EFFECTS OF MULTIMEDIA AND FIELD-TRIP GUIDELINES ON PERFORMANCE AND RETAINING OF UPPER BASIC (JSS II) ISLAMIC STUDIES LEARNERS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA

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EFFECTS OF MULTIMEDIA AND FIELD-TRIP GUIDELINES ON PERFORMANCE AND RETAINING OF UPPER BASIC (JSS II) ISLAMIC STUDIES LEARNERS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA  

ABSTRACT

This study assessed the effectiveness of multimedia and field trip instructions on the performance and retention of Upper Basic II Islamic Studies Students in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Eight (8) objectives were formulated to guide the study among which to determine the pre test and post test performance of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using multimedia instruction in Kaduna State, find out the performance of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using fieldtrip instruction and those taught using conventional instruction in Kaduna State, ascertain the retention ability of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using multimedia instruction in Kaduna State, among others. Relevant literature on multimedia and field trip instruction and approaches were reviewed. The study was carried out using quasi experimental design with target population of (10,161) Upper Basic(JSSII) Islamic Studies Students and a sample of Two Hundred and Forty-Seven (247) from three (3) intact classes was arrived at using purposive sampling technique. Data collected for the study was collected through administering pre-test and post test of Instrument which was validated by a team of experts and researcher‟s supervisors. The data collected was subjected to statistical analysis using Statistical package for Social Science (SPSS version 20.0). Demographic distribution of the respondent was analyzed using frequency and percentages while mean and standard deviation were used to answer the seven research questions and the corresponding hypotheses were tested using paired and independent t-test. The findings of the study among others revealed that students taught Islamic Studies using multimedia instruction had a better performance at post test than at their pre test (p-value 0.00 < 0.005). The use of field trip instruction in teaching Islamic Studies significantly enhances the performance of students than those exposed to conventional instruction (p-value 0.00 < 0.05). But the retention ability of Upper Basic students taught multimedia instructions and those exposed to field trip instruction was found to increase at equal rate which indicated that students in both groups had the ability to retain the content taught longer (p-value 0.072 > 0.05). Based on the findings the study recommended among others that teacher should be encouraged to use multimedia in teaching and sufficient multimedia facilities should be provided by government to schools and Islamic Studies teachers and students should be encouraged to be involved in study trip by school and parents as this widens their horizon in observing life situations of concepts that are not possible to be observed within the four walls of classroom. Curriculum developers, school administrators and teachers should promote the integration of both multimedia instructions and field trip instruction usage in Islamic Studies curriculum.

CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION

 

              1.1       Background to the Study

Educational field trip is an integral part of the instructional programme. A good field trip provides participants with first-class hand experience related to the topic or concepts being discussed in the programme, the trip equally appear to provide unique opportunities for learning that are not available within the four walls of classroom. Field trip should be designed around specific educational objectives, it should be designed so that participants can easily make connection between the focus of the field trip and the concepts they are learning in the rest of the educational program.

The use of field trips in education is widely reported as leading students into museums, galleries, cultural production or other activities in which students gain firsthand experience similar to the hand on experience. Piaget (1970) identified field trip as very helpful aids for the transition from a concrete to more abstract level of cognition. Learning in field trip is impacted by many factors; as such it has been used as a context for teaching and learning especially in education. However, fieldtrip is any learning activity that is carried out by group of learners with teachers outside the classroom. Outdoor experiences and observations are essential part of a learner‟s education. Agboola and Abe (2017) stressed that it involves journey with pupils to observe and investigate situations outside classroom. Though field trip appears to make lasting impression upon the learners it involves a lot of effort, energy and time on the part of the teachers and the learners.

Field trip is a study trip taken outside the classroom to gather firsthand knowledge from a natural setting, it appears to enhance students‟ interest in learning for collecting information, materials for classroom lesson at the same time observe activities or phenomena not possible to bring within the classroom. Meanwhile, it is inline that field trip is a planned exercise taking place outside the four walls of the classroom, it offers opportunity for learners to get firsthand information on people, place, activities or thing for the permanency of learning experiences (Amosa, Ogunlade and Adunni 2003). Using field trip in teaching and learning appears to lead to teacher learner interaction outside classroom, the interaction take place in a new learning environment and result in a meaningful teaching and learning process. However, since fieldtrip is a method of teaching used to obtain firsthand information in the process of observing the activities performed, it appear to enable both teachers and student to establish meaningful and productive learning both on the field and in the classroom. Omosewo (2009) stressed that fieldtrip can be used as a chance to collect data for later analysis to generate art work and stimulate discussion both on field and back at schools.

