EFFECTS OF COMPUTER-ASSISTED TUTORING ON ATTAINMENT OF SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS, RETENTION, AND PERFORMANCE AMONG BASIC SCIENCE PUPILS IN KANO, NIGERIA

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EFFECTS OF COMPUTER-ASSISTED TUTORING ON ATTAINMENT OF SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS, RETENTION, AND PERFORMANCE AMONG BASIC SCIENCE PUPILS IN KANO, NIGERIA  

ABSTRACT

This study investigated “Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction on the acquisition of Science Process Skills, Retention and Performance among Basic Science Students in Kano, Nigeria”. The research design adopted for the study was a Quasi-experimental control group design which employed a pretest, posttest, and post- posttest of the experimental and the control groups. The population of the study consisted of 8,131 JSSII Students from forty-one schools in Kano Municipal. Four schools were selected as sample for the study with a total number of 200 students. The instruments used for the study were Basic Science Performance Test (BSPT) with reliability coefficient of 0.89 and Process Skills Acquisition Test (PSAT) with reliability coefficient of 0.76. Both instruments were validated by three senior lecturers. Intact classes of JSSII were used for the study. Six research questions were answered using descriptive statistic of mean and standard deviation, while six research hypotheses were formulated and tested using t-test at P≤0.05 level of significance. One of the hypothesis answered was There is no significant difference in the level of performance between students taught Basic Science concept using Computer-Assisted Instruction and those taught using Lecture Method Major findings of the study revealed that the use of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) has positive effect on Students‟ acquisition of Science Process Skill, Retention, and Performance among Basic Science Students. Based on the research findings recommendations were made among which include, that the State Ministry of Education should provide adequate Information Technology gadgets such as computers and software/instructions which are the basic equipments needed for the implementation of Computer-Assisted Instruction as a method of teaching. Teachers and students should be exposed to the Computer-Assisted Instructions as an effective modern teaching technique for the improvement of Science Process Skills acquisition, Retention and Performance in Science.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE THE PROBLEM

1.1       Introduction

Science and technology education plays a vital role in the socio-economic development of all nations. In view of this, developed countries like Britain, Australia, United States of America, Japan, to mention but a few are stressing the need for discoveries in fundamental materials of importance in all fields of sciences. This is done at an incredible rate through pursuing scientifically and technologically related programs in the institutions of learning. Bala (2010) asserted that in developing nations like Nigeria, various factors have contributed to the decay in the educational system, among which is the misinterpretation of the nature of science and science education which can as well lead to in appropriate teaching that reduces the potential impact of science education as a tool for development in Nigeria.

Adinoyi (2005) and Ibrahim, (2012) both opined that for a country to achieve national development, science and technology has to be taught in a well-structured pattern involving activities for both teachers and students. However the low performance of students in sciences as reported by the National Center for Science Education NCSE (2012) has put science education in the nation in a state of crisis. Efforts were made by various curriculum developers in Nigeria with a view to address this issue, for example, the development of the Comparative Education Study Adaptation Center CESAC (1968), the establishment of the Nigerian Integrated Science Project NISP (1971) as well as the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria STAN (1970). Samuel (2012) explained that the progress in the teaching and learning of science concepts still remained very slow, in spite of the introduction of the 6-3-3-4 system of education. However the problem of the implementation of the 6-3-3-4 system of education is partly due to the non availability of personnel, materials, funds and administrative will. In view of this short coming the researcher intends to test the effect of computer assisted instruction on the acquisition of basic science process skills, retention, and performance among basic science students in Kano, Nigeria.

Abdullahi (2005) pointed out that Nigeria could not achieve national development as science education has been put in a state of crisis in the Nation. He further pointed out that for the country to achieve development the problems associated with science education have to be eradicated. Some of these problems include, poor teaching skills, non application of science to production activities, inadequate teaching materials, poor funding, and non implementation of research findings among others. These problems therefore have led to underachievement in science education as reported by Nwagbo (2008). The culmination of the above problems have made it difficult to develop scientifically literate individuals that will be willing to learn science contents as well as acquire the science process skills.

