DEVELOPMENT OF MORDERN TECHNICS ON INSTIGATION EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING CHILDREN AGE 0-6 MONTHS
Breastfeeding is considered to be an important measure to secure child’s optimal health and survival. WHO recommends exclusive breast-feeding for the first six month of life. The early introduction of other foods other than breast milk before six months is a public health concern because it exposes the infants to several infections which may even lead to death. Early breastfeeding mother’s return to work and inflexible working conditions have frequently been found to be a major contributor to the early termination of exclusive breastfeeding for the employed mothers. The main objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and practice exclusive breastfeeding and factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding practices among employed mothers of infants aged 6-24 months in Uyo, Nigeria. It was a cross sectional research design in which self-administered questionnaire was used to gather information. Sample size was 179 and was arrived by using Daniel formula. The data was computed and analyzed based on the objectives of the study using STATA application version 13. Descriptive statistics like mean, median and Chi Square (at significance level of ≤ 0.005) was performed to determine the prevalence of employed mothers who exclusively breastfed and factors that influencing exclusive breastfeeding practices. The findings of this study showed that although the knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding was almost universal (84.4%), only 29.6% of respondents exclusively breastfed and 70.4% could not practice EBF according to WHO recommendation. Factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding were: working hours per week [(OR= 0.113(95%CI 0.0240.521)] , marital status [(OR= 0.39 (95% 0.005-0328)] , length of maternity leave [(OR= 75.63(95% CI 645-156.99.breastfeeding breaks [(OR= 1.562 (95% 0.1417.12. The study concluded that workplace related factors are important in factors that influence mother’s breastfeeding practice. The study recommended that policies that support maternal rights especially employed breastfeeding mothers should be implemented by employers. Interventions that can facilitate mothers to breastfeed and use of breast pumps should be supported.
This chapter will highlight the background of the study, problem statement, objectives, research questions, significance of the study, limitations of the study, scope of the study as well as its organization.
1.1 Background of the study
Maternal work has been identified as one of the factors that affect exclusive breastfeeding in the first six months of life of the infant (WHO, 2011). Approximately, 88% of women in Nigeria participate in labor market, (World Bank, 2016). Most mothers engaged in the formal sector of employment are unable to exclusively breastfeed after maternity leave because facilities at their work places and conditions of work do not support exclusive breastfeeding practice.(Danso, 2014)
Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is recommended for the first six month of life (WHO 2011). It is documented that exclusively breastfed infants experience better outputs in developmental and physical growth and lower rates of acute respiratory infections and diarrhea compared to mix fed or non-breastfed infants, (Lyell, 2012).
Breastfeeding also contributes to gains in education and economic development, reductions in poverty, and sustainable development (SustainableDevelopmentGoals1,4,8,and10) (WHO, 2015). Optimal breastfeeding is a crucial component of the World Bank Group’s recent push to invest in the early years of every child’s life to support the development of “gray matter infrastructure” and contribute to the cognitive and socio-emotional skills that are crucial to prepare children for the jobs of tomorrow (World Bank, 2016)
Despite the benefits, less than 40 percent of infants under six months of age are exclusively breastfed across the globe. Breastfeeding is a 24/7 job, and women encounter significant obstacles to success–from insufficient lactation counseling to a lack of time and privacy. Families, workplaces and society routinely fail to provide needed support, such as assistance with household chores or child care, providing paid maternity leave or creating lactation rooms in workplaces (UNICEF, 2013).
Protection is needed through tighter legislation on marketing of breast-milk substitutions and pro-breastfeeding policies like maternity leave and creating lactation rooms; promotion is important through local champions and health providers; support is needed at all levels from households, workplace, and society at-large. (WHO, 2012)
In Nigeria, exclusive breastfeeding rates are 90.3%, 89.4% and 80.1% for the ages of 1 month, two months and four months respectively, (RDHS 2015). Although, 88% of women in Nigeria participate in labor market, Nigeria is ranked the second leading country in breastfeeding rates, (World Bank, 2016).
