EFFECTS OF OVERTURNED CLASSROOM INSTRUCTIONAL TACTICS ON SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ORAL ENGLISH IN MINNA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA

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EFFECTS OF OVERTURNED CLASSROOM INSTRUCTIONAL TACTICS ON SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ORAL ENGLISH IN MINNA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA  

ABSTRACT

 

This study investigated the effects of flipped classroom instructional strategies on senior secondary school students‟ performance in Oral-English in Minna, Niger state, Nigeria. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design using pretest, posttest, non-randomized, non-equivalent control group design. The research was guided by eightobjectives, eightresearch questions with corresponding eight null hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. The target population for the study was all senior secondary school students offering English Language in Minna, Niger State. Multi-stage sampling was used to select the schools and students for the study. The sample was made up of 125 students (69 males and 56 females) from the three co-education secondary schools selected for the study. The schools were randomly assigned into three groups namely: Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped Classroom (RPTFC) which comprised 35 students (19 males and 16 females), Think Pair Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC)which involved 35 students (19 males and 16 females), and the Flipped Classroom Strategy (FCS) made up of 55 students (31 males and 24 females). Students were stratified along gender (male and female). The contents of the Oral-English were developed and organized into video instructional package. The instrument for data collection was Oral-English Performance Test (OPT). The research instrument was validated by experts. The instrument was pilot tested on 45 selected Senior Secondary School II (SS II) students in Minna, Niger State. The result obtained after pilot testing yielded 0.96 using Pearson Product Moment Correlation (PPMC) coefficient. Pretest, posttest and retention tests were administered on the three groups. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while inferential statistics of Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the research hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed that: students taught with Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped Classroom (RPTFC) and Think Pair Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC) performed significantly better and retained batter than those taught using Flipped Classroom Strategy (FCS). However, no significant difference was found between male and female students taught Oral-English language using Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped Classroom (RPTFC) and Think Pair Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC) at performance and retention tests. Based on the findings, the study recommends that English language teachers should be encouraged to use RPTFC and TPSFC for teaching Oral-English at senior secondary schools; curriculum planners should include the use of RPTFC and TPSFC collaborative learning into teacher education programme so that teacher can use it to teach Oral-English at secondary school level of education.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

English is the language of instruction and a subject of study across all the levels of education in Nigeria. It is used in primary and secondary schools, colleges of education, polytechnics and universities. The main objectives of English language teaching are to give children permanent literacy and enable them to communicate effectively in the language (Federal Republic of Nigeria, 2013). Hence, the English language is a tool with which some of the objectives of education could be achieved. Furthermore, English language is the lingua franca of Nigeria, hence, it filled the communication gap between the various ethnic groups. At the moment, a candidate must have a pass in the English language at credit level to qualify for admission into a university for any of the programmes. However, deficiency in grammar, lexis, and structure, and phonetics is one of the limitations students encounter in passing English language examinations in Nigeria (Gambari, Kutigi & Fagbemi, 2014)

Despite the importance of the English language to all subjects in Nigeria, the performance of senior secondary school students at the national examination in the subject is not encouraging. This situation has attracted different comments from the parents, teachers and other stakeholders. In a Word Bank report, Nigerian graduates were scored very low due to poor abilities in oral and written expressions in the English language (Majgaard & Mingat, 2012). These graduates were taught the English language and the use of English in their various universities, yet they were not proficient in the use of the English language. Consequently, their performance in the subject has continued to be poor which adversely affected other subjects. Furthermore, Egwuchukwu (2012) reported that poor performance in the English language has a spill-over effect on other subjects.

