EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB FULFILLMENT AND PRE-RETIREMENT CONCERN AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA
The study investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and anxiety among secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara State, Nigeria. The study employed correlational and triangular designs. The study was guided by four (4) research questions and four (4) hypotheses. The population of the study consists of five thousand nine hundred and thirty four (5,934) male and female secondary school teachers in Zamfara State. A sample size of 361 was randomly selected for the study. Job Satisfaction Scale and Anxiety Scale were the instruments for data collection. They were validated by experts in the Department of Educational Psychology and Counselling, ABU Zaria. Means & standard deviation (SD), Pearson Product Moment Correlation (r) and Independent sample t – test were used to test the hypotheses of the study. Findings revealed that Significant relationship exists between job satisfaction and anxiety among secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara State (r= .755 and p- value = .001), significant difference exists between job satisfaction of urban and rural secondary school preretirement teachers in Zamfara State in favour of rural teachers(t= 15.71;mean = 89.31 for rural teachers and mean = 66.94 for urban teachers, p-value =.010),significant difference exists between preretirement anxiety of rural and urban secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara State (t=14.83;mean = 69.77 for urban teachers and mean = 49.98 for rural teachersp = 0.007),finally, significant difference exists between job satisfaction of male and female secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara State (t =17.02;mean = 71.74 for male teachers and mean = 85.21 for female teachers, p = 0.000).On the basis of these findings, it is recommended that Government should restructure the salary scale of teachers in order to give them more job satisfaction and reduce anxiety among pre-retirement teachers. Government should enlighten teachers on various coping strategies to deal with anxiety and on how to save for retirement by organizing seminars and workshops to teachers.
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
1.1 Background to the Study
Job satisfaction or employee satisfaction has been defined in different ways. Some believe it is simply how content an individual is with his or her job, in other words, whether or not they like the job or individual aspects or facets of the job such as nature of work or supervision. Others believe it is a multidimensional psychological response to one‟s job. Researchers have also noted that job satisfaction measures vary in the extent to which they measure feelings about the job (affective job satisfaction) or cognitions about the job(cognitive job satisfaction). It has been a contention at global level whether individual is satisfied with the overall job or at the facet level i.e the different aspects of the job such as appreciation, communication, coworkers, fringe benefit, job condition, nature of the work, organization, personal growth, policies and procedures, promotion opportunities, recognition, security and supervision form a particular job (Idowu, 1998).
Retirement means to stop or withdraw from working simply because one has reached aparticular age; either by chronological age or by virtue of years spent in service.Whether one likes it or not the certainty of one leaving working either of the aforementioned ways cannot be ruled out. This buttresses the need the need for employees of today to start thinking and planning for retirement. The issues of how employees perceive retirement, their attitudes towards same and how they plan in that direction has not been given enough attention by researchers, yet the need to pay attention to this especially in a developing economy such as Nigeria cannot be overemphasized due to economic shock that more often than not affect retirees after retirement.
The failure of public servants to avail themselves of pre-retirement counseling prior to termination of work had brought untold hardships to most of them at retirement. Such hardshipsincludes financial insufficiency, poor feeding, and inability to pay life sustaining bill. Others include dysfunctional family matters as well as psychological or behavior disorders like depression, hypertension, identity crises, alcoholism, loneliness, fast ageing and ill-health occasioned at times by loss of good accommodation among others (Inaja &Rose, 2013), the combined effects of these situations and other problems always lead to serious orientation, stress and feeling of deprivation and boredom which unless checked can sometimes degenerate into physical and mental problems. Apart from psychological problem occasioned by diminished status of retirees, the attendant deplorable financial condition attached to retirement affects the retirees‟ willingness to accept or adjust to the reality of life after retirement.
Workers in the well-organised sectors of the economy are noted to perceive retirement as something good. These workers look forward to the day they will retire. One major reason for this is because they are sure of receiving other retirement benefits without delay and also sure of receiving their monthly pensions where it is applicable. These workers look at retirement as a mark of honour and appreciation from their employer while other groups perceive retirement as a punishment to be avoided (Idowu,1998). Retirement to this second category therefore, means leaving regular employment for death. These set of workers who are basically in public sector may seem to dread retirement because of the seeming agony retirees undergo before receiving their retirement benefits.
Pre-retirement support is the psychological services made available to employee to get him or her acquainted with pre-retirement needs for a comfortable retirement. It is also aimed at helping workers to plan for their retirement when still engaged. According to Akinade (1993), pre-retirement support is the provision of comprehensive guidance and information concerning the social, emotional, social and other aspects of retirement. The essence of pre-retirement support according to him is therefore to make employee aware of his tomorrow. The fears associated with retirement may not be there if adequate planning is done with the aid of psychologists. To many people, a mention of word retirement is associated with negative feelings. Only few view it with zeal and enthusiasm (Grangard, 2002). Obviously many people enter into retirement without any personal plans or pre-retirement counseling. Influence of labour on their own part have to done much to enlighten the labour force of the need for planning for retirement. Hence many workers enter into retirement as destitute. Retirees in Nigeria today are more like beggars especially those who retire without planning huge bribe is required of them for their document to be processed, and if the money have not materialize, they are expected to still give bribe before they collect that which is legitimately theirs. This is not only but has the tendency to discourage public servant who are still working who are about to retire. This according to Inaja and Rose (2013)explains why some workers falsify their age and document so that retirement will not catch up with them fast.
