOLVEMENT AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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EFFICACY OF SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM IN PROMOTING DEMOCRATIC VALUES AND POLITICAL INVOLVEMENT AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study investigated the Efficacy of Social Studies Curriculum in Promoting democratic values and political participation among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was guided by three objectives, three research questions and three hypotheses. Descriptive survey method was employed with total population of 9995 out of which a sample of four hundred and fifteen (415) respondents were randomly selected from nine (9) selected Junior Secondary Schools across 26 Junior Secondary Schools in Giwa Educational Zone. The Social Studies Curriculum for democratic values and political participation Questionnaire (SOSCDVPPQ) was used for data collection. Mean and standard deviation were used for descriptive analysis, while Independent t-test was used for inferential analysis. The three (3) null hypotheses formulated for the study were all rejected. The result revealed that, there was significant difference between the mean opinion scores of JSSII and JSSIII Students on the efficacy of Social Studies Curriculum in the development of democratic values and political participation in Kaduna State (t(401)=2.357, p=.019<.05); significant difference exist between the mean opinion scores of male and female Students on the efficacy of Social Studies Curriculum in promoting democratic values and political participation in Kaduna State (t(401)=1.958, p=.05=.05) and significant difference was found between the mean opinion scores of Urban and Rural Students on the efficacy of Social Studies Curriculum in improvement of democratic values and political participation in Kaduna State (t(401)= -2.472, p=.014<.05). This implied that, significant difference between gender, class level and location of Junior Secondary School students on efficacy of Social Studies Education Curriculum in promoting democratic values and political participation in Kaduna State. Based on these findings, it was recommended  among others that, Social Studies Education Curriculum content of JSS II should be given more emphasis on Issues of democratic values and political participation in order to boost students‟ morale on politics, Social Studies teachers should make special consideration on female JSS Students on how to participate in political activities in their respective communities as their male counterpart participate, and also Social Studies teachers should be encouraged to use various methods and strategies to teach citizenship and political contents of the curriculum at both rural and urban areas of Kaduna state.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

1.1.      Background to the Study

The history of Democratic values and political participation in more than half a century of Nigeria‟s existence as a sovereign nation-state is a record of political uncertainties. Since its independence in 1960, Nigeria has been struggling establish a workable and durable democracy but its dismal political actuality characterized by consistent inability to conduct credible and transparent elections in which its citizens have access to adequately enforced and effectively protected opportunities, to exercise their franchise in the choice of their leaders, has made the agenda of democratic sustainability largely a illusion (Member 2015).

Since the country‟s return to democratic rule in 1999, transitional elections in 2003, 2007, 2011 and 2015 were won and lost under conditions in which electoral malpractices, rigging and violence were pronounced. Participation in elections in Nigeria is characterized by machine politics which “involves the parceling out of parts of the State including territories to individuals, usually under the leadership of one or two notables … who maintain their pretends essentially by force” (Member,  2015). Nigeria‟s political and social life is passing through a phase which poses the danger of destroying the long accepted democratic values and political participation. Increasingly, there is an explicit, as well as an implicit, need to stress democratic values and political participation  in Social Studies education in order to booster politics among Junior Secondary School (JSS) Students.

Moreover, Subba (2014) asserted that democratic values that take place in literature are: equality, respect life, justice, freedom, honesty, search for goodness, cooperation, self-esteem, tolerance, sensibility, responsibility, acceptance of difference, safety, peace, development, perfection, and effectiveness. Thus, establishing democracy

 

is mostly dependent on the understanding, skills and attitudes of people which are primarily the responsibility of Social Studies education.  On the other hand, political participation to larger extent referred to those political activities of citizens, either as individuals or group intended or designed to influence the political process. It is the actual involvement of the citizenry in decision making process, contribution to public debate on national issues and voting,  influencing directly or indirectly the ways and method of governance or more specifically the output or outcomes of the political process (Arowolo & Aluko, 2010; Daniel, 2015).

Democratic values and political participation must reflect the norms and values that place a premium on the freedom of individuals from state abuse and infringement of right by the law as well as providing opportunity for all citizens to have the same access to the material and cultural resources that guarantee their basic livelihood and to a large extent determine their political participation (Daniel 2015). However, political participation and democratic culture in Nigeria as a concept is one that ridden with grievances and fear of isolation hence the struggle for central power by different ethnic groups. This struggle negatively affects electoral activities in the area of malpractice like thuggery, rigging and other political electoral violence, which is replete in party politics in Nigeria (Daniel 2015).