There are many factors that can be attributed for the poor performance of students in the English language at the secondary school level in Nigeria. Lawal (2019) and Olaleye, Ajayi, Oyebola, and Ajayi (2017) identified the absence of an enabling environment, ill-equipped classrooms, and over-crowded classrooms as factors that have contributed to this situation. The implication of over-crowded classrooms, poor teaching methods and lack of language laboratory and other learning materials are leading to restiveness and poor classroom management. Furthermore, Thompson, Morton and Storch (2013) reported that technology that could enhance English language teaching and learning had not been effectively utilized in most schools in Nigeria. Furthermore, Egwuchukwu (2012) blames students‟ poor performance on the inconsistency in the curriculum. She argued that a major feature of English language teaching and learning in Nigeria is that the curriculum is constantly changed in line with new ideas and in response to the classroom, sociological and political realities of the time. Adeyele and Yusuff (2012) lamented that frequent use of lecture method in teaching and learning in most schools does not provide for the sequence of learning experiences. Furthermore, Gambari, Olumba, and Gbodi, (2012) reported that the lecture method of teaching employed by secondary school teachers is one of the factors responsible for mass failure in the English language.

There are different aspects of the English language offered in secondary schools in Nigeria which include grammar, lexis, and structure, writing, reading, and phonetics.

Grammar is a collection of rules that explain how a majority of people speak and write. It deals with different kinds of work that words do in a sentence. Grammar could be said to be the change that words undergo to express different meanings and the correct arrangement of words in a sentence (Aina, Ogundele, & Olanipekun, 2013). It also studies the way words and morphemes join to form meaningful sentences.

Lexis, on the other hand, refers to the vocabulary of a language. Lexis is important in language learning; it constitutes words in the language which are used for expressing ideas and meaning. It is taught as vocabulary development (AminAfshar, & Mojavezi, 2017). Writing is another aspect of the English language. It is a piece of prose devoted to a particular subject. It is taught as essay writing which is a form of communication. The rules of writing include grammar, spelling, and punctuation. It tests the ability of one to write grammatically correct sentences. Reading refers to the physical and mental processes involved in communication between a writer and a reader. It may be seen as the oral delivery of a written text (Rahimi & Taheri (2016). Gomaa (2015) sees reading as the recognition and conscious reproduction of writing or printed symbols, letters, words, word groups, and sentences either mentally or vocally through eye or finger contact.

Oral English is taught as phonetics. Phonetics concerns itself with the production and classification of speech sound which also deals with listening or hearing and speaking. A sound that has not been heard correctly cannot be reproduced correctly except by chance (Negari, Azizi, & Arani, 2018). A learner who is deficient in pronunciation will have difficulty in communicating orally. Listening comprehension is also an aspect of Oral English. It involves sound discrimination and development of ear and memory association as well as sustained listening and recognition of speech sounds such as vowels and consonants (NematTabrizi & Saber, 2016). Looking at the composition of Oral English, it could be deduced that it has not been given proper attention in Nigerian secondary schools.

Ola-Busari (2014) analysed state of English language teaching and learning in Nigeria and Namibia and observed that the teaching of Oral English has been neglected in Nigerian schools because most teachers of English language are not familiar with the basic sound systems of English language which are consonants, vowels, stress, and intonation. It is possible that the inability of most teachers to teach Oral English could contribute to students‟ poor performance in English language examination. To support this assertion, Momoh (2013) notes that most teachers lack the basic training required in the teaching of Oral English.

One of the linguistic factors that affect the performance of students in English language is the interference phenomenon experienced by second language learners as a result of the linguistic elements present or absent in the mother tongue (Sa‟ad, & Usman, 2014)). Despite that, Oribabor (2014) pointed out that successful learners should be able to produce their thoughts in a way that will make their messages intelligible to native speakers. The phenomenon of interference is the transfer effect of the mastery of elements of the first language into the use and expression of the English language (L2). Very often, the student transfers the pronunciation, stress, rhythm and intonation patterns of the L1 to the language production of the second language (L2) thereby committing serious errors in the English language. L1, according to language classification, is the native or first language of a child which is usually his mother tongue or his early childhood language (Thompson, Morton, & Storch, 2013). It is the first language a child uses in communication. The second language, on the other hand, refers to a non-native language. The term second language (L2) points to the fact that the person already has a first language. To overcome the interference of L1, information and communication technology (ICT) could be used for teaching Oral English (UNESCO, 2004).

