INFLUENCE OF SIMULATION MODEL ON APPROACH, RETENTION AND PERFORMANCE IN QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL CHEMISTRY STUDENTS, ZARIA – NIGERIA
This study examined the effects of simulation model on students‟ academic Performance, attitude and retention in qualitative analysis among Senior Secondary School students in Kaduna state. The motive behind the study is connected to persistent failure of students in SSCE due to poor attitude generating low retention among learners. In line with this, four research questions and hypotheses were developed. The study adopted pretest posttest Quasi-experimental control group design. The population of the study comprised of eight (8) governments-owned, coeducational Senior Secondary Schools in Zaria Inspectorate Zone with a total number of 645 SSS II Chemistry students. Two Senior Secondary Schools were systematically selected for the study. In the school selected, intact SS II classes were used from forming a sample size of 102 Students. Two validated instruments, Qualitative Analysis Performance Test (QAPT) and Students Attitude towards Qualitative Analysis Concepts Questionnaire (SAQACQ) were developed by the researcher and used for data collection. The reliability coefficient of the QAPT and SAQAQ were 0.66 and 0.96 respectively. Research questions were answered using mean and standard deviation, while null hypothesis were tested at p ≤0.05 level of significance using t-test and Kruskalwalis test. Statistics and the research findings show that there was significance difference in the academic Performance of male and female student‟s taught qualitative analysis concept using simulation. I concluded that the effect of simulation method on students‟ academic performances and attitude in qualitative analysis concepts as measured by QAPT and SAQAQ where statistically significant towards improving teaching and learning. This study recommended that the Federal and state ministry of education should provide relevant materials in secondary schools for developing and implementing simulation teaching to enhance attitude and performance of students. Similarly, Secondary school teachers should be trained by the teacher training institutions on developing and utilization of simulation methods in teaching.
Chemistry is viewed by Lado (2010) as systematic discipline or molecular andexperimental science. Ezelion (2009) posited that chemistry is very critical to the understanding of natural world and the ability to understand some basic issues facing a society. It is also the study of matter and its properties, the change they undergo and the energy factors associated with these changes (Ababio 2002). Chemistry occupies pivotal positions in science and technology and is needed by everybody and in everyaspect of human life (Abubakar&Ejimaji 2010).The researcher referred to Chemistry as a science subject that deals with organized activities to be carried out either in a class or a laboratory.
Chemistry is a compulsory subject of science for senior secondary education,hence Abubakar and Alao (2010) reported the need for qualitative and functionalchemistry education, which can be achieved through students cognitive level development in chemistry concepts like qualitative analysis. This is why the National Policy on Education (F.M.E, 2007), emphasizes the teaching of science process skills in schools. The significance attached to chemistry subject, as stated by the Federal Republic of Nigeria (FRN, 2013) resulted in making it compulsory for candidates at Senior Secondary School Certificate (SSCE) and National Examination Council (NECO)
examinations at the end of their SS III training to seat for the subject.
The general aims of practical activities in teaching and learning of science include but not limited to enabling the learners to visualize and understand scientific concept; develop process skills; develop effective skills and generate enthusiasm and gratification in the subject matter. This is why National Policy on Education (FRN, 2007) emphasizes the teaching and learning processes and principle. Therefore, the policy recommends practical, exploratory and experimental methods;Utulu (1998) observed that one of the purposes of the National Policy on Education is to give students opportunity of acquiring practical skills required for self-reliance and employment so as to minimize the present unemployment hazard.The concept of Qualitative analysis is a component of practical chemistry in Nigeria‟s chemistry Curriculum whose objective includes training students to develop skills in observing and interpreting the salt under analysis (FRN, 2013). Simulation is aninstructional technique that teaches some aspect of the world by imitating or replicating it. Students are not only motivated by simulation, but can learn interacting with them in a manner similar to the way they could react in real situations. In almost every instance a simulation also simplifies reality by omitting or changing details. In this simplified world, the student solves problems, learn procedures comes to understand the characteristic of phenomena and how to control them or learn what actions are to betaken in different situations (Alessi&Trollip, 1991). Ingalls (2008) reportedthat simulation is a powerful tool if understood and used properly.Ingalls further referred to simulation as an instructional tool for eliminating undesirable component of real situation in order to reachpredetermined learning outcomes.Isa, (2012), posited simplification allows learners to focus on critical information or skill and make learning easier. This perspective for the use of simulations is very appropriate for accomplishing simplified behavioral and cognitive tasks.