Political violence is gradually becoming one of the permanent features of democratisation in Nigeria. This is because every campaigning ground is associated with violence and killings capable of truncating Nigeria‟s democracy if not curtailed. Democratisation process in Nigeria is growing at a very sluggish trend, thus threatening the basis of political stability, deepening the root of political gerontocracy and strengthening sectional political hegemony (Arowolo & Aluko, 2010). Political violence seems to be institutionalised since it emanates from the corridor of power and so politics and political activities become exclusive rights of the „dirty‟ politicians who make politics dirty in the first place. The fact that political game in Nigeria is played at the discrepancy with set rules makes it a dirty game. Politics is a clean game outside the shores of Africa and it becomes dirty at its importation to Africa. Politics must have been infected with greed, tribalism, intolerance, injustice and parochial instinct of political leadership (Arowolo & Aluko, 2010).

The problems of Nigeria politics Just to mention but few are: lack of patriotism, political violence which includes the killings of political opponents, corruption in politics, looting, arson and gross in disciplinary acts displayed by political leaders and followers. These problems are increasing daily like fire burning grasses during the dry season. The existence of the above and many more brings doubt into the minds of people and makes them wonder if Subjects like Social Studies education which was essentially meant to produce young adults with „descent‟ minds and behave like good citizens ever exist in Nigerian School setup was in place.

Thus, despite the fact that, since the Ayeitoro experiment in the teaching of Social Studies in the1960s, the Subject has been introduced to other parts of the country.

The implementation of the National policy on Education (FRN 2004) made Social Studies a compulsory and core Subject at the primary and Junior Secondary Schools (JSS). Social Studies Curriculum was designed in such a way  that will helps young individuals to fully develop in to human adults by relating them to their society by means of appropriate knowledge and experiences selected from the social sciences (Political Science, Geography, Sociology, Economics, and Anthropology) and other disciplines such as History and Religious studies (Edinyang, 2014). While Ogundare (2010) viewed

Social Studies Curriculum as an Educational programme which embraces knowledge, methods, resources, evaluation and societal experiences offered to the learners, in an effort to promote effective democratic values and skills for effective citizenship.

In a nutshell, Social Studies Education in Nigeria has a special task to perform in transforming Nigeria and Nigerians into a modern State, which include healing of the social and political wounds of the past decades, nurturing the most recent hopes in good ethnic group relationship, patriotism, nationalism, and to produce productive reforms to make the nation a just and progressive society. It also helps to foster the desire for selfreliance, national efficiency and national pride.

Furthermore, Social Studies Education is an integrated study of man as he battles for survival in the environment preparing him for citizenship through the acquisition of useful knowledge, information, skills, values, attitudes and positive actions. Thus Social Studies Education has been introduced and charged with the responsibility of developing citizens right attitudes towards these societal problems. The issue of democratic values and political participation has been a practical area of interest for both sociologists and political scientists, mainly because it relates essentially with the act of democratization of citizens, which range right form registration exercise, accreditation, casting vote, at different election ranging from Local Council to Presidential election. The question is that, are these problems solved or tackled as expected? What are the possible obstacles militating against the attainment of these problems? Could it be lack of appropriate Content of Social Studies Curriculum that could inculcate the virtue of democratic values and political participation or lack of standard teaching of Social Studies? These questions remain in the mind of the researcher in the course of assessing the JSS Social Studies Curriculum in the Classroom situation; whether it can boost the morale of JSS Students to have the culture of democratic values and as well fully Participate in politics so as to have effective citizenship in the country. It is for these reasons that this study was chosen to assess the efficacy of JSS Social Studies Education Curriculum in promoting democratic values and political participation among students.

        1.2.      Statement of the Problem

In all democratic societies, citizens are expected to internalize, appreciate and demonstrate tolerance, respect for one another views as well as participating in building the society by moving it forward. All these were enshrine in the Nigerian constitution of 1999, which guaranteed right to vote and be voted for, freedom of speech and association, as well as movement, right to own properties and practice religions belief of one‟s own choice.

Unfortunately, many Nigerians are not demonstrating acceptable political attitudes and values necessary for effective political participation and this lead to political thuggery which disrupt societal peace, arson, assassination, election rigging, kidnapping of candidates during election, killings of political opponents, snatching ballot boxes, casting vote more than one time, buying voters card, destroying political parties office and properties, looting and gross in disciplinary acts displayed by political leaders and followers. It is evidently that there are undemocratic attitudes and high level of rudeness commonly among our youths more especially those from uncultured home. As such Nigerian youths are misguided by some naughty politicians to involve in negative behaviour. Worst of all is that, many youths in our institution of leaning even as low as the junior secondary level have allowed themselves to be joined into various rival cult groups resulting in killing and injury of lives in our institution of learning. This is no doubt has contributed immensely to the increase of insecurity and disunity of the country at large. It is against the backdrop that this study examined the extent to which Social

Studies Curriculum serve as an effective instrument for promoting democratic values and political participation among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State, Nigeria based on the view point of JSS.