Information and communication technology (ICT) generally refers to the diverse set of technological tools and resources used to communicate, create, disseminate, store, and manage information (Asan & Montague, 2014)). The emergence of information and communication technology marks the beginning of various forms of systematic teaching and learning in education. ICT has revolutionalised all aspects of education and it gave birth to an electronic way of doing things such as e-learning, e-teaching, e-journal, ecampus, e-library, e-registration, e-examination, among others. Furthermore, ICT promotes the student-centred approach of teaching and learning such as collaborative learning, flipped classroom, among others (Sánchez & Alemán, 2011).

The student-centred approach supported by instructional media could enhance effective teaching and learning (Gambari & Yusuf, 2015). The flipped classroom model is one of the recent instructional strategies that can be explored to enhance students‟ performance in the English language. A flipped classroom is a student-centered taskbased and activity-based learning approach that provides several advantages to the student (Johnson & Renner, 2012). It can assist the student to enhance the skills of communication, interpersonal social relationship, cooperation in sharing and caring, openness, flexibility, adaptability, knowledge retention, higher-order critical thinking. It is a method in which students work together in small groups towards a common goal (Green, 2012). Students, through flipped classrooms, can work together on a task, exchange their views, experiences, opinions, discuss and negotiate strategies, actions and results (Strayer, 2012). These actions can provide students with the opportunity to assist, explain, teach, understand, review and influence each other. By developing a community of learners, flipped classroom could also provide the opportunity to combine the special abilities of everyone to achieve a common goal through collaborative means. The achievement of the common goal is shared among all group members. The teacher acts as a coach, mentor or facilitator of the learning process (Johnson & Renner, 2012).

A teacher leads in class discussions, while activities can be students led and students might create their content, engage in independent problem solving or work on some inquiry-based activities in small groups putting into practice what they have learned from their preparation. Teachers move around the classroom answering questions, asking probing questions from students to uncover misconceptions, working with small groups and guiding the overall learning experience (Green, 2012).

There are four common key elements, according to Brame (2013) which are indicative of a flipped classroom. These elements are opportunities for students to gain first exposure before class; an incentive for students to prepare for the class; a mechanism to assess students‟ understanding; and in-classes activities that focus on higher-level cognitive activities. These elements are the backbone of a flipped classroom and each one of these is tied to an important learning principle that makes the flipped classroom a potential teaching method that can improve student learning. The use of flipped classrooms has been experimented in different subjects like Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, Social Sciences, Arts and Humanity, and English language among others (Johnson & Renner, 2012).

There are many ways of applying the Flipped classroom strategy for teaching and learning. Thakare (2018) identified eight major types of flipped classrooms: Standard Inverted Classroom, Micro Flipped Classroom, Discussion-Oriented Flipped Classroom,

Demonstration-Based Flipped Classroom, Faux-Flipped Classroom, Group-Based Flipped Classroom, Virtual Flipped Classroom, and Role-Reversal 2.0 (Flipping the

Teacher). In this study, Group-Based Flipped Classroom and Normal Flipped Classroom Strategy will be employed.

The group-based flipping model adds value to the learning experience through student interaction. Students digest video and other resources before the class and work in teams to learn the material. This format encourages students to learn from one another. It also reinforces soft skills and specific knowledge, as they need to have a firm grasp of the subject to explain it to their peers. This is similar to collaborative learning but in a flipped mode.