Basic science is the science taught at the primary and junior secondary level in Nigeria. The syllabus of basic science is designed with a lot of activities, as such methods used for its teaching should be in such a way that it will allow the learner to learn through the activity based method of teaching. NTI (2007) reported that methods of teaching basic science should include the guided discovery method which is resource based. The mastery of basic science concepts cannot be fully achieved without the use of instructional learning materials; hence the teaching of basic science without learning materials can result to the inability to recall the learned materials, and consequently result to lack of acquisition of the science process skills, poor retention ability as well as poor academic performance.  Franzers, Okebukola and Jegede (1992) stressed that a professionally qualified science teacher cannot be able to put ideas into practice if equipments and materials necessary to translate competence into reality are lacking. Yusuf (2009) described instructional or teaching materials like the computer, the projector and the like as those items used by the teacher to pass information to students. Achimugu (2000) posited that students comprehend and remember better when teaching materials are employed in the teaching-learning process. Some researchers‟ like Betiku (2000) and Ayua (2011) revealed that there are materials which can be used effectively to teach basic science in order to make learning experience effective. It is envisaged that instructional materials if carefully and properly planned may enhance the teaching and learning of basic science, and consequently make it enjoyable, interesting, and exciting. It is in this regard that this research work  intends to use a personalize computer soft ware package as a form of teaching resource for the teaching of basic science in order to asses if it will be effective in the acquisition of science process skills, retention and performance among basic science students in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria.

Okeke (2015) narrated that as a former British Colony, Nigeria‟s‟ system of education is patterned like the British system in many ways. Before the advent of Nuffield junior science in 1960s, the only form of science was Nature study. The priority of the primary school curriculum as at that time was vested on the 3Rs (Reading, Writing, and Arithmetic). In 1960 Nigeria‟s primary concern was to develop science in order to improve its economy so as to catch up with the developed world. Science is seen as a subject related to material progress. Yeung (2001) explained that in order to improve the nations‟ economy, regional and international conferences were organized, which subsequently led to the establishment of elementary science project in 1964, followed by the African Primary Science (APSA) in 1965 hence the race to develop integrated science begun. The objectives of the program as outlined by Fafunwa (1974) are to develop interest in science and technology, take advantage of the numerous career opportunities offered by the study of science and technology, and preparedness for further studies in science and technology among others.

Among the numerous curriculum efforts and innovations in sciences was the UBE, which was formally launched in 1999 by the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Its aim was to ensure adequate and qualitative education that is directed towards the achievement of the Nations objectives as well as provide a universal, free, compulsory, and continuous nine (9) year education programme. In line with this, the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) developed a new nine (9) year basic education curriculum that has the following components: Lower Basic Education Curriculum for primary 1-3 (age 6-8years). Middle Basic Education Curriculum for primary 4-6 (age 9-

11) Then the Upper Basic Education Curriculum for Junior Secondary (JS1-3) (ages 1214) Adeyinka (2002) narrated that generally, the new areas of emphasis in the new nine

(9) Year Basic Education Curriculum are: Value Re-orientation, Basic Science, Basic Technology, Computer Science, Home Economics, Agricultural Science, Business

Studies, Civic Education and French. Danmole (2000) stated that in the Nigerian Education Continuum, basic education as the foundation requires a sound knowledge of science and technology, because science teaching is virtually non–existent in the Nigerian primary schools. Therefore, the nine (9) years Basic Science and Technology Curriculum is a re- structuring and re- alignment of the revised core curriculum for Primary Science and the Integrated Science for the Junior Secondary Schools which is currently in use.  Mamudu (2013) reported that in spite of the above efforts the teaching and learning of science in Nigerian schools hardly follows the nature of science. What is rather obtained is shallow rooted instruction that leads to superficial acquisition of knowledge, which cannot be appropriately applied in or out of school situation or lead to a successful achievement in learning. Other problems associated with the teaching of basic science at the junior secondary school level includes the quality of curriculum delivery, production and provision of instructional materials, enrolment and class size, to mention but a few.  Consequently, this has rendered the learning of basic science to be difficult, un- interesting, abstract, and in some cases meaningless. In view of this Adesoji and Raimi (2004) suggested that better programme should be adopted for the teaching of basic science with the hope of attaining and achieving effective classroom teaching that can produce individuals who will at the end acquire the necessary process skills, achieve and retain better what they have learnt in order to be productive in the society. In view of these problems this research work intends to provide the necessary empirical data that will show the effect of the use of Computer-Assisted Instruction on the acquisition of

Process Skills, Retention and Performance among Junior Secondary School Students in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria.