There are several myths regarding job satisfaction. One of such myths is that a happy employee is a productive employee (Syptak, 1999). Research has offered little to support that a happy employee is productive, on the contrary, some researches have suggested that casualness may creep in, shifting from productivity to satisfaction (Bassett, 1994). Hence, if there is a correlation, it is a weak one. Knowing that research does not support the idea that happiness and employee‟s satisfaction creates higher production, why do psychologists and organizations still
attempt to keep employees happy? Many have pointed out that psychologists research perspective moves beyond increasing the bottom line of an organization. Happy employees do not negatively affect productivity and can have a positive effect at workplace and on society at large. It also positively impacts the organization’s brand image. Therefore, it still benefits all parties to have happy and satisfied employees. Another fallacy is that the pay is the most important factor in job satisfaction. In reality, employees are more satisfied when they enjoy the environment in which they work (Berry, 1997).
An individual can have a high paying job and not be satisfied because it is boring and lacks sufficient stimulation. In fact, a low-paying job can be seen as satisfying if it is adequately challenging or stimulating. There are numerous factors that must be taken into consideration when determining how satisfied an employee is with his or her job, and it is not always easy to determine which factors are most important to each employee. Job satisfaction is very subjective for each employee and each situation being assessed. It is against this background that the researcher is interested in assessment of the relationship between job satisfaction and preretirement anxiety among secondary school teachers in Zamfara state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Retirement or termination of work signifies a period of major change in the life of secondary school teachers. Such changes are usually devastating and traumatic in the life of the retiree, especially when the person concerned did not prepare for the phase of life. The adverse psychological and socioeconomic disposition identified to characterized functional
discontinuation of their regular financial source of livelihood and its corresponding decline in the social status cannot be overstated. Such challenges include financial insufficiency, poor feeding, dysfunctional family matters as well as psychological or behavior disorders thinking of the delay in payment of retiree, processing and documentation which may likely lead to depression, hypertension, identity crisis, alcoholism, loneliness, fast ageing and ill health occasion at times by lot of good accommodation among others. Some also experience low of self-esteem due to lower status in which they find themself on retirement from a highly exalted position they had occupied as public services. Some teachers are not satisfied with the job in itself perhaps because it does not pay them to cater for their needs of survival let alone saving for the rainy day.Thus,it was against this background the study investigated the relationship between job satisfaction and pre-retirement anxiety among secondary school teachers in Zamfara State, Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
For the purpose of this study, the following objectives were stated:
- To determine the relationship between job satisfaction and pre-retirement anxiety among secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara state.
- To assess the difference between job satisfaction of urban and rural secondary school preretirement teachersin Zamfara state.
- To assess the difference between pre-retirement anxiety of urban and rural secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara state.
- To assess the difference between job satisfaction of male and female secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara state.
1.4 Research Questions
The following questions were raised to guide the study:
- What is the relationship between job satisfaction and pre-retirementanxiety among secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara state?
- What is the difference between job satisfaction of urban and rural secondary schoolpre-retirementteachersinZamfara state?
- What is the difference between pre-retirement anxiety of urban and rural teachers in
- What is the difference betweenjob satisfaction ofmale and female secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara state?
The following hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:
- There is no significant relationship between job satisfaction and pre-retirement anxiety among secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara state.
- There is no significant difference between job satisfaction of urban and rural secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara state.
- There is no significant difference between pre-retirement anxiety of rural and urban secondary schoolteachers in Zamfara state.
- There is no significant difference between job satisfactionof male and female secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara state.
1.6 Basic Assumptions
This research is based on following assumptions to guide the study:
- It is assumed that job satisfaction may have significant relationship with pre-retirement anxiety among secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara state.
- Urban and rural secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara state are assumed to be different in their job satisfaction.
- Rural and urban secondary school pre-retirement teachers in Zamfara state are assumed to be different in their experience of anxiety.
- Male and femalesecondary school pre-retirement teachers inZamfara state are assumed to be different in their job satisfaction.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The findings of this study will add relevance to theory building in behavioural management most especially in handling job satisfaction and pre-retirement anxiety among secondary school teachers in Zamfara state, Nigeria and the rest of the world. The findings of this study if properly disseminated through seminars, symposiums, conferences and workshops the problems of job satisfaction and pre-retirement anxiety would be a thing of the past. It will also bridge the gaps of doubts among workers stakeholders involved in teaching and learning process. Specifically, this study will provide insight into how preretirement anxiety relates to job satisfaction, difference between job satisfaction and preretirement anxiety of urban and rural teachers, on one hand, male and female on the other.
Government will find this study of significant importance as it will uncover the issues that pertain to teachers satisfaction in their job and their worries especially as they are about to retire or think of it in the future. This will enable government to make policies that will enhance the state of teachers which will make them comfortable in their service years thereby making them more productive.
This study would provide enlightenment to teachers union and other corporative societies on the aware of the teachers‟ feeling as regards to their job which have implication in the future lives as it may have relationship with pre-retirement anxiety among teachers about to retire. This study would provide enlightenment to general civil servants as they will deduce how to handle their jobs and cope with pre-retirement anxiety in the long run.
This study would be actualized if the findings and recommendations are published in journals and educational periodicals and or present the results in workshops, seminars and the use of media to keep the public abreast of the issues of job satisfaction and pre-retirement anxiety among secondary school teachers.
Finally, it will serve as a link to future researchers mostly those who want to explore on job satisfaction and pre-retirement.
1.8 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
This study focuses on job satisfaction and pre-retirement anxiety as the major variables under investigation. It involves male and female, urban and rural teachers with different categories of retirement (voluntary, years in service and age) among secondary school teachers in Zamfara state. The study is delimited to teachers who are not on the verge of retirement.
Job satisfaction which entails teachers‟ self-evaluation of the worth attached to their job and commitment towards accomplishment of desired objectives vis-à-vis their experience of preretirement anxiety towards the end of their career.
EXAMINATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN JOB FULFILLMENT AND PRE-RETIREMENT CONCERN AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL TEACHERS IN ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA