ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF INTERACTIVE PRACTICES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF LEARNERS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA

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ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF INTERACTIVE PRACTICES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF LEARNERS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA

ABSTRACT

The study assessed the effects of interactive techniques on the performance of students in English language in senior secondary schools in Bauchi State, Nigeria. The study was carried out with objectives to: determine the effects of shared discussion technique on the pre-test and post- test performance of students taught English language in senior secondary school in Bauchi state, and those taught using conventional method; examine the effects of brainstorming  technique on the academic  performance of students taught  English Language in senior secondary school in Bauchi State and those taught using conventional method; examine the effects of cooperative learning technique on the academic performance of students taught  English Language in senior secondary school in Bauchi State and those taught using conventional method; determine the effects of penpals technique on the academic performance of students taught  English Language in senior secondary school in Bauchi State and those taught with conventional method; and compare the academic performance of students taught English language using shared discussion and brainstorming, and those taught using cooperative learning and penpals techniques. Relevant literatures were thoroughly reviewed in chapter two of the study. The study employs quasiexperimental pre-test, post-test research design. The target population of the study is 8615 students of senior secondary schools. The total sample size of the study consists 205 SS II students drawn using purposive sampling technique. The instrument used in this study is English Language Performance Test (ELPT), adopted from National Examination Council (NECO). The validated instrument was pilot tested and a reliability index of 0.81 was obtained. The bio-data collected in the study was analysed using frequency and percentage, while mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research questions. Hypotheses 1–4 were tested using t-test while hypothesis 5 was tested using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) at 0.05 level of significance. Findings among others revealed that students taught English Language using discussion technique performed better than those taught using conventional method. More so, the performance of students taught English Language using penpals technique and conventional method is the same in the test administered on them. Recommendations were made among which that teachers of English language should always provide discussion activities in their class to stimulate the students‟ interest and academic performance. Bauchi State Ministry of Education should organise seminars and workshops for teachers of English language on effective use of brainstorming technique for teaching English language in secondary schools.

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background to the Study

Education is an instrument for change and development, hence, any change and development that is needed in the society is usually achieved using education as a tool.    Education is regarded as that which provides the tools with which people are empowered to tackle the problems that face their society. Successful teachers have many tools at their disposal in order to reach different students. The use of interactive teaching can provide opportunities to students that are normally available in traditional situations. Interactive teaching also focuses on the processes of learning and not just presenting information.

The basic idea of interactive teaching is that students must be active. Interactive teaching takes into account that learners have experience and knowledge that they bring to each situation.

Instead of just adding more knowledge to that, teachers use the students‟ knowledge to assist in learning more. Instead of just giving the information to the students, teachers encourage them to come up with ideas of how it connects to their own world, thus constructing their own meaning of the material (Shekari, 2015).

The first thing to realize about interactive teaching is that, it is not something new or mysterious. If a teacher asks questions in class, assigns and checks homework, or holds class or group discussions, then the teacher already teaches interactively. Basically, interactive teaching is just giving students something to do, getting back what they have done, and then assimilating it, so that the teacher can decide what would be best to do next. However, it is important to note that English language facilitates the learning processes and effectively promotes our intellectual development, since all other disciplines hinge on it. Hence, efficient learning of English language in our schools as a medium of communication certainly promotes the general understanding in other subjects.

In addition, English language cannot be taught in a haphazard and sluggish form of traditional method of parroting and memorization. Poor performance and results of English language is becoming poorer every day. Generally, the standard of education is fast falling as a result of poor foundation especially at the secondary school level (Mwajim, 2012).

More so, the traditional methods must be modified with new trends (techniques) that are geared towards improving efficiency and proficiency for effective delivery of English language. Interactive teaching techniques operate on a more practical and cooperative forms with a lot of activities for learners to participate and carry out as observed by the researcher.