Science being the study of nature can be considered as the search for facts and beliefs in rational answers to questions about the nature of life and the universe. In pursuing those answers, scientists try to adhere to particular rules and habits of thoughts that have proved reliable in the painstaking process of building up increasingly dependable pictures of the world. The method of science, therefore, is a process or procedure of arriving at scientific facts. Clark (2009) explained that the most distinguishing feature of science is the method it uses for exploring about the universe. It is an activity that takes place in the mind as a result of certain intellectual processes, which are means by which one can examine the unknown, explore, and investigate through experimentation and analysis of the environment. There is no one scientific method but there are certain general principles that govern scientific processes. For example, process skills are means of learning that are peculiar and essential to the conduct of science and they can be termed as tools that are used to investigate the world around us and construct science concepts. Mifflin (2002) outlined process skills as the art of reasoning, cognitive development, critical and logical thinking, which generally includes observation, communication, measurement, comparison, contrasting, organizing, classifying, analyzing, inferring, hypothesizing, predicting among others. He went further to say that the development of concepts depends on process skills because concepts and process skills are interrelated. Some studies by Miller and Wayne (2008), Suwaid (2013) revealed that process skills are means that help the child to understand school subjects as well as assist in the approach to everyday life.

Miller and Wayne (2008) explained that science process skills are regarded as general cognitive skills that man routinely employs and are classified into basic process skills and integrated process skills. Nay (2007) explained that basic process skills are six in number and are appropriate for children in the primary grades. They include; observation, measurement, classification, communication, prediction and inferring. While the integrated process skills are eleven in number and are appropriate for grades four and above. They include; formulation of hypothesis, identifying variables, defining variables, describing relationships between variables, designing investigations, experimenting, acquiring data, organizing data into tables and graphs, analyzing investigations, understanding cause and effect relationships, and formulating models.  For the purpose of this study, the researcher intends to test the effect of Computer Assisted Instruction in relation to Skills Acquisition, Retention and performance among basic science students, as the basic process skills are appropriate for students that are in the basic education level.

Jiya (2007) states that literally, the ability to store and remember ideas and facts is termed as retention.  Ochonnogor (2007) wrote that retention can be measured through verbal recall of learnt materials, and explained that concepts learnt assist in reflective thinking and that retained concepts can be used in creative ways to solve new problems.

Retention and performance in science, technology, and mathematics, are of paramount importance in science learning. Bichi (2002) also described retention as the ability to store and remember things experienced or learned by an individual at a later time. Oyedokun (2002) and Jiya (2007) argued that when teaching is characterized by rote learning, meaningless memorization, or verbalism, students learn ineffectively. However, Bichi (2002) believed, when there is interference among learned material; speed and efficiency of learning is often decreased. Where as anything that aids learning should improve retention. Thus learned facts cannot be retained for a long time, nor can they have a significant effect on the learning outcome. Therefore, this research work intends to assess the effect of the use of Computer-Assisted Instruction on process skills acquisition, retention and performance among basic science students.

Performance can be explained as a term, which is directly proportional to change in a learning context, input, or classroom process. Performance, therefore, simply means the extent to which a student, a teacher, or an institution has reached its educational goal. It is commonly measured by examinations or other means of evaluation of teaching and learning outcome. In another development, Sati (2014) described performance as a complex students‟ behavior that underlies several abilities. Examples include memory, previous knowledge or aptitude, as well as psychological factors like motivation, interest, temperaments or emotions. Deary, Whiteman, Star, Whalley and Fox (2004) stated that performance can either be low or high. Adamu (2008) explained that the causes of low performance are diverse and cannot be associated with a single factor. For instance, proponents of self-concept and its variables may be a paramount factor in academic failure.  Yoloye (2009) reported that performance in any form of activity is based upon study interpretation and application and that study has a purpose so it depends on the individual to decide why he or she wants to study. That is, either to gain new ideas or to find out relationship between two different things. In essence, what one learns as a result of study depends on the degree to which one succeeds.  Hard work involves having common sense and using better organization and application of good study habit. Nwagbo (2001) and Penil, Olorukooba, Usman and Lawal (2007) revealed that students perform poorly in science secondary schools and a number of factors were found to be responsible for the poor attainment of the objectives of science instruction. Some isolated factors as deduced by some researchers like Nwagbo (2006) and Abdullahi (2005) include inappropriate and uninspiring teaching approaches adopted by science teachers, inadequate teaching and learning facilities and so on. In this research the researcher intends to find out if the use of computer assisted instruction can help students to acquire skills that can be extended to out of classroom situation, to be able to recall the concepts being taught in the classroom, as well as improve academic performance in science learning.

