DEVELOPMENT OF INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDEBOOK FOR TEACHING CRAFTS IN NATIONAL CERTFICATE IN EDUCATION HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAMME IN NORTH – WEST, NIGERIA

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DEVELOPMENT OF INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDEBOOK FOR TEACHING CRAFTS IN NATIONAL CERTFICATE IN EDUCATION HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAMME IN NORTH – WEST, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study was carried out on development of instructional manual for teaching crafts in N.C.E Home Economics Programme in North-West Nigeria. The study was conducted to findout the extent to whichcrafts areas are been taught to students and to improvise an instructional manual to help with areas of crafts making that is of difficulty to the students. Four objectives were stated with four correspondent research questions and null hypotheses.  All N.C.E three students and lectures in the Colleges of Education was used for the study with a population of 256 in the eight colleges of education offering Home Economics in North West Nigeria. Research and Development (R and D) design was used for the study. Three major instruments were used for the study namely: Structured questionnaire designed by the researcher, Development of an instructional manual for teaching crafts, and a rating scale for assessing the developed manual.Data collected were statistically analyzed using frequencies and percentages to answer research question one and two while mean and standard deviation was used in answering research questions three and four,Independent sample t-test was used to answer null hypotheses one to three while Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used in answering research hypotheses four. The findings revealed that all the 11 textile design crafts outlined in the curriculum were all taught to the students, however, findings also revealed that 7 items out of 11 require improvement therefore should be included in the contents of the developed instructional manual for teaching crafts. The findings also revealed that most of the human and non-human resources needed for effective implementation of craftswas proven to be lacking.It was recommended that teachers should throw away their past poor or outdated practices by constructing and reconstructing their practices continually until it results in the kind of best teaching that will enable all their student meet  today‟s high expectation of skills.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

The importance of exposing students to Home Economics crafts for individual and societal development has been widely acknowledged. The knowledge and skills which include crafts gained within Home Economics make considerable contribution to young people‟s social and economic development as well as prepare them to the world of work in a wide range of areas related to the field. It provides the learners with the opportunity to develop knowledge and skills in both theoretical and practical aspects of livelihood (Her Majesty‟s Inspectorate of Education, (HMIE, 2009). Therefore Home Economics is a broad field that emphasizes training for skilled jobs.

In order to accommodate the various multidisciplinary areas and skills in Home Economics and position the programme to prepare Nigerian students for global participation, the Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC, 2013) reviewed and reoriented its curriculum to have a broad scope that virtually covers all aspects of human daily living. Among the aims of the curriculum was to provide the student with broad based education that equips them with transferrable knowledge of craft skills as well as life skills to cope with the increasingly technological, socio economic and multicultural society. Contemporary societal issues have been integrated into more practical classes, which will make for more instructional materials including instructional technologies and manuals for teaching. These are all very vital in teaching

of various craft areas in Home Economics.

Craft also known as handcraft or handicraft is the process of making decorative or functional objects, generally by hand. Hand and power tools are used in making craft items. It is an occupation in which manual skill is needed, creating articles using hands and skills. Crafts in its real sense brings out creativity out of person. It is an intellectual and physical activity where the maker explores infinite possibilities of materials and processes to produce unique objects. The beginning of crafts are handwork, needle work or the basic clothing and crafts skills. It then moves to a more complex item such as textile design that includes weave, resist technique, macramé, printing, tie/dye and so forth. (Leedham & Linnea, 2008). However recent research studies have shown that teaching and learning of Home Economics including the craft areas have not been effective in Nigerian schools. Kevin (2009) saw teaching as the systematic presentation of facts, ideas, skills, and techniques to students. Sharp (2003) defined teaching as the specialized application of knowledge, skills and attributes that is designed to provide unique service to meet the educational needs of individuals and of society. The choice of learning activities whereby the goals of education are realized in the school is the

responsibility of the teaching profession.

