AN EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON THE PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS’ COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT
1.1 Background Of Study
From the outset, parents have been the primary children in every community. That is why the family is viewed as a critical socializing agent. Adekeyi (2002) notes that children are primarily molded to be useful citizens via their efforts and abilities. Thus, wherever parents have the tools and skills necessary to raise their children efficiently and joyously, the whole society benefits. This instills national pride and promotes development and harmonious coexistence. Children feel good about themselves and provide joy to their parents and the whole community.
With this in mind, the effect of family background on children’ cognitive development becomes a necessary gear in the wheel of progress. According to Henry (2015), parental background has a favorable or negative effect on children’ cognitive development. A prosperous family will take an active interest in their children’s education. Similarly, Ezewu (2017) said that a parent’s family background has an effect on their children, particularly in terms of academic achievement.
Parents’ major role is to nurture and protect their children, as well as to instill in them the values and beliefs of society. Additionally, they educate children about rules, customs, and proper behavior. Additionally, parents are responsible for providing housing, food, education, security, and personal development for their children (Udoka, 2013). This is the orientation family. The educational attainment of parents has an effect on their children’s academic achievement. For instance, in a family where both parents are educated, their children are always well-cared for academically. They may peruse their children’s exercise books after school or hire a private school to tutor them. Their academic achievement will improve as a result; alternatively, an illiterate family does not have the obligation to oversee their children’s exercise books, resulting in their children’s poor academic achievement in school (Merick, 2015).
Additionally, it is self-evident that a child’s educational achievement is influenced by both inherited and environmental influences.
Hereditary variables have an effect on a child’s academic achievement in school. This happens when a child inherits defective genes from either the mother or father; such a child will struggle to learn well even if the environment is suitable to learning (Ndidi, 2016). On the other side, a child who receives a highly high gene from their parents may struggle in an unstimulating environment. According to Zenab (2014), a child’s cognitive development requires a favourable environment. A stimulating environment has the capacity to transform a prospective mediocrity into an intellectual giant, whilst an inhibiting environment has the potential to transform a brilliant child into a mediocre. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of family background on the cognitive development of primary school pupils.
1.2 Statement Of Problem
The impact of family background, namely the socioeconomic level of parents on their children’s cognitive development, has long been a source of worry for many members of society. Children from wealthy parents function intellectually better than children from impoverished parents in a school setting. On the other hand, Jude (2011) suggested that, in comparison to children from poor and average homes, the majority of children from wealthy families are intellectually adrift in school. Regardless of the students’ pupils in Owerri Municipal, the teacher instructs them in a group background.
As a result, this study is predicated on society’s erroneous thinking and misconceptions. The researcher is therefore well-positioned to produce discoveries about the degree to which family background impacts children’s academic performance and the factors that contribute to this effect. As a result, the researcher will identify answers to issues and offer strategies and techniques for eradicating or improving the condition for the benefit of pupils, parents, schools, educators, and society at large.
1.3 Purpose Of The Study
The overall aim of this study is to critically evaluate the impact of family background on the primary school pupils’ cognitive development. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;
- Ascertain the extent to which family background influences pupils cognitive development.
- Ascertain the extent to which parental involvement influences pupils cognitive development.
- Determine availability of study materials at home influences pupils cognitive development.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
The statements below will be validated in the course of this study;
H01: The extent to which family background influences pupils cognitive development is low.
H02: The extent to which parental involvement influences pupils cognitive development is low.
H03: The availability of study materials at home does not influence pupils cognitive development.
1.5 Significance Of The Study
This study will to certain high extent remind parents once more of their divine and practical responsibilities towards their children. If this is achieved, the school system and society will be more stable, disciplined and functional.
Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the impact of family background on the primary school pupils’ cognitive development.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
This study is structured to generally evaluate the impact of family background on the primary school pupils’ cognitive development. However, the study will further ascertain the extent to which family background influences pupils cognitive development, ascertain the extent to which parental involvement influences pupils cognitive development, and determine availability of study materials at home influences pupils cognitive development.
This study will therefore be delimited to 4 selected primary schools in Owerri, Imo State.
1.7 Limitation Of The Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Family background: This is mainly the set of social, economic, cultural, and welfare characteristics of a family.
Parental involvement: This is when parents participate in school events or activities, and teachers provide learning resources or information about their student’s grades.
Cognitive development: This connotes a child’s development in terms of information processing, conceptual resources, perceptual skill, language learning, and other aspects of the developed adult brain and cognitive psychology.