Another variable for this research is Gender. In line with this research, gender can be explained as an identifiable human characteristic that can affect the level of process skills acquisition, retention and performance among basic science students.  The academic performance of males and females in science, technology and mathematics has been perceived differently, where males are rated higher than females (Bello,

2002).Researchers in science education such as Bichi (2002), Linver, Davis-kean and Eccles (2002), have expressed concern on gender related issues with the view of improving science teaching and learning. Jimoh (2005) reported that the position of females in science, mathematics and vocational education is below average when compared to males. Ahmad (2008) reported that studies have shown that girls and boys have different attitudes towards studies. Patrick and Ezenwa (2000) narrated that considerable numbers of researchers have focused on gender differences in science learning. Lagoke (2007) noted that boys perform better than girls in activities that require manipulations, and boys are said to be more mechanically and scientifically inclined than girls. However other researchers like Mari (1994) observed that female students perform better than male students. Bichi (2002) Danmole and Adeoye (2004) in their separate studies found that there is no gender difference in the performance of boys and girls in sciences. From these studies, there is no conclusive statement on gender related issues investigated by the researchers. It is due to this inconclusive decision that this study intends to investigate on the effect of computer assisted instruction on the acquisition of process skills, retention and performance among basic science students and also to determine if there is any significant difference in terms of the level of acquisition of science process kills, retention and performance among male and female basic science students.

Inyang (2009) narrated that the educational benefits of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in building up a generation of technological and skilled individuals must be appreciated. Most countries have come up with programs and policies that will enhance the use of ICT in the business of teaching and learning. The Center for the Advancement of Teaching and Learning CATL (2001) also in a mission statement “Towards the definition of online learning” at the university of Western Australia submits that online learning is a subset of flexible teaching and learning. Students and teachers subscribe to online learning approach in order to achieve the desire for flexible learning.  According to Yeung (2001) online instruction facilitates the acquisition of knowledge and skills. Wal and Linde (2001) and Olajide and Lawal (2012) all explained that Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) is another development in search for more efficient training that will involve the integration of computer assisted programs for the development of quality teaching and learning. Hung (2011) reported that CAI is used in educational drill practices, testing, tutorials, games, accumulative records and simulations. And he went further to say that CAI provides and enhances retention, motivation, high performance, and good quality of written work, timely interaction with the teacher, and immediate feedback as well as positive attitude towards the learning process. Therefore this study is intended towards assessing the effect of computer assisted instruction on acquisition of the science process skills, retention and performance among basic science students.

Some studies on computer assisted instruction like Johnson, Aragon, and Sheik (2000), Martin-Michiellot and Mendelson (2000), Clark (2009) compared learning methods in human resource development. Their findings showed that students in the ComputerAssisted group perceived the instructor more positively and rated the overall course quality higher than their counter parts. Their study also revealed that students who were taught using multimedia tools combined with cooperative learning had increased students satisfaction and better learning outcome. Clark (2009) further deduced that materials delivered in an easy to learn fashion can enhance students‟ performance and satisfaction which signifies that “learner ability” refers to the degree to which a student learn the course contents and materials delivered through computer assisted instruction or lecture method easy to learn. Thus from the foregoing account it has shown that the use of computer assisted instruction may serve as a foundation for the achievement of a deep understanding of the complex ideas that are embedded in ICT as well as provide an avenue for the constant practice and mastery of science process skills. In view of this the researcher intends to find out the effect of computer assisted instruction on the acquisition of process skills, retention and performance in science learning among basic science students in Kano Metropolis.

1.1.1 Theoretical Framework

The theoretical framework for this study is based on the constructivist theory of learning which according to Piaget (1940) believes that knowledge is not received passively, but it is built up by the cognizing subject. In other words, it is not possible to transfer ideas into students‟ head, rather students have to construct their own meaning from the words they hear or the visual images they see. In this regard the use of computer assisted instruction will make the students to participate actively in the learning process, provide the students with the appropriate conditions and materials that will stimulate the learner to construct his own learning model. Although an individual has to construct his own meaning of a new phenomena or idea, the process of construction is always embedded within the social context of which the individual is part. Saunders (2002) stated that “Knowledge is the result of an individual subject constructive ability not a commodity that somehow resides outside the knower, and can be conveyed or instilled by diligent perception or linguistic communication. The constructivist view of learning considers learning to be an individual and personal event, hence people construct, re-construct, and deconstruct their own understanding and knowledge of the world by experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences.