        1.3        Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study was to assess the efficacy of Socials Studies curriculum in promoting democratic values and political participation among JSS Students in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. assess the perception of JSS Students on the efficacy of Social Studies Curriculum in promoting democratic values and political participation by Class level in Kaduna State.
  2. find out the perception of JSS Students on the efficacy of Social Studies Curriculum in promoting democratic values and political participation by gender in Kaduna State.
  • find out the perception of JSS Students on the efficacy of Social Studies Curriculum in prompting democratic Values and political participation by location in Kaduna State.

        1.4.       Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What is the perception of JSSII and JSSIII Students on the efficacy of Social Studies Curriculum in promoting democratic values and political participation in Kaduna State?
  2. What is the perception of male and female JSS Students on the efficacy of Social Studies Curriculum in promoting democratic values and political participation in Kaduna State?
  • Do Urban and Rural JSS Students differ in their perception on the efficacy of Social Studies Curriculum in promoting democratic values and political participation in Kaduna State?

 

        1.5.      Null Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested at ≤ .05:

H01There is no significant difference between the mean opinion scores of JSSII and JSSIII Students on the efficacy of Social Studies Curriculum in promoting democratic values and political participation in Kaduna State.

H02. There is no significant difference between the mean opinion scores of male and female JSS Students on the efficacy of Social Studies Curriculum in promoting democratic values and political participation in Kaduna State.

H03. There is no significant difference between the mean opinion scores of Urban and Rural JSS Students on the efficacy of Social Studies Curriculum in developing democratic values and political participation in Kaduna State.

        1.6.       Significance of the Study

The study would be of great relevance significance to the following stakeholders as follows:

The Members of Senate and House of Representative, Government/policy maker, Curriculum planners and Developers, Teachers‟ and Students of Social Studies, Lecturers and Students of political Science in the Universities, Independents National Electoral Commission (INEC),Book writers, SOSCEAN, Member of public and researchers in the field. Theoretically, this study will be a vehicle for more knowledge since implementation is the moving force of any plan, without it which a plan is only a good intention.

The Members of Senate and House of Representative will benefit from the findings of this study because, the citizens or electorate will have more idea and Knowledge  about the politics, and they will be ever ready to contribute their quota in the way forward of their community and their country at large.

The findings of this study will encourage Curriculum planners/Developer, to improve and developed the Social Studies Curriculum in such a way that will make provision for emerging issues in the Junior Secondary Schools Social Studies Curriculum. By so doing, the students will take major responsibility in their accomplished of curriculum learning task. This will also make the Curriculum task easier to be accomplishing since the Students and the Teacher will be involved.

The findings of this study will be of immense beneficial to the Teachers‟ and Students of Social Studies right from JSS level up to the tertiary level. because one good  thing with Social Studies its  helps in socializing citizens into full developed human adults by relating them to their society by means of appropriate knowledge and experiences selected from the Social Sciences e.g Political Science and other social disciplines.

The findings of this study will be of great significance to the lecturers and Students of political science in the Universities because there are the social scientist which they laid more emphasis on politics and how citizens are participation in the democratic process for the development of our infant Democracy

The findings of this study will reduce the burden on the Independent National Electoral Commission (INEC) in such a way that, the citizens/electorate has acquired a certain degree of awareness about what politics and political participation are all about. By so doing, the citizens will take major responsibility in accomplishment of their civil right.

The member of the public could also benefit from the findings of this study. The essence of Schooling is to make or build up Students that will be functional and contributors to nation building. One of the importance‟s of Social Studies Education is that it brings Students to real life situation and enabling them to articulate and find ways of solving their problems in collaborating with others. The much desired peace and unity in the country may be restored through this.

This research provides opportunities for Teachers and Education stakeholders to identify the lapses in the Social Studies Curriculum so that the Predicament can be addressed in order to make the Subject achieve goals like the cases of success recorded in America and Britain. Finally, findings will serve as a vital reference material and a source of empirical research information to those who are interested in the field for further investigation.

1.7. Scope of the Study

The focus of this study was on the Efficacy of Social Studies Curriculum in promoting democratic values and political participation amongst JSS Students in Kaduna State. This research work was delimited to JSSII and JSSIII Students in Kaduna State reason been that, the study cannot cover all the JSS Students in Kaduna State due to time and logistic constraints. In other words, the study was delimited to Giwa Educational

Zone which comprises three Local Government Areas viz: Sabon Gari, Kudan and Giwa.. The research was equally delimited to the use of questionnaire as instruments for data collection.

EFFICACY OF SOCIAL STUDIES PROGRAM IN PROMOTING DEMOCRATIC VALUES AND POLITICAL INVOLVEMENT AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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