AN EVALUATION OF THE PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH INFERTILITY AMONG MARRIED WOMEN IN ADAMAWA STATE
1.1 Background Of The Study
According to Khodakarami and Hashemi, (2009), infertility may cause a considerable degree of psychosocial harm since reproduction is an important human urge. According to the World Health Organization, infertility is a condition of the reproductive system in which pregnancy does not occur after one year of ongoing sexual activity [Masearenhas and Flaxsea, 2012] . According to (Sumera and Raafay, 2010), infertility is a worldwide issue that impacts several facets of life for both genders. The rates reach 186 million persons worldwide [Inhorn and Patrizio, 2015] . The experience of infertility may be emotionally taxing [Dural & Yasa, 2016] . It may result in a variety of psychological disorders, such as stress, anxiety, depression, lowered self-esteem, decreased sexual pleasure, and impaired quality of life [Kamel & Remah, 2010] . The associated psychosocial concerns have a higher detrimental influence on the female gender than on their husband [Patrizio, 2015] , especially in countries where biases against women are prevalent [Balen and Bos, 2009] . As a result, an infertile woman may exhibit unusually high levels of irritation and anger, which may negatively impact her relationships with family, friends, and even her husband. Similarly, infertile women are more prone than their fertile counterparts to experience mental illness, marital discontent, and worse quality of life [Farrokh and Eslamlou, 2014] . Ethnic and cultural groups often impact attitudes regarding female infertility [Aliyeh and Laya, 2007] . In eastern civilizations, women are primarily expected to assume the role of mother, which may lead to a number of psychosocial and other difficulties if pregnancy does not occur for whatever reason [choobfroushadeh, 2013] . Therefore, further research is necessary in eastern countries to determine the influence of social, cultural, and individual aspects on the quality of life of an infertile woman [Daniluk, 2002] .
In addition, despite the fact that infertility is not a disease, it and its treatment can affect every aspect of a woman’s life, leading to a variety of health, psychological, and emotional disorders or consequences, such as turmoil, frustration, depression, anxiety, hopelessness, guilt, and feelings of lifelessness (Maroufizadeh, 2015). A quantitative research in Iran, for instance, indicated that infertility therapy is one of the most stressful reasons for infertile women (Ghaheri, 2015). Nevertheless, according to Isiugo-Abanihe (1998), infertility may be fully embraced and controlled by the couple as a marriage challenge in their lasting love, while societal or extended family pressure undermines the connection. In light of the aforementioned, the purpose of this research is to identify the problems related with infertility among married women in Adamawa State.
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
In the social sciences, there is a growing consensus that infertility is a terrible issue for women, especially in the setting of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. Regardless of the medical reasons of infertility, the majority of African nations subject infertile women to sadness, social humiliation, ostracism, and often severe economic distress. There is substantial evidence that women, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, bear the brunt of infertility’s repercussions. As Inhorn (1994, 1996) has shown for Egypt, in the majority of these civilizations women are primarily responsible for reproductive failures. In Cameroon, for instance, infertility is grounds for divorce among the Bangangte, leading a woman to lose access to her husband’s property, as reported by Feldman-Savelsberg (1999). In the Ekiti Yoruba of Nigeria, infertile women are considered outcasts and their remains are buried on the outside of town (Ademola, 1982). On the surface of infertility, women surely encounter a variety of obstacles, which may be influenced by spouses’ beliefs and cultural values, family influence, the culture, etc. In light of these factors, this research seeks to examine the difficulties women confront during infertility.
1.3 Objectives Of The Study
The overall aim of this study is to critically evaluate the problems associated with infertility among married women in Adamawa state. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;
- Determine whether infertility results to marital dissatisfaction among married women.
- Determine whether married women experience abusive treatment from spouse as a result of infertility.
- Determine whether married women experience physical and mental health challenges as a result of infertility.
- Ascertain whether married women experience the termination of marriage as result of infertility.
- Ascertain whether married women experience impaired quality of life due to the challenges associated with infertility.
1.4 Research Question
This study will be guided by the following questions;
- Does infertility result to marital dissatisfaction among married women?
- Does married women experience abusive treatment from spouse as a result of infertility?
- Does married women experience physical and mental health challenges as a result of infertility?
- Does married women experience the termination of marriage as result of infertility?
- Does married women experience impaired quality of life due to the challenges associated with infertility?
1.5 Significance Of The Study
This study will serve as a material for enlightenment for mostly married couples, and the society at large. To a very great extent, this study will educate families on the need and how to manage family and societal pressures which are associated with the issue of infertility especially among women. The study will further caution the society on the implications of intruding into family matters as delicate as infertility, and the need to offer relevant support to victims of infertility not to add fire to the smoke. This study will add to the existing body of knowledge on medical sociology. It will create room for further research on the challenges associated with infertility among married women.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This study is structured but delimited to the evaluation of the problems associated with infertility among married women in Adamawa State.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Childless: The absence of children in a family resulting from the inability to conceive a child by married couple or death of existing children.
Couples: This refers to a man and woman united and legally bounded in marriage.
Culture: The arts, customs, beliefs, values, behavior and material objects that constitute peoples’ way of life.
Fertility: The condition, or the degree of being fertile
Infertility: The inability to conceive after a period of 12 months of uncontrollable and unprotected sexual intercourse.