Collaborative learning is referred to as a methodology in which learners engage in a common task where individuals depend on one another and are accountable to one another. Collaborative learning activities can include collaborative writing, group projects, joint problem solving, debates, study teams, and others. These also include both face-to-face conversation (Chiu, 2008) and computer discussion (online forum, chat rooms, among others). The following five major collaborative learning techniques were identified by Cerbin (2010); Think Pair Share (TPS), Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT),

ThinkAloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS), Group Grid (GG) and Collaborative Writing Strategy (CWS). Each of the aforementioned collaborative settings has its dynamics and extent of collaboration mode. This study, therefore, dwelled on TPS and RPT being the common collaborative strategies being fully explored. Summarily, collaborative learning helps in the development of high-level thinking, oral communication, self-management, leadership skills, irrespective of race and gender (Cerbin, 2010).

Think-Pair-Share is a cooperative discussion strategy that emanates from three stages of student action, with an emphasis on what students are to be doing at each of those stages (Gafoor, 2012). This teaching-learning strategy works in three phases which are Think, Pair, and Share. Firstly, Think: The teacher provokes students’ thinking with a question, prompt, or observation. The students should take a few minutes just to think about the question. Secondly, Pair: Using a partner or a desk-mate, students pair up to talk about the answer each came up with. They compare their mental or written notes and identify the answers they think are best, most convincing, or most unique based on their exposure to the Flipped Classroom and finally, Share: After students talk in pairs for a few minutes, the teacher calls for pairs to share their thinking with the rest of the class (Khaji, 2010)). This learning strategy promotes classroom participation by encouraging a high degree of pupil response, rather than using a basic recitation method in which a teacher poses a question and one student offers a response (Susan,2001).

Reciprocal Peer Tutoring (RPT) is a form of collaborative learning in which students function reciprocally as both tutor and tutee (Ogbuanya, Bakare & Igweh, 2009). In RPT, students share the contents of Oral-English among the group members and each member after mastering the concepts by watching the Oral-English video instructional package in the flipped classroom, takes turns to teach the group members. This dual role, according to Obiunu (2008) is beneficial because it enables students to gain from both the preparation and the instruction in which tutors engage and from the instructions that tutees receive. Reciprocal Peer Tutoring helps teachers to cope with challenges such as limited instructional time, multiple curricular requirements and appropriate social engagement among learners.

Flipping classroom is the standard format in which students watch short explanatory or tutorial video before the class. They then practice key concepts doing exercises or debating while receiving personalized feedback. After the class, students review what they learned and expand their knowledge.

The flipped classroom could be technology-driven because technology is one of the key components of the flipped approach (Pilten, 2016). The teacher in flipped classroom focuses on the desired outcome and makes use of learning technologies, particularly multimedia which provides opportunities for students to learn. These multimedia techniques could include podcasting, video, and screencasting to provide teaching contents outside the formal learning environment free from the traditional face to face lecture format (Marks, 2014).

In this study, pre-recorded video lectures were used for flip classroom. Video instruction is a kind of multimedia that transmits verbal and non-verbal with the combination of Audio and Visual materials. It develops continuity of thought and offers a reality of experience that stimulates self-activities on the part of the students (Engin, 2014). In the flipped environment of this nature, the teacher produces an instructional video package that was installed on laptops for the learners to watch individually or collaboratively. At the interval, one may choose to stop playing and explain certain points or probably wait until the end of the lesson. Learners have the opportunity to repeat the lesson over and over (Strayer, 2012). This action can provide students with the opportunity to assist, explain, teach, understand, review, influence each other thereby enhance a motivational situation for developing a community of learners.

Performance of a student displays the competencies to demonstrate a specific skill or knowledge. Performance is a notable change in the students as a result of their exposure to the specific programme of instruction. It can also be seen as an act of achieving (accomplishment) or as a result gained by effort or as a great or heroic deed or as the quality and quantity of a student‟s work feat. Waseka, Simatwa, and Okwach (2016) reported that there is a positive correlation between good teaching approach and students‟ performance. Oluwatayo and Fatoba (2010) stated that instruction can be organised in such a way and manner that all students in the class can achieve and retain better.