Schneider, Schober, Toah and Woll (2009) saw vocational Home Economics teachers as craft persons with further training imparting practical skills. In Home Economics specialized teachers with intensive crafts knowledge are expected to teach Home Economics crafts. Knowledge of crafts refer to the professional knowledge used by teachers in their day to day classroom teaching. It is mainly an action oriented knowledge that is generally made explicit by teachers, which they may indeed find difficult to articulate or which they may be unaware of using (Ruthven & Goodchild, 2008). Teachers are expected to exhibit behaviors, approaches, classroom practices and skills that meet the criteria of being well defined, implementable, and linked to gains in student outcomes. Teachers may need to have clear understanding of why when and how each of these practices can be effective and what exactly it means to demonstrate them in a way that is optimal to student‟s wellbeing (Muijis, Kyriakides, Vander Werf, Creemers, Timperley & Earl 2014). Instruction is the purposeful direction of the teaching learning process and there is no doubt that instructions for student‟s exploration and other quality

input will help facilitate the teacher‟s task (Joyce, Weil & Calhoun 2003).

The Nigerian Colleges of Education were established under a philosophy derived from the National Policy of Education (N.P.E)which is a product of the National Council on Education, the highest policy body in Nigeria. The general philosophy which guides them according to the National Council of Colleges of Education (NCCE) guidelines

includes;

  1. The training of various categories of teachers through part-time programs leading

to the award of Nigerian Certificate in Education (N.C.E).

  1. The production of disciplined, efficient and highly motivated teachers for the

primary and junior secondary school levels of education.

  1. The organization and hosting of seminars, workshops and conferences aimed at

updating the professional and administrative competences of teachers. D) Conducting research into all aspects of teachers.

  1. E) Foster unity and understanding among students and staff from various parts of the nation and beyond

The need to analyze the content of various craft areas in Home Economics, the methods used in teaching those crafts, availability of resources needed and seeking ways to improve the program by developing an instruction manual for National Certificate in Education (N.C.E) teachers becomes necessary. The manual will be designed to take N.C.E teachers through a series of activities that will provide a practical guide to teachers which would facilitate them to develop more activities and prepare students for the challenges they face about new trends in crafts making. The teacher instructional manual will give teachers the courage to effect visible change in the teacher‟s role and prevent their becoming in active in the presence of new approaches. This also will facilitate in developing creative way of teaching by teachers that will develop young people‟s own creative thinking and behavior which will support the development of student‟s crafts

skills.

1.2       Statement of the Problem

A country like Nigeria that is faced with serious economic and social problems which include unemployment, increase in hunger, child trafficking, child labor and others, needs a functional education that will provide people with sources of livelihood. Home Economics Programme in Colleges of Education should be designed to bring both self and National Development.

The National Commission of Colleges of Education (NCCE), (2009) contended that students of Colleges of Education should be equipped with skills which include crafts to enable them be self-reliant on graduation. Ogwo and Oranu (2006) however found that inadequate instructional materials and unwillingness of teachers to improvise different methods of teaching and learning is a great impediment Home Economics instruction is facing.Most Home Economics graduates therefore do not acquire those skills that will enable them be self-reliant. This may be attributed to the inability of the N.C.E teachers to creatively teach innovative craft skills, so as to empower students to fit in to the dynamic world of work. Creative teaching is the form of teaching that is intended to develop young people‟s creative thinking (Jeffrey & Craft, 2003).Observation by the researcher has shown that the teachers tend to give out all the topics in craft areas as assignment to students, which leaves the students unmotivated to do the assignments and learn those skills in crafts.

Such researcher‟s personal observation, has shown that most of the crafts areas given out to students as assignments are not done by the students. Most of the students tend to look for experts that produce the product commercially to do the assignments for them; this denies the students the ability to acquire relevant experience, and skills required for effective output. One major problem that teachers are facing with craft instruction is the lack of updated skills due to shortages of teaching and learning resources needed for meaningful education to take place.

This study is therefore aimed at developing an instructional manual for teaching crafts in N.C.E Home Economics Programme in North – West geopolitical zone. This will serve as instructional material for teachers, enhance teacher‟s crafts knowledge and support the development of skills in craft which will stimulate student‟s interest in

different crafts areas.

