INFLUENCE OF ENHANCED EXPOSITORY TECHNIQUES ON INTEREST AND PERFORMANCE IN GEOMETRY AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA
This study investigated the effect ofenriched expository method on interest and performance in geometry among Junior Secondary School Students in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The study determined the effect ofenrichedexpository method on student‟s interest and performance in geometry. Italso examined thedifferential effect ofenrichedexpository method on the performance of male and female students. The study was guided by four research question and four null hypotheses. The study adopted a Pre-test and Post-test quasi-experimental design. The sampleconsisted of 300 government JS.II students made of 146 males and 154 female students. This was drawn from a population of five thousand two hundred and sixty two (5262) students using stratified random sampling. The experimental group was exposed toenriched expository method and control group was taught using lecture method. The research instruments used were: Geometry Construction Performance Test (GCPT) and GeometryInterests Inventory(GII) with reliability coefficient of 0.73 and 0.83. The data collected were analyzed and presented using Descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation for researcher question andinferential statistics of t-test to test all four (4) formulated hypotheses at P≤ 0.05levels of significant by aid of computer software Statistical Packagesfor Social Science (IBM version 20).The result obtained showed that students taught with enriched expository method generated more interest and better performances in geometry than those taught the lecture method. The study also revealed that male and female students taught enriched expository method did not differ significantly both interest and performance. The study therefore, recommend that the use ofenriched expository method should be considered for mathematics teacher as a better option for teaching and learning of mathematics particularly geometry. Conclusively, low performance can be reduced when there is positive interest in the process of solving problem in geometry. Finally, that government and professional bodies should organize seminars, workshops and conferences, with the aimof teaching junior secondary school teachers on how to use enriched expository method effectively in teaching and learning of geometry.
1.1 Background of the Study
Mathematics is the science of space and numbers. The study of space is called Geometry; the study of numbers is Arithmetic, while the hybrid of geometry and arithmetic is also called Algebra (Nguuma, 2010). Mathematics therefore can be said to be the bedrock of technology. For proper understanding of science, mathematics play a major role, hence referred to as the queen of all science (Odili, 2006). Bassey (2010) stressed that the position of mathematics in the National Curriculum and its roles towards technology and industrial development made it a compulsory subject at primary and secondary school education. It is because the government discovered the important roles of mathematics in National development that if mandated the ministry of education to demystify mathematics through innovative teaching (Ale, 2011). Despite the importance attached to mathematics and its crucial role in technology, students see it as a difficult subject and as such show little or no interest in the subject. The major problems faced by most students are inability to remember what they have learnt. This problem is often caused by too many theoretical expressions or formulae by the mathematics teachers, while learners remain passive listeners (Odili, 2006).
The report of the Chief Examiners on students areas of deficiency in Senior Secondary Certificate Examinations showed that students least understood geometry concepts as showed by their performance (WAEC, 2011). According to him the problem and difficulties experienced by secondary school students in geometry has been traced to inadequate knowledge of the rubrics of construction, measurement and identification of plane and solid shape to mention few. Kurumeh and Imoko cited in Iji, Abakpa and Takor (2013) attributed this ugly trend to a very weak mathematics foundation which began at the primary level and wascarried over to the junior secondary and culminated in senior secondary school. According to Obodo (2004), there is a general low interest in the study of mathematics at all levels of education in Nigeria. Thus, it is necessary to initiate a deliberate action to remedy this situation as geometry has been identified as important sources of mathematics thinking (Hogan 2000). “Geometry is the aspect of mathematics which deals with the study of different shapes. These shapes may be plane or solid. A plane shape is a geometrical form such that straight line that joins any two points on it wholly lies on the surface. A solid shape on the other hand is bounded by surface which may not wholly be represented on a plane surface” (Adolpaus, 2011) “Geometry is a branch of mathematics that deals with the measure and properties of point, line, curve and surface”. However, most students find geometry boring therefore absent themselves in geometry lessons. Those who stay in the lessons pay little attention to the teacher. As a result most students never learn to practice geometric problems on their own and concluded that it is too difficult. They prefer not to answer problems on geometry in examinations (Nguuma, 2010). These perceptions among other factors compel the students to become afraid and finally lose interest in geometry which has a negative effect on their performances (Odili, 2006).
It is no longer news today that teachers skip topic to avoid presumed difficulty concepts or in some cases rush such area to hide their deficiencies at the expense of the students‟ performance (Nguuma, 2010). The problem of low performances in mathematics as a subject is a global issue and it is a concern to parents‟and othereducational stake holders (Medulial, 2012). Yet the performances of students in mathematics have no remarkable result. The reason for this problem may vary but this could sometimes be related to teaching method being used to explain such topic and approaches to teaching which affected the level of motivation (Chianson,kurumeh,Obida,2011).Performance can be defined as the quality of the results produced by students as reflected in the quality of their examination score (Musa 2000). Adeniyi (2000) stated that one‟s involvement in the marking of mathematics for WAEC is enough to get anyone sorrowful at the state of mathematics in the secondary schools. Many candidates, according to her submit their answer scripts without writing anything in them: some merely recopy the question, while high percentages who try to write anything have all scored below 40%. The analysis of the students‟ performance in WAEC mathematics from 2005-2015 indicated a high failure rate but the result for the year 2008 seemed to be fairly good as reflected in the Table 1:1.
Table 1:1: WAEC May/June Performance of Students in Mathematics from 2005-2015
YEARS PERCENTAGE WITH PERCENTAGE WITH
CREDIT AND ABOVE (% PASS AND BELOW (%
PASS) FAIL) 2005 38.20 61.80
- 12 58.88
- 75 53.25
- 27 42.73
- 04 52.96
- 94 75.06
- 98 60.02
- 81 61.19
- 57 63.43
- 28 68.72
- 68 61.32
Source: West African Examination Council (2015)
In addition to these, study for the low performance of the students in mathematics and particularly in geometry, some researchers viewed strategy of teaching as one of the contributing factors to the poor teaching of geometry, some of whom include: Habour Peter (2001) and Madulia (2012). Teaching strategies are very vital in the teaching and learning processes. The method adopted by the teachers may promote or hinder learning. Mathew and Onyejebgbu (2013) stated that effective teaching of any subject will not only stimulate students, interest in the subject but also enhance their achievement in examination and to achieve effective teaching and learning process and there is the need for instructional materials. This study therefore employed avenue through which teaching of geometry in public secondary schools can be made more effective. The significant in this study include expository method–enriched with instructional materials, academic performances and interest. Expository enriched with instructional materials will be used to teach the concept of geometry. Expository method is the method of teaching where teacher is purely and simply getting across to the learner that which is specified by the curriculum requirement (Jarolimek & Foster 2005).
Instructional materials are devices developed or acquired to assist or facilitate teacher in transmitting organized knowledge, skills and attitude to the learners with instructional situation (Nwachukwu, 2006). The lower performance of students in mathematics has become a concern in mathematics(Kajuru&Kaura, 2010). Yet many students find it very difficult to solve and explain such topic(Madulia 2012 ).Teaching strategy are very vital in Teaching and learning activities have a lot to do with other variables, such as instructional materials, school environment, and students‟ factors among other. In this study instructional materials utilization is the main focus in order to determine their effect on the performances of the students.
Teachers use different instructional materials to motivate learning. Teachers often make use of textbooks, charts, models, graphics, regalia as well as improvised materials
(Awotua-Etebo, 2001). Oteze (2011) suggested that mathematics teaching should be structured in such a way that knowledge is built on a foundation already possessed, encourage students to learn by doing ensuring that learning grow out of useful experiences and experimentations by effective use of mathematics manipulative that stimulate cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains development. Ugama (2011) opined that the proper and meaningful study of mathematics should assist individuals in ordering organizing and investigating his/her environment he added that it is only possible through active personal interaction with material resources.
Many education researchers spend a lot of time to identify factors and condition that promote or hinder the teaching and learning of mathematics.
Their result shows that interest is the vital aspect that motivates learning and development (Nguurma, 2010). Kurumeh, Akure & Ogwuche (2007) supported that you cannot learn effectively unless you become interested in the subject matter at some level. Okigbo&Okeke (2011) posited that, interest is an important variable in learning because when one becomes interested in activity, one is likely to be more deeply involved in that activity. Powermediator between mastery and appropriation thus any subject can be interesting if you look at it in the right way or perspective. According to Obodo (2004), there is a general low interest in the study of mathematics at all levels of education in Nigeria and also the WAEC Chief Examiner (2005) reported and also confirmed low performance and went on to lament that this poor achievement resulted to students low interest in the subject. With this the researcher sought using the enriched expository method material if they will influence students‟ interest and performances in geometry and whether such influence could be affected by gender or
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In spite of the importance and popularity of mathematics among Nigeria students; performances at junior secondary school level had been low (Iwendi, 2012), other studies had shown that Nigeria students‟ performance in junior secondary school mathematics has been relatively low over the years (Osemwinyen; 2009 and Gimba 2013). Several factors had be attributed to the low performance in secondary school mathematics, among which are; poor methods of teaching (Harbour – Peters 2001), poor interest in mathematics (Badmus, 2002), gender differences (Agwagah 2000) and lack of appropriate instructional materials for teaching mathematics at all level of education (Gambari 2010). Despite all these efforts, the problem of low performances in mathematics had continued to surface in the nations‟ public examinations. Even though several research findings had confirmed that geometry was one of the abstract and complex aspects of mathematics which students find it difficult to learn and some teachers found it difficult to teach without using instructional materials (Akinlade 2004, WAEC, 2011). As a result, it makes the morale and interest of the students in mathematics low. This is because teachers adopt the verbal and theoretical methods as way of teaching and learning the geometry, mainly due to non-availability of instructional materials in schools (Gambari, 2010.) Mathematics has several branches and some of these branches are more difficult for teachers to teach and students to learn than others without the use of instructional materials. The basic geometry at junior secondary school level serves as background for understanding all branches of geometry at higher level. Also, teachers think constructing instructional materials is difficult, time consuming and needs so much money to construct as suggested by (Iyekekpolar&Tsue2008). Lack of provision and utilization of both improvised and conventional instructional materials by teachers of mathematics of geometry could be one of the reasons for low academic performance in geometry. Several studies had been carried out to consider the use of expository as it affected low performance in mathematics but it could possibly be improved by enriching it with instructional materials. The focus of this study therefore is to determine if theenriched expository method on interest and performance of geometry among Junior Secondary School students in Kaduna State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
This study investigated the effect ofenriched expositorymethodon interest and performance of Junior Secondary School students in geometry specifically; the study has the following objectives to:
- Find out the effect of enriched expository method on students
Performancetaught geometry and those taught lecture method.
- Examine the effect of enriched expository method on students‟ interest taught geometry and lecture method.
- Verified the effect ofenriched expository method on performance of male and female taught geometry.
- Determine the difference in the interest of the female and male students taught geometry using enriched expository method.
1.4 Research Questions
In determining the effect ofenriched expository method on students‟ interest and performance in geometry construction the following research questions are formulated as guide to the study:
- Is there any difference between mean performance score of the student taught geometry using enriched expository method and those taught using lecture method?
- To what extent do the mean interest scores of students taught geometry using enriched expository method differ from those taught lecture method?
- Is there any difference between the mean performance score of male and female students taught geometry usingenriched expository method?
- To what extent does the interest of male and female students taught geometry using enriched expository method differ?
1.5 Null Hypotheses
The following Null hypotheses were formulated for testing at P≤ 0.05 levels of significance.
|Ho1:||There is no significant difference between the mean performance scores of students taught geometry using enriched expository method and those taught using the lecture method.|
|Ho2:||There is no significant difference between the interest levels of students taught geometry using enriched expository method and those taught using the lecture method.|
|Ho3:||There is no significant difference between the mean performance scores of male|
and female students taught geometry usingenrichedexpository method and those taught using the lecture method.
Ho4: There is no significant difference between the mean interest of male and female students taught geometry using enriched expository method and those taught using the lecture method.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The findings of the study will hopefully enhance the standard of mathematics education in the following ways:
To mathematics Students; the findings of the study would hopefully improve the performance of students in the learning of geometrical construction at the JSS level. The findings of the study will also provide the students with experiences that will improve their interest, motivate and promote meaningful understanding of the contents contained in the subject.
To mathematics teachers; the findings of the study will hopefully enhance mathematics teachers teaching of geometry construction at the JSS level. It will also help focus learners‟ attention on what the teacher required of themand make learning and teaching more enjoyable and memorable.
To curriculum Planners; this study will hopefully provide reliable information to curriculum planners. It will also equip the Nigerian Education Research and Development Council with information for mathematics curriculum development and modification.
To policy Makers; the study may help educate the policy makers for a suitable activitybased approach for studying mathematics at the Junior Secondary School Level.
To professional bodies and associations; this study will also be beneficial to professional bodies such as the Mathematics Association of Nigeria (MAN), Science Teachers Association (STAN) and National Mathematics Society of Nigeria (NMSN) since the members meet annually to review and update their members‟ knowledge in current research in the field of mathematics education.
To researchers; this study may hopefully help other researchers to further investigate onenriched expository method of teaching in other areas of mathematics and hence reduce the rate of low performance among students in the subject and also serve as a information for further studies in mathematics. The findings of this study would add new knowledge to the existing literature.
1.7 Scope/Delimitation of the Study
This studyinvestigated the effect of enriched expository method on interest and performance in geometry among junior secondary school students in Kaduna State. The study cover four public co-educational junior secondary school studentsyear two (JS II) in Zaria Educational Zone of Kaduna State. The schools were, GJSS Kofa/Dokan, GJSS Gyellesu, GJSS Tudun/Jukun and GJSS Aminu. The choice of JSS 2 student are neither like JSS 1 student who are new to the environment, non like JSS 3 student who are busy preparing for final examination. Topics in geometry construction content of junior secondary school such as construction of parallel and perpendicular lines, construction of angles (30o, 60o, 90o, and 45o) solid shapes, angles of elevation and depression, selected from junior secondary school syllabus. These content were selected becauseover time students were performance low (Nguuma 2010). Two instruments were utilized in the study, the Geometry Construction Performance Test (GCPT) and the Geometry Interest Inventory (GII). GCPT is a 40 item multiple choice questions developed by the researcher from the JSS geometry content. GII is a 25 item open ended inventory on interest for geometry adopted from Nguuma (2010) to elicit information from students on geometry construction.
INFLUENCE OF ENHANCED EXPOSITORY TECHNIQUES ON INTEREST AND PERFORMANCE IN GEOMETRY AMONG JUNIOR SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN KADUNA STATE, NIGERIA