Retention is the ability to reproduce the learned concept when the need arises over a while (Palmer, Maranba, & Dancy, 2011). Students‟ performance in various subjects is influenced by their retention abilities. Therefore, poor retention is one of the prevalent problems among Nigerian secondary school students. This may be due to teachers‟ nonuse of instructional media to support their teaching. It was discovered that students‟ interest and retention could be aroused and retained through the use of multimedia instructional approaches (Adegoke, 2010). Starbek, Eriavec, and Peklai (2010) reported that students acquired knowledge better, retained what they had leant, and improved comprehension skills when taught through the use of appropriate instructional media such as video instructional packages, computer-assisted instruction, multimedia among other.

The impact of media on students‟ performance cut across males and females.

Gender issues have also been linked with academic performance and retention of students in several studies (Achebe, 2008; Gambari, Yaki, Gana, & Ughovwa, 2014; Ozofor, & Onos, 2018; Umoru, & Adekunle, 2019).). Gender differences have historically been held responsible for divergence in academic and career success. It has been identified as one of the factors influencing students‟ performance in school subjects (Owodunni, & Ogundola, 2013). Several studies revealed that male students performed better than female students in science, while others revealed otherwise. Some studies could not establish any form of influence being exerted by gender on academic performance. Certain researchers observed that children at elementary school, especially females do fall behind males on standardized assessments (Safo,  Ezenwa, & Wushishi, 2013). Males always outperform females in elementary, middle and high school in science performance (Nosek, Frederick, Sriram, Lindner, Devos, Ayala,…, & Greenwald, 2009).; Snyder, & Dillow 2009). This disparity between male and female achievement continues at post-secondary education level where only a few women are less likely to major in the science disciplines (Anagbogu, & Ezeliora, 2007; Owodunni, & Ogundola, 2013; Miyake Kost–smith, Finkelstein, Pollock, Cohen, & Ito, 2010).

At secondary school level in Niger State and the other Nigerian States in general, students persistent failure in the English language especially in Oral English is attributed to lack of language laboratory, teacher-centred instructional approach, lack of qualified English language teachers, lack of instructional media, among others (Yaki, & Babagana,

2016; Gambari, Kutigi & Fagbemi, 2014). Annually, students‟ performance in the West African Examinations Council (WAEC) and National Examinations Council (NECO) examinations is less than 50% in the English language (WAEC, 2018). Therefore, this study investigates the effects of flipped classroom models on senior secondary school students‟ learning outcomes in Oral-English in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

English language is an official language in Nigeria. It is the language of instruction in schools particularly from the upper level of primary school, secondary school and beyond. It is compulsory as a pre-requisite for entering into university to study engineering, medicine, accounting, economics as well as other formal disciplines in the university. It comes in two folds, written and spoken. Oral English belongs to the spoken type and it is compulsorily studied by all students in secondary school. Its importance made Federal Government of Nigeria to include it in the school curriculum and made it compulsory for all students to learn in order to ensure desired skill in speech production. The concept underlying the flipped learning approach includes helping students to become active learners and enhance their engagement. Flipped classroom has been proofed as effective learning strategy for many disciplines especially for English as a Foreign Language (EFL). It promotes student-centred approach that enhanced students‟ achievement and retention irrespective of their gender.

Despite the importance of English language in Nigerian schools, students‟ poor performance at Senior Secondary Schools Certificate Examination has been a major concern. Students encounter problems in both speaking and writing. Oral-English is one of the aspects that students find difficult to pass, thereby, leading to mass failure in the subject. These problems also affected the performance of the students of Niger state in the West African Senior Secondary Certificate Examination (WASSCE) results. The poor performance was evident in the WAEC and NECO examination of 2013 to 2018 where many students‟ could not secure admission into universities due to the failure in English language (Appendix A, WAEC & NECO recent results).

The conventional method of teaching employed by English language teachers at senior secondary schools in Niger State in particular and Nigeria at large has been identified as one of the problems causing poor performance in the English language. Non-use of modern teaching resources during the teaching of English language that would encourage students to learn the subject effectively also attributed to the poor performance. The need to determine a suitable strategy for solving this problem is no longer merely desirable but compelling. This has precipitated the efforts to use the flipped classroom instructional strategy for the teaching of the Oral-English language concept. There were several studies on implementing flipped learning in secondary school, but in different content areas. Some researchers have worked on effects of the flipped classroom on students‟ performance and retention in other subjects but most of these known to the researches were not in Oral-English language. Moreover, some studies on EFL were not carried out in Nigeria. Studies on the influence of gender on instructional strategies are inconclusive, some studies favour male, and some studies favour females while others are neutral. Similarly, studies on types of Flipped Classroom strategies using video instructional media in a collaborative setting are very scanty. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of flipped classrooms on performance and retention of senior secondary school students in Minna Metropolis, Niger State.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

This study investigated the effects of flipped classroom instructional strategies on senior secondary school students‟ performance in Oral-English in Minna, Niger State, Nigeria. Specifically, the study was designed to:

(i). Determine the effect of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped Classroom (RPTFC),

Think-Pair-Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC) and Flipped Classroom Strategy

(FCS) on the students‟ posttest performance in Oral-English.

(ii). Find out the effect of Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped Classroom (RPTFC),

Think-Pair-Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC) and Flipped Classroom Strategy

(FCS) on the students‟ retention test in Oral-English.

(iii). Ascertain the influence of gender on the posttest performance of students taught Oral-English using Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped Classroom (RPTFC).
(iv). Compare the mean posttest performance scores of male and female students taught Oral-English using Think-Pair-Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC).
(v). Find out the influence of gender on the performance of students taught OralEnglish using Flipped Classroom Strategy (FCS).
 (vi).  Determine the influence of gender on the retention test performance of students

taught Oral-English using Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped Classroom (RPTFC).

(vii).  Find out the influence of gender on the retention test performance of students

taught Oral-English using Think-Pair-Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC).

(viii).  Ascertain the influence of gender on the retention test performance of students taught Oral-English using Flipped Classroom Strategy (FCS).

1.4       Research Questions

The following research questions were raised to guide the study:

  • Would there be any difference in the posttest performance scores of secondary school students taught Oral-English in Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped

Classroom (RPTFC), Think-Pair-Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC) and Flipped Classroom Strategy (FCS)?

  • Would there be any difference in the retention test scores of secondary school students taught Oral-English in Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped Classroom

(RPTFC), Think-Pair-Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC) and Flipped Classroom Strategy (FCS)?

  • Could there be any difference in the posttest performance scores of male and female students taught Oral-English in Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped Classroom (RPTFC)?
  • Do students’ gender influence their posttest performance when they are taught

Oral-English in Think-Pair-Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC)?

  • How do male and female students differ in the performance test scores in Oral-

English when taught using Flipped Classroom Strategy (FCS)?

  • Would there be difference in the retention test scores of male and female students taught Oral-English in Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped Classroom (RPTFC)?
  • How do male and female students differ in the retention test scores in Oral-

English when taught using Think-Pair-Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC)?

  • Do students’ gender influence their retention test scores when they are taught

Oral-English in Flipped Classroom Strategy (FCS)?

1.5       Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance:

  • There is no significant difference in the posttest performance of secondary school students taught Oral-English using Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped Classroom

(RPTFC), Think-Pair-Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC) and Flipped Classroom Strategy (FCS).

  • There is no significant difference in the retention test performance of secondary school students taught Oral-English using Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped Classroom (RPTFC), Think-Pair-Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC) and Flipped Classroom Strategy (FCS).
  • There is no significant difference in the posttest performance of male and female students taught Oral-English in Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped Classroom (RPTFC).
  • There is no significant difference in the posttest performance of male and female students taught Oral-English in Think-Peer-Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC).
  • There is no significant difference in the posttest performance of male and female students taught Oral-English in Flipped Classroom Strategy (FCS).
  • There is no significant difference in the retention test performance of male and female students taught Oral-English in Reciprocal Peer Tutoring Flipped Classroom (RPTFC).
  • There is no significant difference in the retention test performance of male and female students taught Oral-English in Think-Peer-Share Flipped Classroom (TPSFC).
  • There is no significant difference in the retention test performance of male and female students taught Oral-English in Flipped Classroom Strategy (FCS).

