AN EXAMINATION OF THE CAUSES AND EFFECTS OF TRUANCY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
- BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Student truancy has been an increasing issue. It is the purposeful absence from one or more classes. Truancy has long been viewed as a cankerworm that has eaten its way deep into the fabric of educational programs, causing numerous setbacks for secondary school students’ educational pursuits (Stoll, 1993; Gesinde, 2004; Adeyemi, 2006; Animasahun, 2007). It may result in deviant behavior, social isolation, or educational failure as a result of suspension, expulsion, or dropout (Huizinga, Loeber, Thornberry & Cothern, 2000; Huizinga, Loeber & Thornberry, 1994; Morris, Ehren & Lenz, 1991).
Truancy is defined as any deliberate, uninvited, or unlawful absence from obligatory schooling. Additionally, it could be used to refer to students who attend school but do not attend classes. Truancy is an absence from school. It is a pattern of sporadic school attendance. Absence from school is a delinquent and antisocial behavior (Animasahun, 2009). According to Animasahun (2007), truancy is an act of not attending school, which is one of various types of antisocial behavior.
Truancy has been defined as an unjustifiable deliberate absence from school (Petegem, 1994). According to Fogelman & Hibbett (1995), truancy is defined as any absence from school without an acceptable explanation. According to Gabb (1997), a truant student either leaves home but does not report to school or escapes from school or class to engage in any other activities that capture his imagination. Indeed, it is a sort of aberrant conduct displayed by some pupils in schools without the explicit consent of the school administration or other institutional authorities.
The causes and severity of truancy are various and varied. Numerous reasons contribute to absenteeism. Truancy is a four-pronged issue that originates with the student, the student’s family, the school, and the community. Rohrman (1993) and Kinder, Harland, Wilkin, and Wakefield (1995) argued that truancy is caused by the child’s (personality), family, school, and community. In a similar vein, Osarenren (1996) attributes absenteeism to the home, school environment, peer group culture, and society. Truancy, according to reports from throughout the world, may be related with negative social and health outcomes later in life. Numerous studies have found that people who were truant as teens were more likely to have marital or employment instability, as well as psychological maladjustment, than their non-truant counterparts (Hibbett, Fogelman & Manor, 1990; Tyrer & Tyrer, 1974; Hibbett & Fogelman, 1990). Pupils who skip school do more deviant activities than students who stay in school. Theft, burglary, robbery, drug use and selling, assault, numerous sex-related offenses, and even murder are considered deviant behaviors. Obondo and Dhadphale stated in 1990 that truancy accounted for around 10% of children’s non-attendance at school in Kenya (Obondo & Dhadphale, 1990). Truancy results in educational waste and inadequate human power development (Rumberger, 1987; Nwagwu, 1999); the formation of hoodlums, social misfits, antisocial individuals, and eventual criminals (Animasahun, 2005); and serves as a doorway to crime (Adeyemi, 2011; Animasahun, 2005). (2007a). According to Rohrman (1993), peers play a critical and significant role in providing both the support and environment essential for the acquisition of new abilities, as well as acting as reinforcing agents of socialization. Baker & Jansen (2000) assert that truancy results in lower academic success. According to Garry (2001), absenteeism results in delinquent and criminal behavior. Additionally, Osarenren (1996) noted that teenagers strive to mirror their behaviors after what they perceive to be the peer group standard. The purpose of this study is to examination of the causes and effects of truancy in secondary schools among secondary school students in Ekiti State.
- STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
For a long period of time, the issue of absenteeism among secondary school pupils a drift has been a major one, generating alarm among researchers. This truancy problem has worked against the educational aims and objectives established by parents and educational policymakers.
Carrol (1996) observed that absenteeism and low school attendance are more prevalent in big families with a manual laborer as the father. Similarly, Brillingston (1998) and Ma’aruf (2005) discovered a high correlation between home conditions and persistent absence without parental awareness. Truancy can result in decreased academic performance, the loss of friends and partners, and classroom disruption. Returning absentees have an effect on the conduct of other students, the difficulty of maintaining accurate records, the capacity to accomplish educational objectives, and the school’s reputation (Oghuvu, 2006).