Researchers have confirmed that return to work after delivery may be a barrier to exclusive breastfeeding practices (Nkrumah, 2016). Even thought, several researches have been conducted on breastfeeding practices, this study seeks to identify the factors of maternal work associated with exclusive breastfeeding practices in Uyo the capital of Nigeria. To achieve the above aim, the researcher has assessed how the maternal employment status may influence exclusive breastfeeding and determined the proportion of exclusive breastfeeding practices among employed mothers.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Suboptimum breastfeeding, especially not exclusively breastfeeding a child for the first six months of life, results in 1.4 million deaths and 10 % of the disease burden in children younger than five years in low-income and middle-income countries (Black et al, 2008). One hundred and thirty-five million babies are delivered annually, but only 42 % initiated breastfeeding within the first hour after birth, 39 % are breastfed exclusively during the first six months, and 58 % continue breastfeeding up to the age of two years (Black et al, 2008). The early introduction of other foods is of public health concern because it exposes infants to increased infection, particularly diarrheal diseases (WHO, 2014). The International Labor Organization (ILO) standards for protecting and supporting breast-feeding among working mothers recommend (ILO, 2012) a minimum of 14 weeks of paid maternity leave, entitlement to one or more breastfeeding breaks or the reduction of hours to breast-feed without loss of pay and job protection and non-discrimination for breast-feeding workers. (ILO, 2012).
In Nigeria, progress has been made in improving infant health with a reduction in neonatal and infant mortality rate and laws that support women development including raising their status included in policy at all levels. For example, all new nursing mothers are entitled 12 weeks of maternity leave and then one hour break per day for breastfeeding (RDHS, 2015). Although maternal employment usually affects child caring (Nkrumah, 2016), less attempts have been made to examine the practice of exclusive breastfeeding among employed mothers in Nigeria despite indications that approximately 88% of Nigerian females are engaged in labor market (World Bank( 2016),Expanded Promotion of Breastfeeding Program (1992), Ministry of Health Nigeria (2014) have focused mainly on looking at the rate and health outcomes of exclusive and non exclusive breastfeeding.
1.3. Objectives of the study
1.3.1 General Objective
To assess the prevalence and factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding practices among employed mothers of infants aged 6-24 months in Uyo, Nigeria
1.3.2 Specific Objectives
- To determine the prevalence of employed mothers who practiced exclusive breastfeeding in Uyo, Nigeria.
- To assess the employed mothers’ level of knowledge of exclusive breastfeeding in Uyo, Nigeria.
- To identify breastfeeding facilities provided at the workplace to employed mothers in Uyo, Nigeria
- To specify factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding practices among employed mothers in Uyo, Nigeria.
1.4 Research questions
The main research question for this study was “what is the proportion of practice of exclusive breastfeeding and factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding practices among employed mothers of infants aged 6-24 months in Uyo, Nigeria
Specific questions were the following:
- What is the proportion of employed mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding in Uyo, Nigeria?
- What is the employed mothers’ level of knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding in Uyo, Nigeria?
- Are there workplace breastfeeding facilities provided to employed mothers in Uyo, Nigeria?
- Are there factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding practices among employed mothers in
1.5 Significance of the Study
The study hopes to provide facts desirable for the different stakeholders including organizations’ heads and managers, employers ,policy and decision makers, government and non-government organizations interested in child well-being especially exclusive breastfeeding practices among employed mother.
A copy of the thesis will be put in the university library to help scholars, academicians and researchers in need of library search on the factors influencing exclusive breastfeeding among employed mothers.
1.6. Limitations of the study
Recall bias was a potential limitation due to the fact that information on EBF based on recall since birth and some women might not remember when they specifically introduced other liquids or solids. It is hoped by including women with children aged 6–12 months this may be minimized as recall period is shorter compared to using older children. Furthermore, information that was obtained relied on women’s self-report and women may over report the EBF. The fact that the study was only conducted in Uyo as an urban setting makes it difficult to generalize this study to the rural settings of Nigeria.
1.7 Scope of the study
This study was confined to assessing the prevalence and factors that influence exclusive breastfeeding among mothers of infants aged between 6 to 24 months employed in Uyo, Nigeria during the study period.