On the other hand, multimedia is a term frequently heard and discussed among educational technologists today, unless clearly defined, the term multimedia can alternatively mean the development of computer based hardware, software packages produced on a mass scale and yet allow individualized use and learning. In essence multimedia merges multiple levels of learning facilities into an educational tool that allows for diversity in curricula presentation. Instructional systems and educational technology have been gaining great attention by educators in order to enhance students learning. Educators have become aware of the benefits and shortcomings of various methods used to provide instruction, training students and the possible benefit of educational technologies; thus educators have been adapting their curricular to take advantage of new instructional methods (Feinstein, Raab&Stefarelli 2005).

Multimedia resources appear to allow teachers to integrate text, graphics, animation and other media into one package to present comprehensive information for their students to achieve specified course outcomes. Laura (2008) asserts that instructional media-based instruction can be efficient and effective for three reason; it is self-faced learning; the individualized pace of the learning allows students to break down group. Instructional setting, it include video/audio production and projector for presentation with the course material through less bridging effort between the learner and the information being processed and lastly; it provide autonomy  in the learning process, self-regulated instruction shifts the sense of responsibility for the instructor (Teacher) to the learner.

Beside potential advantages to students multimedia resources formats may offer benefits to instructors teaching multisession courses because this type of formats ensures uniformity in the teaching content across the sections. Multimedia as the exciting combination of computer hardware and software that allows to integrate video, audio animation, graphics and text resources to develop effective presentation on an affordable desktop computer, but Philip (1990) in Abubakar (2014) opines that multimedia is characterized by the presence of text pictures, sound, animation and video. Some or all of which are organized into some colorant program. However, multimedia can be viewed as carefully woven combination of text graphic, sound and video elements. As such multimedia can be defined as an integration of multiple instructional elements (audio, video, projector and graphic text animation) into one synergetic and symbiotic whole that results in more benefiting for the end user.

Similarly, the presentation of the content be it with the use of field trip or multimedia resources has to take into consideration the content of the learning experiences that will be exposed to the learners, this is what is referred to as curriculum which according to Yusuf (2012) definedit  as the  totality of all planned and unplanned, guided and unguided learning experience learners are exposed to in a school setting for the purpose of attaining its educational goals.

Islamic studies as a subject contained learning experiences planned guided and exposed to students in the school setting. At the inception of 6-3-3-4 system of education Islamic studies was a core subject at the Junior Secondary Schools level but elective at Senior Secondary level, in the 2004 edition of the National Policy on Education, however, with revised edition of the policy in 2014, the subject remains core at Upper Basic level and elective at Senior Secondary School level. With this development more attention is directed to the implementation of the curriculum, this is because Islamic Studies has been made compulsory as it is part of the national curriculum in the school setting.

The researcher as a teacher gained useful experience and observed that most teachers either have no multimedia facilities or do not make effective use of these facilities. And also either they were not trained or do not effectively use varieties of methods in their teaching, thus negligence toward effective use of multimedia instructional recourses and varieties of teaching methods is common with both trained and untrained teachers.

In teacher training institutions emphasis are made on the effective and adequate use of instructional materials and varieties of instructional methods in all instructional situation during teaching practices. A student-teacher is assessed according to how effective he/she selects and use method and instructional aid in teaching specific content of a curriculum (Abubakar 2014).With the development of modern technology, teachers no longer have to rely solely on words to make their teaching more vivid, effective and meaningful at the same time teachers should not limit themselves on only one particular method for effective teaching. There are varieties of instructional facilities and numerous methods of teaching that can be used to make teaching and learning more vivid and more interesting.

In addition, the delivery of quality teaching emphasizes on coherent presentation of instructional materials, effective use of methods and techniques as well as adequate opportunities for students involvement in integrated training. The use of effective method and techniques should be during lesson process, as such there are difference in purpose and function among strategy method and technique in teaching. Method is a systematic series of actions to achieve the objective of the learning outcome in short term. It is a way to accomplish a learning objective through organized presentation (Abdulaziz, Ibrahim & Shakar 2016). Therefore teaching method is a plan or procedure adopted to implement teaching of a curriculum in an orderly, organized and systematic manner, to ensure the teaching and learning process has been effectively implemented and meet the set objective Abdullaziz et al (2011) recommended methods for implementing Islamic education curriculum namely; field of Alqur‟an the recommended methods for this field is recitation and memorization, field of Aqidah the proposed methods are discussion workshops and transforming, Field of Ibadah, the recommended methods are discussion, excursion (fieldtrip), simulation collaboration cooperative learning and teaching with computer (Multimedia). Finally, field of morality, the proposed methods are lectures, discussion, simulation and group activities. Meanwhile, this is to make teaching of Islamic studies curriculum of this nature effective and interesting.