Attendance has a strong correlation with academic achievement, according to research. According to the data, female students were more likely to be late than male students (Emore, 2005). As a result of their parents’ engagement in domestic activities, this occurred.
Obemeata, Adeboyeje, & Obayan’s (1995) research indicates that a school’s physical environment has a considerable influence on students’ academic progress. However, Akinwumi and Ayeni, Fareo & Okotoni, (2003) and others stated that there was no significant correlation between academic success and the physical surroundings of learners. Truancy, criminal activity, and aggressive conduct can be considered as educational, social, and law enforcement concerns. Truancy jeopardizes students’ chances of reaching any educational goals (Siziya, Tuula & Rudatsikira, 2007). The school has been designed as a social agency with the purpose of shaping children’s habits, interests, attitudes, and feelings, as well as transmitting society norms, culture, values, and traditions from generation to generation. Despite this, some students continue to absent themselves from class. Fear of teenage abnormal and harmful behavior is a continuous cause of anxiety for millions of people worldwide. Youth violence/crime is a global issue, and the growth in aberrant behavior among young people over the previous two decades has been a major subject of worry (Wiarimu, 2013). Numerous students are now active in a number of extracurricular activities that may compromise their academic success.
Crime, bad conduct, and truancy in our schools must be overlooked; otherwise, they will become much more serious than they already are. The conduct of secondary school kids is unmistakably impacted by a range of conditions. An investigation is necessary to elicit new data and clarification about the effects of truancy on academic achievement in secondary schools.
- OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to examine the causes and effects of truancy in secondary schools. Specifically, this study seeks to:
- To determine the extent of truancy level among secondary school students
- To ascertain the various forms of truancy demonstrated by secondary school students.
- To examine the relationship between truancy and academic performance of students in secondary schools.
- To ascertain the causes of students’ truant behavior in secondary schools.
- To ascertain the various methods for restraining students’ truant behavior in secondary schools.
- RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The following questions will be answered in this study:
- To what extent is the truancy level among secondary school students?
- What are the various forms of truancy demonstrated by secondary school students?
- Is there any relationship between truancy and academic performance of students in secondary schools?
- What are the causes of students’ truant behavior in secondary schools?
- What are the various methods for restraining students’ truant behavior in secondary schools?
- SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The findings of this study will contribute to a better understanding of the behavioral patterns of secondary school students who commit truancy. Teachers are expected to be able to recognize these students and determine how to place them in the classroom, as well as where to place these pupils within the school context.
The study will benefit instructors who work directly with children and are aware of the negative impact truancy has on students’ social behavior and scholastic success in school and can thus support them.
School administrators and policymakers who are actively involved in policy formation will provide a conducive learning environment for students and will support educational psychologists in investigating and developing theories and strategies for dealing with maladaptive behaviors’. Parents will profit significantly since they will be able to identify such delinquent behavior and quickly seek assistance from the appropriate authority.
- SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will be focused on examining the causes and effects of truancy in secondary schools. Specifically this study will be focused on determining the extent of truancy level among secondary school students, ascertaining the various forms of truancy demonstrated by secondary school students, examining the relationship between truancy and academic performance of students in secondary schools, ascertaining the causes of students’ truant behavior in secondary schools and ascertaining the various methods for restraining students’ truant behavior in secondary schools.
Selected secondary school students in Ado Ekiti, Ekiti State will form the population of this study.
- LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
As with any human endeavor, the researcher experienced small impediments while performing the study. Due to the scarcity of literature on the subject as a result of the discourse’s nature, the researcher incurred additional financial expenses and spent additional time sourcing for relevant materials, literature, or information, as well as during the data collection process, which is why the researcher chose a small sample size. Additionally, the researcher conducted this inquiry in conjunction with other scholarly pursuits. Additionally, because only a small number of respondents were chosen to complete the research instrument, the results cannot be applied to other secondary schools outside the state. Regardless of the limits faced throughout the investigation, all aspects were reduced to ensure the best outcomes and the most productive research.
- DEFINITION OF TERMS
Effect: a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
Truancy: Truancy is any intentional, unjustified, unauthorised, or illegal absence from compulsory education. It is a deliberate absence by a student’s own free will and usually does not refer to legitimate excused absences, such as ones related to medical conditions.
Academic performance: Academic achievement or academic performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.