EFECTS OF VISUAL INSTUCTIONAL RESOURCES ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN TARABA STATE, NIGERIA
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of visual instructional materials on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science of senior secondary schools in Taraba State, Nigeria. Three thousand, one hundred and five students were the target population. The study had a sample size of three hundred and forty-two students in intact classes from the four senior secondary schools in the Northern Senatorial District of Taraba State. The researcher used quasi experimental design. size. The study had four Objectives which include; assess the effect of diagrams on students‟ performance in agricultural science of senior secondary schools, ascertain the effect of maps on students‟ performance in agricultural science of senior secondary schools, identify the effect of specimens on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science of Senior Secondary Schools and compare the effect of diagrams, maps and specimens on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science of Senior Secondary Schools; four research questions; which include, what are the effect of diagrams on students‟ performance in agricultural science of senior secondary schools, what are the effect of maps on student‟ performance in Agricultural Science of Senior Secondary Schools, what are the effect of specimens on students‟ performance in agricultural science of senior secondary schools what are the effect of diagrams, maps and specimens on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science of Senior Secondary Schools and four null hypotheses were formulated in line with the research objective. The pretest and posttest items were fifty (50) used as instruments for data collection before and after the treatment, respectively. The descriptive statistics was used to analyze the research questions, while inferential statistics was used to test the four null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. Results of the null hypotheses show that, the four null hypotheses were all rejected. Criteria for the selection of Visual Instructional Materials includes; need of the learners, objectives of the lesson, Teacher capability, size of the class, Knowledge, authority and Appropriateness of the visual instructional materials, Scope of the learners and visual materials. Among the findings of the study were that; there was a significant difference on the mean performance of experimental group taught anatomy and physiology of farm animal‟s concepts using diagrams in agricultural science and those taught without diagrams among senior secondary school students; there was a significant difference on the mean performance of the experimental group taught animal nutrition concepts using specimens in agricultural science and those taught without specimens among senior secondary school students. As a result of the findings from this study, it was concluded that the use of visual instructional materials in teaching and learning of Agricultural science in senior secondary schools in Taraba State was very effective as it enhanced students‟ performance in test administered on them. The following recommendations were made, the teachers should ensure that, they are always using diagrams in teaching anatomy and physiology of farm animals and other related concepts in Agricultural Science as this simplify and clarify what is complex and difficult to explain in words. As a skilled based subject, the teacher should always expose students to different types of specimens that will motivate them to think critically as well as to stimulate and sustain their interest throughout the period of lessons.
1.1 Background to the Study
Agricultural Education like any other educational sector is very essential for agricultural development. Education serves as the avenue for change and hastens the adoption of innovation by providing the curriculum materials and manpower to service the agricultural sector. In Nigeria, agricultural education has been identified as one of those factors to be used to improve agricultural productivity. For this reason, institutions and departments specializing in the teaching of Agricultural Science have been established. Such schools and departments include Polytechnics, Colleges of Agriculture and Education, conventional universities and specialized universities of Agriculture. The Nigeria government has also made the teaching of Agricultural Science as vocational subject compulsory in both primary and post primary school levels (FRN, 2009).
The areas to specialize normally include Crop science and production, Plant pathology, Soil Science, Animal production and protection, agricultural economics and extension. Graduates in the specialized areas have continued to play a leading role in the management of the agricultural sector in the country. FRN, (2009) has stated the Agricultural Science curricular objectives of senior secondary schools as; to prepare students for occupation in Agriculture, stimulate and sustain students‟ interest in agriculture, enable students acquire basic knowledge and practical skills in Agriculture, as well as to prepare students for further studies in various fields of agriculture.
Visual instructional materials are those teaching materials used by the teachers while teaching and which make teaching clearer and easier for the students to understand. Such visual instructional materials include, graphic aids: display boards: 3-d-aids: printed materials and activity aids. The visual instructional materials are one of the Agricultural
Science curriculum materials that the teacher of Agricultural Science uses in achieving its objectives. These visual instructional materials are indispensable tools in teaching – learning process of Agricultural Science. The Agricultural Science teacher uses these things to help students in their learning (Yusuf, 2012). Visual instructional materials are inexpensive to use and relatively less sophisticated as compared to audio-visuals. Visual instructional materials strengthen understanding, motivate and sustain students‟ interest, especially abstract processes which one can envision in their mind. For instance, if a student can see models or activity aid or an animation of the abstract process, they will learn more easily than just abstract.
Student academic performance can be seen as how students perform in school or the level of attainment in an examination or in acquiring some skills. Hence, the success of a learner is generally determined by the academic performance in the subject taken. According to Cambridge University Reporter (2003), academic performance is frequently defined in term of examination performance. The students‟ performance is his ability to do something (Fachano and Malongo, 2015). This ability is evaluated by the marks and grades that the students obtain in a test or examination which is done at the end of a topic, school term or year or education cycle. The scores and grades that a student obtains measures the degree of his performance.
Student academic performance is a critical determining factor for student to exploit areas of discipline in the field of agriculture. Academic performance is also applicable to prepare students for occupation and for further studies in agriculture.
Therefore, in measuring students‟ academic performance in Agricultural Science as a school subject, various activities are undertaken within and outside the classrooms. Such tasks as assignment, test, examination, farm practical and fieldwork. External and independent examining bodies such as West African Examination Council (WAEC) and
National Examination Council (NECO) have also emerged to validate the assessment of student academic performance in Agricultural Science. These examination bodies measure students‟ academic performance.
Agricultural science as a subject in senior secondary schools is studied as a science and a business of crop producing and livestock for economic purposes. Agricultural Science is also a broad multidisciplinary field of biology that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. Agriculture is the set of activities that transform the environment for the production of animals and plants for human use (South African Qualification Authority 2003). Agricultural Science as a science refer to the utilization of all modern technologies developed through a scientific principle such as crop improvement/breeding, crop protection, animal improvement/breeding, Agricultural economics and extension, to maximize the yield and profit. Agricultural Science as a business aims at maximum net return through the management of land, labour, water and capital, employing the knowledge of various sciences for production of food, feed, fibers and fuel. Agricultural Science as a subject consists of the following branches; crop production, horticulture, agricultural engineering, forestry, animal husbandry, fishery sciences and Home Science (Talathi, Naik and Jalgaonkar, 2014). Although, most people see Agricultural science as just production of crops and animals that are useful to man, a number of techniques are involved in agricultural practices.
It is a well-known fact that agriculture has contributed a lot to the national economy such as; a source of national income, providing employment opportunities, providing manpower to industry, source of foreign exchange, Interdependence between agriculture and industry, contribute to the capital formation and increase the purchasing power of people. Iwena (2008), said that agricultural sector, like any other sectors, in the
Nigerian economy, has helped in building a dynamic, strong and self-reliant nation. With these giant contributions of the agricultural sector to the national economy, the subject needs to be properly taught and handled in all the senior secondary schools in Taraba state and Nigeria as a whole.
Secondary Schools are educational institutions below tertiary level established to inculcate in the learners the societal values and needs, and make them skillful. These needs, values and teachable skills are designed into bodies of knowledge and taught to learners, such as agricultural science. Agricultural science is largely the application of scientific principles for successful production of crops, livestock and other uses for man benefits. Agricultural science as a subject in secondary schools, seeks to teach the students the principles of using scarce resources to produce crops and animals to feed the world‟s population and service other related uses.
The teaching and learning of Agricultural Science as a vocational study as a skilled based sciences have often called for the use of visual instructional materials during content delivery to aid learners‟ learning pace and retention (Onu and Ikeli,2013). Visual instructional materials provide an easier way in understanding some concepts and skills which can be learned and in which discussion and co-operative working may be
practiced. The students turn from passive listeners of information receivers to active, free self-learners. The teacher acts just as a facilitator, rather than a primary source of information or dispenser of knowledge.