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The main objective of the study was to develop an instructional manual for teaching identified textile design crafts in N.C.E Home Economics programme.

The specific objectives were to:

  1. identify the types of textile design crafts taught in N.C.E Home Economics programme in North- West Nigeria;
  2. identify the areas of textile design crafts that require improvement in N.C.E Home Economics programme in North-West Nigeria;
  3. identify resources needed for effective implementation of textile design crafts that require improvement in N.C.E Home Economics programme in North-West

Nigeria; and

  1. develop instructional manual for teaching the identified textile design crafts in N.C.E Home Economics programme in North- West Nigeria.

1.4       Research Questions

The following research questions guides the study:

  1. What are the textile design crafts taught in N.C.E Home Economics programme in

North-West Nigeria?

  1. What the areas of textile design crafts that require improvement in N.C.E Home

Economics programme in North-West Nigeria.

  1. What are the resources needed for effective implementation of textile design crafts that requires improvement in N.C.E Home Economics programme in NorthWest Nigeria.
  2. To what extent will the developed instructional manual for teaching the identified textile design crafts improve N.C.E Home Economics programme in North- West Nigeria.

 

1.5       Research Hypotheses

The following hypotheses are formulated for the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the responses of teachers and students on textile design crafts taught in N.C.E Home Economics programme in Northwest Nigeria
  2. There is no significant difference in the responses of teachers and students on the areas of textile design crafts that require improvement in N.C.E Home Economics programme that in North-West Nigeria.
  3. There is no significant difference in the mean responses of teachers and students on resources needed for effective implementation of textile design crafts in N.C.E Home Economics programme in Northwest Nigeria.
  4. There is no significant relationship between the opinion of teachers on the developed instructional manual and improvement of textile design crafts in N.C.E

Home Economics Programme in Northwest Nigeria.

1.6       Significance of the study

The findings of this study is of great benefit to teachers and students of N.C.E Home Economics programme, Government, Curriculum developers and the whole society. This study would enlighten teachers with knowledge on teaching and learning materials for crafts in N.C.E Home Economics programme. It would also update teacher‟s knowledge about new trends in Home Economics crafts areas which would improve their content. The findings of the study would enlighten Home Economics teachers on the strengths and weakness of crafts making, this would improve their methodology in the teaching of crafts. The study would also be of benefit to students as it would facilitate their ability to get the necessary knowledge of crafts and be updated about the trends in crafts making.

Government would also benefit as the study would help in achieving the objectives of vocational and technical education by producing graduates with knowledge and skills that will enable them get a vocation and be self dependent upon completion of their studies which would reduce unemployment and poverty in Nigeria. The study would be of benefitto the whole society as it would reduce the rate of unemployment and poverty in the society. The study would be of help to curriculum developers, as it would provide them with up-to date information about issues, problems and trends in N.C.E Home Economics Programmes in North-West Nigeria. It is also hoped that the result would stimulate further research on the different crafts and skills acquisition in Home

Economics programmes.

1.7       Delimitation of the study

The study was delimited to teachers and students of N.C.E Home Economics programmes. It was also delimited to Colleges of Education in the North-West Nigeria. The states are Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Zamfara, and Sokoto N.C.E Home Economics programmes.

The study was delimited to nine Colleges of Education (C.O.E) offering Home Economics in these five states of North- West Nigeria. The study was delimited to textile design which is a clothing and textile crafts area (dye and dyestuff), the study was also delimited to only N.C.E III students and lecturers of N.C.E Home Economics programme. The reason for choosing N.C.E III students and lecturers was because they are in a better position to provide data or feedback to the researcher that was used in answering the research questions and testing of the null hypothesis.

DEVELOPMENT OF INSTRUCTIONAL GUIDEBOOK FOR TEACHING CRAFTS IN NATIONAL CERTFICATE IN EDUCATION HOME ECONOMICS PROGRAMME IN NORTH – WEST, NIGERIA

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