Clark (2003) decided that the focus of teaching is that of guiding the students, as they build and modify their existing mental models, which denotes a focus on knowledge construction rather than knowledge transmission. They further explained that constructivism as a paradigm of learning is founded on the premise that by reflecting on past experiences one can construct his/her own understanding of the world they live in, generate his/her own rules, and design his/her own mental models which he/she can use to make sense of his/her experience. In this context, the use of Computer-Assisted

Instruction will give the learner a chance to be an active contributor in the classroom rather than being a passive listener and this will consequently enable him/her acquires skills that could be use in solving educational problems in particular and societal problems in general. More over it will provide the learner with an experience that will help him/her to reflect on his experiences and consequently make quick recall of the learnt materials. The use of Computer-Assisted Instruction can make the learner to become an active thinker and consequently perform better in their various educational endeavors.

Abdullahi (2012) narrated that Ideally computer assisted instruction can serve as a guide, as well as provide an avenue for conducting activities for the students, so that they can be able to build and modify their existing mental models that can aid in retention and improve performance. In line with this study the use of computer assisted instruction will make the learner to become motivated to make his own personal construction of knowledge through interaction between the individual knowledge scheme and his experiences with the environment.

Some pedagogical theories of learning like the cognitive view of learning, according to Garbela,  (2004) states that for learning to take place students actively process information by making efforts to organize, store, and find relationships between information, linking new knowledge to old knowledge schema and scripts. Thus Ausubel (1962) considers the impact of prior learning as a decisive factor in information processing. Cognitive theory therefore emphasizes the way information is being processed, that is the active and mental process on the part of the learner; all of which are embedded in computer assisted instruction. Therefore in this research the use of personalize computer soft ware package will engage the learner with activities that can boost his/her mental capability. In such a way the learners‟ tendency to acquire skills may be enhanced, retention ability may be stimulated by recalling the activities that were done through the use of the PCSWP in this regards the researcher intends to assess the Effect of Computer Assisted Instruction on the acquisition of Science Process Skills, Performance and Retention among Basic Science Students in Kano Metropolis.

Another theory that is guiding the use of Computer-Assisted Instruction is that of Piaget (1977), which suggested that people learn through exploration, and that learning occurs when the students‟ exploration uncovers an inconsistency between their current knowledge representation and their experience. This study is relative to the use of Computer-Assisted Instruction in the sense that the use of PCSWP will involve the learner in the teaching and learning process rather than being passive as in the lecture method. Therefore, the learner will be able to explore quite vividly not only try to imagine what the teacher has said in the conventional lecture method. Smeet and Moji (2001) explained that students‟ retention ability and performance can only be improved when teachers creates an interactive learning environment that stimulates students to be active, cooperative, and take more responsibility in the learning process. So in line with this study the use of PCSWP as a media of instruction can make the learner to be active, cooperative as well as take owner of his own learning, which may consequently boost the level of retention and improve performance among learners.

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Research studies like Anthony (2002) and Abdullahi (2005) stated that in Africa, the teaching and learning of Basic Science is dominated by the lecture method and is thought to be the major reason for learning disability and lack of interest on the part of the learners. The National Policy on Education (FME, 2013) states its objectives for science education is to cultivate the spirit of inquiry, produce competent scientist and to provide knowledgeable scientists. Usman (2014) called on the need to transform the teaching of science with a view to assisting the teaming youths to acquire skills that will make them self-reliant.

Muoneme (2013) explained that the teacher and his method of teaching may have been the major cause of student‟s poor academic performance in basic science as most teachers still prefer using the “chalk and talk” method i.e. the lecture method. The lack of trained teachers that can alter the conventional teaching methods to modern teaching strategies, as well as non use appropriate instructional ,material for the teaching and learning process are all identified by  Elechi (2003) as factors resulting in poor performance among learners of science. The situation in Kano State is a clear indication of the poor performance. Tables 1.1 and 1.2 showed inconsistencies in the performance of students in Basic Science and Basic Technology in the Basic Education Certificate Examinations over the years.

Table 1.1: Performance of Students in Basic Science in the Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) in Kano Metropolis (2010 – 2015)

Year Students who sat for the exam (%) Passed distinction credit (%) with and Passed with P7P8 (%) Failed (%)
2010 98 37   17 43
2011 99 40   34 25
2012 98 67   21 10
2013 98 78   15 5.0
2014 98 62   24 1.0
2015 98 60   22 16

Source: (Kano Educational Resource Department, (2015)

From Table 1.1 a look at the percentage of students who failed and those who passed in the BECE examinations is not consistent. For example in 2010 the percentage failure is (43%) with only 37% having distinction and credit while 17% with P7 and P8. Also in the year 2011, 25% failed 40% with distinction and credit and the remaining 34% passed with P7 and P8. In 2012 the percentage failure is (10%) with 67% having distinction and credit while 21% passed with P7 and P8. In 2013 the percentage failure is (5.0%) with

78% having distinction and credit while 15% passed with P7 and P8. In 2014 the percentage failure is (1.0%) with 62% having distinction and credit while 24% passed with P7 and P8. In 2015 the percentage failure is (16%) with 60% having distinction and credit while 22% passed with P7 and P8. The problem in the teaching of basic science at the grassroots is overhauled. The trend is similar in the performance of the students in Basic Technology. Table 1.2

Table 1.2:       Performance of Students in the Basic Technology Certificate Examinations (BTCE) in Kano Metropolis from 2010 – 2015

 

Year Students who sat for the

exams (%)

Passed with distinction and credit (%) Passed with                  P7-P8 Failed (%)
2010 99 41 17 41
2011 99 43 32 24
2012 99 31.7 26 41
2013 99 73 17 9
2014 98 40.8 27 30
2015 98 36.5 29 32

Source: (Kano Educational Resource Department, 2015)

Table 1.2 indicated that the percentage scoring P7, P8 and failed added up together, indicate large failure rate. This according to Afuwape and Olutoye (2004), Odetoyinbo (2004) has prevented students from offering or performing well in the core science subjects at the senior secondary level. The result also indicated that the number failing is greater than those passing. The use of activity methods like the Computer-AssistedInstruction has been reported by researcher Yeung (2001) to aid learning, especially sciences subjects. This study therefore seeks to investigate the Effect of Computer

Assisted Instruction on the Acquisition of Science Process skills, Retention and Performance in Science learning among Basic Science Students in Kano Metropolis,

Nigeria.

 

 

 

 

 

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The main objectives of this study are to:

  1. find out the difference in performance among students taught Basic Science concept using Computer-Assisted Instruction and those taught using Lecture

Method ii. examine the difference between the Science Process Skills Acquired in students that were taught Basic Science concept using Computer-Assisted Instruction

(CAI) and those taught using Lecture Method  iii. determine the difference in the level of retention among Students taught Basic Science concept using Computer-Assisted Instruction and those taught using

Lecture Method iv. investigate the difference in the level of Performance between male and female students taught Basic Science concept using Computer Assisted Instruction

  1. examine the difference in the level of Science Process Skills acquired between male and female students taught Basic Science concept using Computer Assisted

Instruction vi. find out the difference in the level of retention ability among male and female students taught Basic Science concept using Computer Assisted Instruction

1.4       Research Questions

The following research questions are put forward to guide the study:

  1. What is the difference in the level of performance between students taught Basic Science concept using Computer-Assisted Instruction and those taught using lecture method?
  2. What is the difference in the science process skills acquired in students that were taught Basic Science concept using Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) and those taught using lecture method?
  • What is the difference in the retention ability between students taught Basic Science concept using Computer-Assisted Instruction and those taught using Lecture Method?
  1. What is the difference in the level of performance between male and female students taught Basic Science concept using Computer Assisted Instruction?
  2. What is the difference in the level of the science process skills acquired between male and female students taught Basic Science concept using Computer-Assisted Instruction?
  3. What is the difference in the level of retention between male and female students taught Basic Science concept using Computer-Assisted Instruction?

 

1.5       Null Hypotheses

Based on the research questions, the following null hypotheses were formulated to guide this study. The null hypotheses were tested at P ≤ 0.05 levels of significance

H01: There is no significant difference in the level of performance between students taught Basic Science concept using Computer-Assisted-Instruction and those taught using lecture method.
H02: There is no significant difference in the acquisition of Science Process Skills among students taught Basic Science concepts using Computer-Assisted-

Instruction and those taught using lecture method.