The delivery of vocational agriculture at senior secondary level should not be handled as a science per se, but rather as a vocational subject for acquisition of practical agricultural skills for meaningful living. Vocational agricultural skills and training of students for job should give more emphases in such areas as production, marketing and conservation. It is therefore important for the agricultural science teachers to use visual instructional materials to make teaching effective, interesting and meaningful. Effective agricultural Science teaching requires understanding what students know and need to learn and then challenging as well as supporting them to learn it well. It is in this light, that this research is designed to find out the effect of visual instructional materials that can help students in their academic performance at senior secondary schools.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
This study was designed to test the effect of visual instructional materials on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science at Senior Secondary Schools in Taraba State. The researcher observed that most Agricultural Science teachers in the Senior Secondary schools were using conventional method of teaching only, neglecting the use of visual instructional materials and practical aspects of Agricultural Science in senior secondary schools in Taraba State. This negligence by the teachers had seriously affected the successful academic performance of students in Agricultural Science in the senior school level in the state. This was indicated by the Agricultural Science results of promotion examination, mock and Senior Secondary Schools Certificate examination of agricultural science (Taraba State Post Primary Schools Management Board Jalingo, 2016).
The researcher also observed that there was an increasing failure in Agricultural Science as a subject in most external examinations by the students. This problem of poor performance of students in agricultural Science has been recorded for some years from
2010-2014 by the examination bodies of senior school‟s certificate examination conducted by the West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO) (Taraba State Ministry of Education Jalingo, 2015).
The researcher also that most students see Agricultural Science as difficult, as students were scared because of the practical nature of the subject, for example school farm practical, hence they develop negative attitude towards it (Iwena, 2008). In addition, most teachers of Agricultural Science teach the subject as a liberal art subject. These have also contributed toward the negative impression by the students of Agricultural Science in the senior schools. Also, the inappropriate use of visual instructional materials to teach Agricultural Science, lack of agricultural Science laboratory equipment, lack of school farmgarden, lack of technical expertise, incompetent teachers, and non-improvisation of visual instructional materials by Agricultural Science teachers, all need serious attention
(Iwena, 2008). This study explored the effect of visual instructional materials on students‟ performance in teaching Agricultural Science in senior secondary schools setting in
1.3 Objectives of the study
This study set out to achieve the following objectives: –
- Assess the effect of diagrams on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science of
senior secondary schools in Taraba State.
- Ascertain the effect of maps on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science of
senior secondary schools in Taraba State.
- Identify the effect of specimens on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science
of senior secondary schools in Taraba State.
- Compare the effect of diagrams, maps and specimens on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science of senior secondary schools in Taraba State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions are to be answered in the course of the study: –
- What are the effects of diagrams on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science
of senior secondary schools in Taraba State?
- What are the effects of maps on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science of senior secondary schools in Taraba State?
- What are the effects of specimens on students‟ performance in Agricultural
Science of senior secondary schools in Taraba State?
- What are the effect of diagrams, maps and specimens on students‟ performance in
Agricultural Science of senior secondary schools in Taraba State?
The following null hypotheses (H0) are stated to guide the study:
|H01.||There is no significant effect of diagrams on students‟ performance in Agricultural
Science of senior secondary schools in Taraba State
|Ho2.||There is no significant effect of maps on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science of senior secondary schools in Taraba State.|
|Ho3.||There is no significant effect of specimens on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science of senior secondary schools in Taraba State.|
|Ho4.||There is no significant effect of diagrams, maps and specimens on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science of senior secondary schools in Taraba State.|
For the purpose of this study, the following assumption were made;
- Most Agricultural Science teachers in the senior secondary schools do not effectively use or are not using diagrams and other visual instructional materials during content delivery.
- That very few senior secondary schools have maps and other visual instructional materials.