Humphreys and Imberted (2012), Stated that is a unique modeling and simplification of some structureof systems. While Simulation model is described as learning tool used in our educational system, simulation model is a representation of a system. This could be a picture, diagram, symbol, signs, and equations and so on (Anu,
The purpose of a model is to enable the analysis to predict the effect of change to qualitative analysis concept of chemistry and to reduce the chance of student‟s failure in qualitative analysis for examination. Another purpose of an educational simulation is to motivate the learners to engage in problem solving, hypothesis testing, experiential learning, schema construction and development of mental models (Winn &Snyle, 1996), Duffy and Cunningham (1996).To facilitate leaning educational simulation, rely heavily on scaffolding (Duffy & Cunningham, 1996), Coaching and feedback (Aless&Trollip 2001).
Academic Performance is a method of determining whether a successful completion has taken place for each students. Okafor (2000) on the other hand maintain that academic Performance concerns mental health care. It is based on the degree intellectual simulation that the child could receive from learning situation.NERDC(2007) and Olurundare, (2010), revealed that the academic Performanceof students in chemistry was poor at SSS level. Annual report of both the WestAfrican Examination Council (WAEC) (2007-2010) and National Examination Council (NECO) revealed that the poor academic Performance of students in chemistry still persist. Similar report from WAEC, indicated that the result of 2010 November/December West African Senior School Certificate Examination were not encouraging as only 20.04% percent of 310,077 candidates obtained five credits in core science subject.Thus there is a need to adopt alternative strategy for improving students‟ performance such as the use of simulation model.
Gender of students creates a lot of concern among researchers world over (Bichi, 2002). Many studies such as Usman (2010) revealed that difference exist in the performance of students in integrated science due to exposure to indoor and outdoor strategies in favour of male students. The case is different when compared with the work of Mari (2008),Atadoga and Lakpini (2013) who found gender disparity in favour of female students. However, Obeka (2015) revealed no gender disparity among students when exposed to innovative teaching strategy with models in environmental concept of geography. Similarly, Bello (2015) revealed that when students were exposed to Computer-Aided instruction, performance of male and female will not differ significantly and hence is gender friendly. Therefore this study used simulation models to see what the result will be.
Attitude in this study is an aspect of affective domain concerned with beliefs, interest, motives, need, satisfaction, feeling, and believe. It is predisposition which makes an individual to behave or react in a particular way. The effective disposition of the students has direct relevance in his ability to learn, in his attitude toward the value of education (Osuafor, 2001). For students to develop positive attitude toward a subject there is need to get them interested in the learning task. Dageinty and Coll (2009) opined that a satisfactory grade in a class does not necessarily imply a positive attitude toward the subject; however, both positive and negative attitude will influence students‟
performance. Majority of teachers in our school assess the performance of students based on cognitive aspect neglecting both affective and psychomotor aspects of students. Therefore, in simulation the interaction and activity involved will enhances attitude of students in a learned concept.
Retention is the ability to remember tasks, or material learnt concepts. It is also defined by Bichi (2002)as the ability to retain and recall information or knowledge gained after learning. Obeka (2010) investigated quite a lot of variables that affect retention such as tasks to be performed, learner‟s previous experiences, the interval between lesson and evaluation as well as instructional strategy used by teachers. Report revealed that students‟ ability to remember or recall previous learning task during SSCE examination is a contributory factor to their failure. However scholars revealed the role of inappropriate methodology of teaching chemistry such as lecture method as the contributory factor of mass failure among students. Other factor observed is inability of teachers to take into account the affective domain of students. Therefore, in simulation the interaction and activity involved will enhances retention of students in a learned concept. It is against this background that this study is set and examined the effect of simulation model on secondary school students‟ Performance, retention and attitude in qualitative analysis concepts at Secondary Schools.
1.1.1 Theoretical Framework
This study is based on the established constructivist theories of learning stems from the work done by several theories including Robert Gagne information processing theory,Gestal theory, Brunner learning theory, (Dewer, 2005) Papert (2007).Laurilerd (2000) pointed that constructivist theory has it root in cognitive psychology, philosophy, learning theory and education theory, and that the constructivist theory ofteaching and learning directly relates to the mission of the centre of teaching excellence in which students and faculty alike are seen as partners in learning and in applying learning in a spirit of inquiry and zest for problem solving. The constructivist approach to teaching focuses on active participation of student in teaching process (Duggins, 2002). Gagne (2008) have shown that the basic ideas behind constructivism focuses on the student taking an active role in their own learning as they construct their own knowledge by integrating the new information with pre-existing somatic constructs. Key to this style of teaching and learning is the notion that the learning activity must be relevant and engaging to the students (Duggin, 2002). This approach centre on problem solving and critical thinking skills that the student utilizes by applying approaches based on their prior knowledge and experience to a newproblem situation and integrating those approaches with new experience and knowledge to construct a new level of understanding.
Isa, (2012) stated that in the constructivist theory, the teacher is typically viewed as facilitator or coach in the constructivist learning approach. Seymoun, (2008) furtherasserted that the role of the teacher is to guide the student through the learning process by stimulating the student‟s critical thinking, skills and providing learning situation, environment, skill content and task that are relevant and realistic and simulate real-world context. The emphasis therefore is on the need to have students actively involved in applying the knowledge in aproblem-solving situation. Therefore teachers must present information in the way that encourages student to seek their own answers using strategies offered by activity- based instructional strategy such as discovery method, inquiry and problem solving among others. This study adopt constructivism as a theoretical framework to examined the effect of simulation model on secondary school students‟ Performance, retention and attitude in qualitative analysis concepts at Secondary Schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Qualitative analysis is an aspect of senior secondary chemistry practical in which students are examined at SSCE by the West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO). Science teaching in Nigerian- Secondary School has severalchallengesaccording to Okebukola (1996).Olurundare, (2010), revealed that the academic Performance of students in chemistry is generally poor at SSS level. Annual report of both the West African Examination Council (WAEC) (2007-2010) and National Examination Council (NECO) revealed that the poor academic Performance of students in chemistry still persists. Report from WAEC, indicated that the result of 2010 November/December West African Senior School Certificate Examination were not encouraging as only 20.04% percent of 310,077 candidates obtained five credits in core science subject.In a related development Sam, (2011) conducted a research on academic Performance of science students in Nigeria secondary schools. Examination of past academic Performance in secondary schools indicated that in 2007, only 25.54% percent obtained five credits in core science subjects. There was a slight improvement in 2009 when 25.75% percent pass the examination, figure that went down in 2010 to 20.04% percent (Olurundare, 2010). To clearly understand the rate of failure among students, statistical analysis were presented in Table 1.1:
Table 1.1: Failure rate among Students in WAEC between 2007- 2016 in Kaduna State
|Year||No. of candidates||No of student pass||Percentage (%) pass||No of student fail||Percentage (%) Failure|
Source: (WAEC, 2016)
This might be the causes of poor retention ability of students because the report continues to revealed that most of the students cannot reproduce learning task during their final year examination. Retention is influenced by many factors. For instance, Bichi, (2002) reports that learning should improve retention while thing‟s that lead to confusion or interference among learned materials diseases the spread and efficacy of learning and accelerates forgetting. Retention level in relation to age has been investigated by several researchers. Studies on retention and instruction strategy have attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years.
Factors identified among scholars and educational psychologist includes use of lecture method and inability of teachers to take into account of importance of developing the domain of students‟ behaviours.Affective domain is concerned with beliefs, attitudes, interest, motives, need, satisfaction, feeling, and believe. The effective disposition of the students has direct relevance in his ability to learn, in his interest in learning and his attitude toward the value of education (Osuafor, 2001). For students to develop positive attitude toward solving problems there is need to get them interested in such issues hence simulation generate interest which is affective domain. In light of the forgoing, this study is set to examine the effect of simulation model on attitude, retention and performance in qualitative analysis among secondary school chemistry students in Zaria Education Zone.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study are to;
- Examine the effects of simulation model on students‟ academic Performance in qualitative analysis concepts of Senior Secondary School chemistry
- Determinethe effects of simulation model on students‟ retention ability on qualitative analysis concept of Senior Secondary School chemistry.
- Investigate the effect of simulation model on students‟ attitudes in learning
qualitative analysis concept of Senior Secondary School chemistry
- Explore the effects of simulation model on the academic Performance of male and female students in qualitative analysis concept.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study
- What is the mean difference in the academic Performance of students taught qualitative analysis concept using simulation model and those taught using lecture method?
- What is the mean difference in the attitude of students taught qualitative analysis concept using simulation model and those taught using lecture method?
- What is the mean difference in the retention ability of students taught qualitative analysis concept using simulation model and those taught using lecture method?
- What is the mean difference between the academic Performance of male and female students taught qualitative analysis concept using simulation model?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses are formulated for testing the above
researchquestions at P≤ 0.05 level of significance.
|HO1:||There is no significant difference in the academic Performance of students taught qualitativeanalysis concept using simulation model and those taught, using lecture method.|
|HO2:||There is no significant difference in the attitude of students taught qualitativeanalysis concept, using simulation model and those taught lecture method.|
|HO3:||There is no significance difference in the retention ability of student‟s taught qualitative analysis concepts using simulation model and lecture method|
|HO4:||There is no significant difference in the academic Performance of male and female|
students taught qualitative analysis concept using simulation model
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study examined the effects of simulation model on Secondary School students‟ academic performance, attitude and retention in qualitative analysisconcepts. The result of this study might benefit students, teachers, parents, curriculum planners, textbook authors and other researchers conducting similar researcher in the following manners:
The result of finding might benefit chemistry students by improving their academic performance, attitude and retention in the subject which perhaps help them to pass the subject at credit level.Teachers may use the outcomeof this study and improve on the use of variety of methods such as simulation to enhance the attainment of their lesson and to minimize the incidence of teacher dominating of lesson.
It is also hoped that the outcome of this study may influence parents to provide their children with necessary facilities for the requirement of simulation teaching and reduce pressure due to poor performance of their children at school.The study is hope to provide insight to curriculum planners on the demand of inclusion activities that prompt the use of simulation model in curriculum planning and development.
Textbook publishers may find the study useful to design activities that involve the use of simulation model to aid meaningful learning among chemistry and other science related students. Similarly, fellow researchers may hopefully use the outcome of the study to replicate it in the other study areas, improve on it or adapt it for similar studies and also add more information to the existing literature.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The scope of this study shall cover senior secondary school chemistrystudents in
Zaria inspectorate zone of Kaduna State, Nigeria. However, the study was delimited to
SSII chemistry students‟ from two (2) senior secondary schools in Zariainspectorate zone of Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study was also delimited to practicalchemistry which is the aspect that involves qualitative analysis concepts namely cations, anions, salt, dilution, residue and filtrate. The researcheris interested in investigation of cations and anions of qualitative analysis in concept ofSenior Secondary School chemistry. These concepts are prescribed by NERDC for teaching at Senior Secondary School level. In addition, these concepts appeared as compulsory questions in the final year SSCE Chemistry. Research reports and chief examiners‟ reports of WAEC and NECO over the years revealed that such questions appeared to be among the most difficult concepts in the side of students and as such investigation in to strategies of teaching it in a simpler way to students become imperative.
1.8 Basic Assumptions
The study is based on the following assumptions:
- Significant difference exist in the academic Performance of students in qualitative analysis concept.
- Significant difference exist in the attitude of students in qualitative analysis concept.
- Significance difference existin the retention ability of students in qualitative analysis concept.
- Significant difference existin the academic Performance of male and female
students in qualitative analysis concept.
INFLUENCE OF SIMULATION MODEL ON APPROACH, RETENTION AND PERFORMANCE IN QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL CHEMISTRY STUDENTS, ZARIA – NIGERIA