EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL TACTICS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY PUPILS IN ZARIA EDUCATION ZONE, KADUNA STATE
This study investigated the effect of instructional strategies on the academic performanceof secondary school geography students in zaria educational zone, kaduna state-Nigeria. It was observed that many students at senior secondary school I perceives geography as a difficult subject and hence run away from it. The research work has three objectives is, to examine the effects of instructional strategies on academic performance of senior secondary school geography students in zaria educational zone.The study was delimited to only class one ofsenior secondary school students of public senior secondary schools in zaria. First term senior secondary school one scheme of work was used in the six weeks administration of the geographical models. The researcher investigated that instructional strategies could be effective techniques that improve teaching and learning geography at senior secondary school one.The research design adopted for this study was of the quasi experimental design non-randomise and non-equivalent. There are 24 public senior secondary school located in the zone. The focused on the 10 co-educational public senior secondary schools found in the area. The study selected 2 co-educational senior secondary schools in zaria education zone. The instruments (content and face validity) were ascertained by given geography performance test items to two experts. A pilot testing was conducted at government secondary school dakace zaria. It showed that performances’ on the re-test are better.The mean and standard deviation was used to answer research questions while t-test used to answer all hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level of significant. From the findings it was confirmed that in teaching with geographical models; the mean academic performance of students was higher, because it has been compared with test and re-test scores. Male mean academic performance was higher than those of females’ counterparts. In retention ability male had higher mean performance. Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that, the developments of geographical models for teaching geography should be encouraged. The ministries of education and stake holders should encourage geography teachers to design and create geographical models, since they can be produced locally.
1.1 Background to the Study
Identifying the best teaching method remains a challenge for most
teacherstoday.Teachers desire to seek out effective and efficient ways of teaching: this has continued to derive researchers towards finding techniques to facilitate teaching especially Geography because most of the concepts are complex and abstract in nature. These views suggest that the mastery of Geography might notbe fully achieved without the use of materials appeal to senses. Nsofor (2010) confirmed that as a complex subject with abstract concepts. Geography teaching and learning cannot be effective without the use of instructional materials. Ibrahim (2009) explains that models are things or devices which in themselves have educational values or context used to facilitate teaching and learning and culminate in the performance of educationalgoals and objectives. Models help students to learn better as researchers have shown Okwo and Iliya,(2004) Nsofor,(2010). This might explainwhy the National Policy on Education (FRN 2014) stated that all schools should be properly equipped with instructional materials for teaching to be very effective.
In teaching Geography, instructional materials play a vital role in making teaching and learning more effective in the classroom.Nsofor,(2010) pointed out that for effective instructional processes emphasis should be more on those materials that appeal to more senses of perception. The ability of human beings to interact with their immediate environment and harnesses the physical aspects such as vegetation, rivers, rocks, valleys and hills.Environmentbeing the means of human interaction with the physical featuresis a vital tool at the disposal of humanity for the successful development of the earth surface.
The strength of Geography as a subject in the senior secondary school lies in the background training and opportunity it can provide to students who want to pursue different types of professions, among which are careers in self-employment, professional establishments, paid employment in government and industries and specialised professions. In spite of these benefits, attrition has been established in secondary school Geography among Nigerian students. Olanipekun, (2014) stressed that one of the reasons adduced for the general lukewarm attitude of students to the study of Geography at secondary school level which has been the acute shortage of Geography instructional materials thereby impeding the smooth transition of students from social studies in Junior Secondary School to Geography in Senior Secondary School. There isthe need therefore, for models in teaching and learning Geographical phenomena.
Adebimpe and Daramola, (2008)noted that modeling demands adventure, creativity, curiosity and perseverance onthe part of the teacher. Modeling could be copying the construction of an object or equipment to a high degree of accuracy (Lowe, 1999). Henry, (2009) stated that teaching at the secondary levels may not easily be achieved through the mere use of instructional materials. At such level, modeling becomes very necessary. Modeling is task-driven opportunities designed to stimulate spontaneous peer interaction in the instructional processes.Similarly, Eshiet,(1996) stated that modeling involves sourcing, selection and deployment of relevant instructional materials into the teaching-learning focus in the absence or shortage of standard materials for a meaningful realization of specified educational goals and objectives.
The teaching of Geography in schools has not been encouraging due to this abstract nature of the subject that is why the use of model materials is needed to facilitate students‟ learning of Geography. Oladejo and Isola, (2011) stressed that mastery of Geography concepts cannot be fully achieved without the use of instructional materials. Another problem confronting teaching and learning of Geography in Nigeria is the unavailability of these instructional materials in schools; therefore there is the need for modeling. This shares the same with researcher‟s idea and perception, and also makes learning more concrete and permanent.
Aina, (2012) said many of the Geographical materials used in teaching Geography can employ a model that is why Geography teacher should endeavour to utilize the use of available resources around them as teaching materials for Geography. Models helps teacher to meet individual differences of the learners in the class by using media that appeal to different senses.In a nut shell, models are teaching materials designed and produced from the available local materials in order to enhance effective teaching and learning in schools. Modeling has been defined by various authors. Obanya,(2011) viewed them as didactic materials thing which are supposed to make learning and teaching possible.
Abimbola (2013) stressed that the primary purpose of modeling is to make teaching effective and also facilitate learning it. He averred further that teachers would not be able to do much where these materials are not available; therefore modeling become necessary.Fakomogbon and Adegbija (2006) posited that modeling can be used by teachers to overcome noise factors, such as misconception, referent confusion and daydreaming.Meremikwu and Enukoha (2010) no meaningful learning can take placewithout the use of appropriate instructional materials. Apart fromenhancing the quality of teaching and learning (Ojeifo,2013), it is well known that instructional models influence students‟ academic performance(Oguzor, (2011). Itsimportance is so remarkable that Onasote (2011)referred to it as a panacea for effective learning. Asimportant as modeling are, it is sadto note that they are not adequately provided particularlyin Nigerian secondary schools.