- That most agricultural science teachers in the senior secondary schools often teach without specimens and other visual instructional materials during content delivery.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study will be of great importance to the following stakeholders; Agricultural science students in senior secondary schools; parents: Agricultural Science teachers: quality assurance in both Local, States and Federal ministries of Education: publishing companies: Agricultural Science Subjects‟ specialist: curriculum planners: Administrators and the researchers in education. This study is of great importance to the students, because the students are at a center of educational programs, which can help them (learners) to be more attentive, motivating and interesting when handling and manipulating the visual materials during teaching and learning process. The study would be significant to them, as each student learn at his or her own pace, thereby increasing their retention and comprehension rate, when they are in direct contact with the concept and how it actually works in real life situation. The study can help the students to perform well in Agricultural Science as all their senses would be involved in learning the subject.
Subsequently, the findings from this study would help Agricultural Science teachers by saving their energy and time in explaining abstract concepts in words as they employ visual materials in their teaching processes. This study would also be of significance to Agricultural Science teachers by improving and updating their knowledge through workshop, seminar and conferences on how to use and improvise visual materials in teaching Agricultural Science. The study would be of great help to the Agricultural Science teachers in the selection of the most appropriate visual instructional materials for specific learning tasks. The Agricultural science teacher would have more confidence in utilizing the visual instructional materials during content delivery as a result of the knowledge he / she acquired from the study and their application to the classroom.
The quality assurance responsible for the supervision of the school facilities would benefit from the finding of this study. They would be able to understand the extent of the availability or non-availability of visual instructional materials as well as the level of their utilization in all the senior secondary schools. This would help the management of the various schools to know those visual materials that are either over utilized or under-utilized in order to carry out supervisory function in the study areas.
Parents will also benefit from the study as the cost of purchasing different types of visual materials for their wards will be reduced and cost of employing personal teacher to teach their wards at home for extra lesson will also be reduced, as most of the textbooks produced by the publishing companies would contain a lot of these visual aids that will be self-explanatory. The finding from the study will equip and inform publishing companies on the topics that need to be expanded and require a lot of visual aids. They will be informing on the demand of copies of textbooks and visual materials by each senior schools so that they can produce more copies of the books.
Moreover, the finding of the study would be of great significance to curriculum planners and curriculum developers by reviewing the Agricultural Science curriculum based on the emerging needs of the learners and the needs of the society in general. This study would have equipped the educational administrators at the Universal Basic Education Commission, the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and Faculty of Education on the needs to provide adequate visual materials for teaching Agricultural Science and other sciences in the senior secondary schools setting particularly in the selected senior secondary schools.
The study would be useful to policy makers to formulate policies that would facilitate the development of education in the three tiers of education in Taraba State in particular and Nigeria as a whole. The States, Federal Ministries of Education and NonGovernment Organizations in education, to formulate laws and policies which may be useful in the implementation of Agricultural Science curriculum especially the policy of a using visual instructional materials in teaching the subject. The Federal, State and Local education authorities can justify provision of adequate funds for the purchase of visual instructional materials in all the senior secondary schools. Lastly, the study would immensely benefit the researchers in the field of Agricultural Science by forming a basis for further studies on the effectiveness of visual materials on the performance of students in agricultural science as a subject.
1.8 Scope of the Study
This research study is limited to the six local government areas of Northern
Senatorial Zone of Taraba State. The study is delimited on three hundred and forty-two Agricultural Science Students from four senior secondary schools in Northern Senatorial zone in Taraba State. The Senior Secondary Schools are as follows; Government Day
Secondary School Mutum-daya, Government Day Science Secondary School Jalingo,
Government Day Secondary School Sunkani and Government Day Secondary Karim Lamido. The research study is delimited on the use of diagrams, maps and specimens on students‟ performance in Agricultural Science of the senior secondary schools.
EFECTS OF VISUAL INSTUCTIONAL RESOURCES ON STUDENTS’ PERFORMANCE IN AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE OF SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN TARABA STATE, NIGERIA