It is the researcher‟s opinion that every educator and Islamic studies teachers in particular should realize the importance of multimedia instructional facilities and realize the best outcome that can be derived from the use of field trip in teaching and learning thereby making adequate use of both multimedia resources and fieldtrip in every classroom interaction.

It is the researchers‟ concern about lack of utilization or non-effective use of multimedia instructional facilities and fieldtrip method that motivates the researcher to undertake this research in this study. The study assessed the effect of multimedia instructional facilities and the use of field trip instruction on the performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna

State, Nigeria.

              1.2       Statement of the Problem

Teaching and learning of Islamic Studies in Secondary Schools was bedeviled with multidimensional problems which impede successful implementation of the curriculum. At the center, the clearest problems are the teachers who are ill-equipped for the task ahead, unqualified, complexity of the curriculum, and inadequacy of instructional facilities (Abubakar 2014).

Similarly, there are cries that Islamic studies teachers are still limiting themselves to conventional methods of teaching especially the lecture method. The poor attitude of students towards a particular subject is as a result of poor teaching method used by teachers. Islamic studies as a subject in secondary schools in Nigeria face severe problems in relation to its curriculum content delivery by Islamic studies teachers (Jimoh, 1999), in Abubakar 2014).

However, it is unfortunate that Islamic studies appeared to be neglected by the learners and its content delivery by teachers has been too slow. The conventional method of teaching has been criticized for stiffing interest and creativity in students thereby limiting academic performance. In this case the researcher observed that teaching and learning of Islamic studies were dominated with teacher centered instruction which might have resulted in poor academic performance of students. The teacher centered instruction might cause the weak and slow learners working individually to give up when they get stuck, delay in completing assignment or skip them altogether or performing poorly in their continuous assessment and examination which obviously led to their engagement in examination malpractice. The teaching and learning of Islamic studies should have been with most appropriate, motivating and interesting methods that can arouse students‟ interest increase their curiosity and at the same time establish basis for their academic achievement.

The examination result of 2016/2017, 2017/2018 and 2018/2019 JSSCE Islamic studies recorded by Zaria Zonal Education Division indicates that the overall performance of students was 40.6% in 2016/2017, 43.8% in 2017/2018 while in 2018/2019 it was 40.7% this result showed that student failed to tackle the questions that involves writing Arabic text, failed to explain the practical aspect of prayer (Salat) and Ablution (Wudu). These identified problems could be due to unqualifiedd teachers, insufficient knowledge of the curriculum, poor use of methodology (fieldtrip inclusive) and poor use of instructional materials (Multimedia Inclusive) by teachers. In view of the above problems this research work is set to tackle the aforementioned problems by finding out the effect of Multimedia Instructional Resources and Field Trip

Instruction on the Performance of Upper Basic Islamic Studies students in Kaduna State,

Nigeria.

1.3 Objectives of the Study

The followingobjectives were formulated to guide the study:

  1. Determine the pre-test and post test performance of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic

Studies using multimedia instruction in Kaduna State.

  1. Determine the pre-test and post test performance of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic

Studies using fieldtrip instruction in Kaduna State.

  1. Find out the performance of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using multimedia instruction and those taught using conventional instructions in Kaduna State.
  2. Find out the performance of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using fieldtrip instruction and those taught using conventional instruction in Kaduna State.
  3. Compare the performance of Upper Basic students taught Islamic Studies using multimedia and those taught using field trip instructions in Kaduna State.
  4. Ascertain the retention ability of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using multimedia instruction and those taught using conventional instruction in Kaduna State.
  5. Ascertain the retention ability of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using fieldtrip instruction and those taught using conventional instruction in Kaduna State
  6. Compare the retention ability of Upper Basic students taught Islamic Studies using multimedia instruction and those taught using field trip instruction in Kaduna State.

1.4 Research Questions

The study intends to provide answers to the following questions.

  1. What is the difference in the pre-test and post-test performance of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using multimedia instruction in Kaduna State?
  2. What is the difference in the pre-test and post-test performance of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using field trip instruction in Kaduna State?
  3. What is the performance of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using

multimedia instruction and those taught using conventional instruction in Kaduna State?

  1. What is the performance of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using field trip instruction and those taught using conventional instruction in Kaduna State?
  2. What is the difference in the performance of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic studies using multimedia and those taught using field trip instructions in Kaduna State?
  3. What is the retention ability of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using multimedia instruction and those taught using conventional instruction in Kaduna State?
  4. What is the retention ability of Upper Basic students taught Islamic Studies using fieldtrip instruction and those taught using conventional instruction in Kaduna State?
  5. What is the difference in the retention ability of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using multimedia instruction and those taught using field trip instruction in

Kaduna State?