1.6       Scope of the Study

This study was restricted to selected senior secondary schools in Minna

Metropolis, specifically in Bosso and Chanchaga Local Government Areas of Niger

State.

Since English language is a compulsory subject for secondary school students in Nigeria, students from Senior Secondary class two (SSII) were chosen for the study because the concept to be taught is contained in the SSI1 Syllabus and scheme of work.

The study was limited to three co-educational schools and each school was assigned to experimental I, II, and III groups. This was because it is intra-media and strategy study aimed at determining the most effective approach to using Flipped Classroom Models. The study was also limited to the following Oral-English concepts: Monophthongs, Diphthongs, Triphthongs, Consonant, and Consonant Clusters. These concepts were chosen due to their abstract nature considered by Chief Examiner reports (2019) as one of the difficult areas to pass during an examination.

Furthermore, the study was limited to three independent variables of Think-pairShare flipped classroom, Reciprocal Peer Tutoring flipped classroom, and Flipping classroom strategy while the performance and retention were the dependent variables. The moderating independent variable of gender was also explored across two of the independent variables.

1.7       Significance of the Study

The findings of this research study will be of significance to the following stakeholders: students, teachers, curriculum planners, examination bodies, researchers in

English language, textbook writers / publishers, and instructional designers.

It is hoped that at the end of this study, students who took part in the experiment will benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study. Findings from this study are expected to have a positive impact on the students‟ performance in OralEnglish language in the sense that the Oral-English Video Instructional package using Flipped Classroom Instructional strategy would be readily available for the learners‟ use during and after the lesson. This may enable the learners to study a particular concept over and over at their own pace. This procedure may take care of individual differences, eliminate tension, make learning easier, simpler, and more enjoyable and might enhance mastery of the contents.

The findings and recommendations of this study may be of significance to teachers in improving their teaching process. Again, the findings could provide some positive approaches to the teaching of abstract and complex in Oral-English language concepts. English language teachers will also benefit as they will learn how to produce flipped classroom instructional materials for teaching their subject.

Teacher education programme designers will derive benefit from the study because it might provide information that will be used in formulating the adoption of Flipped classroom strategy for the preparation of teachers of Oral-English teaching at the primary, secondary school, and tertiary institution levels. Publishers will use the information provided in this study to improve the contents of their books. Curricular designers may also use the result of the findings of the study in modifying curriculum contents of Oral-English to include media resources in teaching at the primary and secondary school level.

It is expected that instructional designers and developers, educational technologists and even the Open University Learning Centres would be provided with the empirical information on the potential of Flipped Classroom Instructional strategy for teaching Oral-English.

The theory of constructivism was applied in this study. The significance of the study is that it will provide an opportunity to see the extent to which the behaviourist theory strategy of imitation, repetition; pattern practice, drill, and reinforcement, could influence students‟ performance in Oral-English teaching and learning.

Curriculum developers, planners, and policymakers may probably derive immense benefits from the findings of this study. This is because it may enable the policy makers to possess the knowledge and disposition that Flipped Classroom Instructional strategies that may encourage the development of critical thinking, problem-solving and performance skills among students.

Researchers in the education will be provided with data for further research in the area of teaching Oral-English with Flipped Classroom. The government will also benefit since it will justify equipping the school with instructional media (such as language laboratory, computer laboratory, etc) for effective implementation of flipped classroom instructional strategy for Oral-English teaching and learning.

EFFECTS OF OVERTURNED CLASSROOM INSTRUCTIONAL TACTICS ON SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN ORAL ENGLISH IN MINNA, NIGER STATE, NIGERIA  

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