H03: There is no significant difference in the level of retention between students taught

Basic Science concept using Computer-Assisted-Instruction and those taught using lecture method.

H04: There is no significant difference in the level of performance between male and female students taught Basic Science concept using Computer-Assisted-

Instruction.

H05: There is no significant difference in the level of science process skills acquired between male and female students taught Basic Science concept using Computer

Assisted Instruction.

H06: There is no significant difference in the level of retention between male and

female students taught Basic Science concept using Computer Assisted

Instruction.

 

1.6       Significance of the Study

The finding of this study might improve the teaching strategies and broaden students‟ knowledge, steer up their interest in Basic Science subject in the junior secondary schools in the study area and the nation at large.

It is hoped that finding of this study would build a proper link between students‟ performance in Basic Science and the quality needed for teachers‟ effectiveness in handling the subject across the state. It is also hoped that the findings of this research work will as well help to reduce the extent of preparation on the part of the teacher, thereby making presentation easier and interesting. The visual impact and interactive nature associated with the use of CAI can help to minimize the abstractions that are associated with the teaching and learning of science concepts therefore will make the teaching of science concrete and familiar

On the part of learners, it is hoped that the findings of this research work can help them to appreciate the skills being acquired using CAI by enabling them to solve   problems both within and outside the classroom. The constant handling of computers using CAI will also help to intimate learners with the programs and features of computers, as well as make them to be familiar with the internet. The findings of this study will provide a foundation for the achievement of a deeper understanding of ICT. It is also hoped that the findings of this study will encourage the learners to be creative; therefore will give them an opportunity to have a proper mastery of the science process skills. Generally, the findings from this study can help to improve the flow of applicable knowledge, skills, capability, and expertise on the part of the learners. The developmental problems encountered in secondary schools, which sometimes shift students focus from academic performance to social relationships may be addressed by the use of CAI learning tools.

This research finding can be of help to professional bodies like the Science Teachers Association of Nigeria (STAN) as it will have a new area of interest that will help to actualize vision 2020 meant for global technological advancement. The findings of this study will help in the creation of business opportunities on the part of book publishers, manufacturers, and distributors of various technological devices all over the globe.

1.7       Scope of the Study

This study seeks to investigate the Effects of Computer –Assisted Instruction (CAI) on

Acquisition of Science Process skills, Retention and Performance, among Basic Science Students in Kano Metropolis, Nigeria. Kano Metropolis is made up of eight Local Governments areas. The study is delimited to Junior Secondary two (II) Students; because they are not under stress of any external examinations. The population of the study encompasses all the Junior Secondary School Students in Kano Municipal Local Government with a total number of 8,131 students drown from 41 Junior Secondary Schools.  4,870 were male student while 3,261 were females.  A sample of 200 students were drown from four schools 2 of the schools were male while the other 2 were females.   The researcher used Computer-Assisted Instruction to teach Basic Science concept so as to assess its effect on the acquisition of Science Process-skills, which includes the skills of observation, measurement, classification, communication, prediction and inference. In carrying out this research, two groups were involved and experimental group and the control group. Two instruments were also used, which include Basic Science

Performance Test (BSPT) and Process skills Acquisition Test (PSAT).

The topics taught were:

  1. Concept of environmental pollution ii. Types of pollution iii. Air pollution, causes, effects, and control measures iv.         Water pollution, causes, effects, and control measures
  2. Land pollution, causes effects and control measures vi. General overview of pollution

The concept of pollution was taught in the cause of the research because it forms part of the JSS syllabus, and it is a very wide topic therefore difficult for the teacher to cover within the stipulated time. And most of the time questions are often asked on pollution concepts during WAEC and NECO examination and the student would not escape answering question on the pollution concept (Bala 2010)

1.8       Basic Assumptions

For the purpose of this study, the following assumptions are made:

  1. Computer -Assisted Instruction (CAI) is not being used for the teaching of basic science in the selected schools.
  2. The subjects for the study are taught by qualified science teachers.
  • The schools are homogenous in the area of provision of equipments, instructional,

Materials, Staff qualification, and motivation as well as students enrolment.

EFFECTS OF COMPUTER-ASSISTED TUTORING ON ATTAINMENT OF SCIENCE PROCESS SKILLS, RETENTION, AND PERFORMANCE AMONG BASIC SCIENCE PUPILS IN KANO, NIGERIA  

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