1.5 Hypotheses

In line with the research questions, the following null hypotheses were raised for this study:-

H01. There is no significant difference in the pre-test and post-test performance of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using multimedia instruction in Kaduna State.
H02. There is no significant difference in pre-test and post-test performance of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using field trip instruction in Kaduna State.
H03. There is no significant difference in the performance of Upper Basic Students taught Islamic Studies using multimedia instruction and those taught using conventional instruction in Kaduna State.
H04. There is no significant difference in the performance of Upper Basic students taught Islamic Studies using field trip instruction and those taught using conventional instruction in Kaduna State.
H05. There is no significant difference in the performance of Upper Basic students taught Islamic Studies using multimedia and those taught using field trip instructions in Kaduna

state.    

H06 There is no significant difference in the retention ability of Upper Basic students taught

Islamic Studies using multimedia instruction and those taught using conventional instruction in Kaduna State.

H07. There is no significant difference in the retention ability of Upper Basic students taught Islamic Studies using fieldtrip and those taught using conventional instruction in Kaduna State.
H08. There is no significant difference in the retention ability of Upper Basicstudents taught

Islamic studies using multimedia instruction and those taught using field trip instruction in Kaduna State.

1.6 Significance  of the Study

As the society is dynamic so also the system of education should be dynamic, in that case the need to select for the stake holders to be aware of the effective instructional method and instructional media in teaching and learning of Islamic studies has been of great value. However, thisstudy when published through journals, conferences, seminars, workshops or reports. Teachers, Curriculum developers, Curriculum development agencies, Federal and State Ministry of Education, students and parent will have access to it and it will be beneficial to them.

The findings will help teachers to learn the process for effective use of conventional method, field trip method and the use of instructional media resources at the sametime the result of this study will help teachers to assess their process of teaching and improve on the quality of their teaching. Similarly, the result of this study will provide other areas of curriculum that are not effectively implemented by Islamic studies teachers, this will certainly leads to improvement in such areas of curriculum for a better performance of  students.

The results of this study will no doubt benefit the curriculum developers as they would make use of some aspects that are found to be element of promoting the process of using instructional media and field trip in teaching, It equally provides them with the process through which instructional media could be developed and maintained in order to enhance the teaching and learning of Islamic studies.

Curriculum development agencies and participants in curriculum implementation will find this study very significant as they can use the result to facilitate effective teaching and learning of Islamic studies. Curriculum development agencies like Nigeria Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC), West Africa Examination Council (WAEC) National Examination Council (NECO), National Board for Arabic and Islamic Studies (NBAIS) that carry out research, discuss and disseminate findings, can use the study to facilitate effective teaching and learning of Islamic Studies curriculum will eventually lead to improvement in the member of curriculum being implemented by Islamic studies teachers.

The finding from this study will hopefully provide government; federal and state ministries of education with important knowledge for them to appreciate the need for the organizing teachers retraining through workshops seminars or issues relating to selection of relevant methods and instructional resources so as to enhance qualitative approaches for teaching and learning in schools.

On the other hand students will equally benefit from the outcome of this study as the students can make use of the outcome to imbibe the culture of good study habit in order to achieve good performance, it will also give students opportunity to acquire skills of studying, self-conscious, and interaction on their studies. Teaching of Islamic studies using instructional media resources will motivate students learning interest as well as enhance their performance.

Similarly, parent will find the finding of this study very important where they will make use of the finding to advise their children on process through which they can adopt in their learning process.

 

              1.7       Scope of the Study

This study is on the the effect of multimedia and field trip instructions on the performance and retention ofUpper Basic Islamic Studies Students in Kaduna state.

The study was limited to three (3) Upper Basic (JSSII) in Zaria Education Zone of Kaduna state and is confined to Upper Basic II students, these were chosen because they have been sufficiently exposed to Upper Basic Islamic studies curriculum through the use of conventional method and were in the school throughout the session, the reason for selecting Zaria Educational Zone is due to the fact that the study is experimental and Zaria zone is among the biggest zone in Kaduna state.

The study focused on the following topics Prayer (Salat) and Moral lesson (Tahadhib), theresearcher determined the appropriateness of the content to the students‟ level, size as well as using field trip instruction and multimedia instruction.The study was carried out using field trip instruction, Television with video player and computer with projector for the Multimedia instruction in teaching the content. Three (3) schools were assigned as experimental and control groups respectively.

EFFECTS OF MULTIMEDIA AND FIELD-TRIP GUIDELINES ON PERFORMANCE AND RETAINING OF UPPER BASIC (JSS II) ISLAMIC STUDIES LEARNERS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA  

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