Gbenu,(2012) showed that instructional materials are not available to teachers toteach and for students to learn and poor funding byGovernment is the major factor ascribed to this problem.Although teachers have the privilege to use instructional strategies in teaching Geography. Teachers should endeavour construct models that are precisely and explicit in the instructional process. Ojeifo,(2013)even with these inadequacies, instructional materialsremain a basic requirement in the teaching of all secondaryschool subjects. Without exception, Geography is one ofthe subjects that these materials are used.
Geography is a subject offered at the senior secondary schoollevel in Nigerian. It is offered in all the public and privatesecondary schools in zaria kaduna state. Talabi, (2001) Said that models are designed to provide realistic images and substitute experience to reach curriculum experiences. The materials are considered the most efficient facilitators in the education set up. These materials are not a substitute for the teacher. Its utilization however, calls for an imaginative approach by the teacher who needs to constantly be on the alert for new ideas and techniques to make the lessons presented with different instructional materials achieve effective outcomes.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
There was a great deviation by the Geography teachers for using models in teaching Geography. Several factors are known to have negatively impacted on the effective teaching and learning of Geography in Schools. It was observed that many students at this level perceives Geography as a difficult subject and hence run away from.Poor background of students in mathematical and some major Geographical concepts,Lack of appropriate instructional materials to illustrate and demonstrate the aspects being taught,Geography not given sufficient time on the school time – table to cover the wide topics andTeachers lack the instinct for modeling of materials, but often rely on textbooks illustrations, have been adduced as some of the reasons for poor performance of students.
Nkana in Ibe-Bassey (2004) believes that “strength in education” resides in the intelligent use of a variety of powerful innovative instructional materials, and that by matching them to different goals and adopting them to different goals and students‟ learning styles and characteristics, much of the ambiguities (i.e. Problems) and complexities of the teaching situation will be removed. In the study of geography, however, the provision of standard instructional materials and models are most often inadequate in schools. This is mainly due to their expensive, scanty supply and sophisticated nature.The researcher also intends to carry out the study on senior secondary schools students (SSS1) since because it is at this level that geographical knowledge are expected to be established and conversant with the concepts in order to acquire the permanents ideas of geography.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are to:
- Examine theeffects of instructional strategies on academic performance of senior secondary school geography students (SSSI) in zaria educational zone.
- Determine the effects of instructional strategies on performance of male and female of senior secondary school geography students (SSSI) in zaria educational zone.
- Find out the effects of instructional strategieson retention ability of senior secondary school geography students (SSSI) in zaria educational zone.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were raised to guide the study;
- What is the effect of instructional strategies onacademicperformance scores of senior secondary school I geography students in zaria education zone?
- What is the effect of instructional strategies on academic performance of male and female senior secondary school I geography students in zaria education zone?
- What is the effect of instructional strategies on retention ability of senior secondary school I geography studentsin zaria education zone?
1.5 Null Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were tested in this study
- There is no significant difference between the mean geography performance scores of students taught Geographical models using demonstration method and those taught using cooperative learning of senior secondary schools in zaria education zone.
- There is no significant difference between the mean geography performance scores of male and female students taught Geographical models using demonstration method and those taught using cooperative learning of senior secondary schools in zariaeducation zone.
- There is no significant difference between the mean retention scores of students taught geographical models.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The following assumptions were made in this study.
- The students would understand better when used these geographical models.
- Geographical models are expected to be used by the teachers in teaching geography iii. The students are aware of models used for teaching Geography.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study might be useful to students in enhancing the performance of students towards geographical imaginative thinking. They would also benefit from learning correct geographical concept through models materials with a view to enhancing their understanding effectively. This is because students need skills with appropriate media to enable them perform well in their receptive geographical concepts.
The result of this research would help to draw the attention of the stakeholders such as, the federal ministry of education, state ministry of education in the education sector on the need for efficient use of models or standard instructional materials in the teaching and learning process in the classroom. The findings could contribute to the improvement of the standard of education in the geography.
It would also help educational sectors and parastatal to supply adequate instructional materials regularly in the Nigerian secondary schools. More so Government through the educational sector would find this study useful because it would enable them to realize that mastery of geography physical features rests on the ability to provide either models orstandard instructional materials for effective teaching and learning process.
By and large, it would help teachers to develop interest acquire the skills of modeling of geographical ideas. More so, teachers using models in the teaching a geographical concept enhances their mastery of the subject. Finally, teachers could be productive in models as they see these ones.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The research work focused on investigating effects of instructional strategies on the academic performance ofsenior secondary school geography students in geography inzaria education zone,kaduna state. The study covered six topics from the first term scheme of work. It was administered within six weeks using Geographical models.
These topics are earth and other planets, earths‟ rotation and revolution, latitude and longitude, weather, climate and population of Nigeria. These topics were selected based on complexity and also amongst other physical aspects of geography which students usually failed. These selected topics demonstrated with geographical models for effective teaching and learning process. The study was delimited to public schools only the use of geographical models. zaria is one of the ancient towns where many people come in quest of knowledge. The study covered students from coeducational schools
Based on these reasons,two schools were selected from zaria, One schools from zaria city walls, and one outside the city walls respectively.The study was delimited to senior secondary school students of class one (SSSI).
EFFECTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL TACTICS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL GEOGRAPHY PUPILS IN ZARIA EDUCATION ZONE, KADUNA STATE