The researcher observed that interactive teaching technique is an integration of teaching technique that demand high student participation at all levels of learning process. The teacher guides and the students perform different learning tasks in groups based on the three levels of interaction patterns in the classroom students-teacher interaction, student-students interaction or students-community resources interaction.

It is obvious that among the heritage left behind by the British at the end of the colonial administration, English language is probably the most important legacy. English Language is the language of government, business and commerce, education, the mass media, literature. The entrenchment of English language perhaps is the most noticeable in the field of Education. English is introduced as a subject in the first year of primary school; and from the third year of primary school up to and including the university level, it is a medium of instruction. This in effect means that the Nigerian child‟s access to the cultural and scientific knowledge of the world is largest through English”.

Grieve (1968) cited in Williams (2009) notes that universities are dissatisfied with the low standard of many entrants who have scored reasonable marks in the examination but are handicapped in their university studies because of their inability to read with understanding or write clearly. Adekola (2010) says that the secondary level of education has for some time been receiving much attention in West Africa because it is the immediate reservoir of potential middle and high level manpower. But it is at this level that a lot of wastage in manpower potential occurs because of so many factors one of the most important being the language problem. Admission to this level of education and successful completion of the courses depend very much on the students‟ proficiency in English Language, which is the medium of instruction.

Learning and teaching of English language as a second language can cause

misunderstanding of concepts and ideas due to differences in cultural world views. To this group, cultural influence on English impoverishes the language.

English Language teaching in Nigeria has developed within the framework of theory and practice which have been applied in countries where English is taught as a second language. In any sociolinguistic context, the teacher of English needs to be acquainted with the historical and theoretical bases of language teaching.

At the same time, we cannot afford to ignore factors within the Nigerian context which necessarily influence the teaching of English as a second language. The trained teacher not only understands and can implements the method as shown in the textbook; he is likely to be selective in the use of textbooks and methods of teaching, choosing only those materials which are based on sound linguistic and pedagogical principles (Aremu, 2014).

Today, English as a second language (ESL) according to Olaofe (2013) has been witnessing unprecedented changes in curriculum, teaching methodology and application of learning theories. This is coupled with rapid increase in school enrolments across educational levels in the midst of limited teaching learning resources. All these challenges have created a huge demand on teachers of English that are expected to teach learners of varied cultural, socioeconomic, and psychological backgrounds in adverse learning situations.

Williams (2009) says, the methods used should be in keeping with objectives for English Language teaching in Nigeria. These objectives are determined by the roles and functions of the language in and outside the classroom. An oft-quoted memorandum from Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria states that the English Language student in Nigeria should be proficient in all four language skills: ability to speak fluent and acceptable English, ability to understand simple conversational English spoken at normal speed, ability to read and comprehend contemporary written English of a level appropriate to the candidate‟s age and required level of attainment and ability to write clear, acceptable English on such topics as are prescribed. This study therefore is an attempt to determine classroom strategies which are capable of reversing the general decline in teaching and learning the English Language. It is the poor performance amongst students that has motivated this investigation in the subject area. Specifically, this study investigates the effects of Interactive Teaching Techniques on the performance of students in English language in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state, Nigeria.

1.2         Statement of the Problem

English language is in a state of quandary in our institutions of learning. This is evidenced by the high failure that has been recorded at various levels of education, particularly at the senior secondary school. Part of the comments of the Chief Examiner‟s report for West African Examination Council on English Language (WAEC) (May/June, 2018) says: contrary to expectation, the performance of the candidates was awfully poor. Some of the candidates scored zero in the subject, having failed to write an answer that could earn a single mark in any section of the subject. It appears that a good number of schools registered illiterates and unqualified candidates for this test as observed by the research.

Students‟ poor performance in English language has been attributed to lack of appropriate use of method, inexperienced teachers, poor students‟ attitude toward English Language, poor learning environment and gender effect. Recent report of chief examiner of West African examination council (WAEC) revealed the disgusting failure in the final year examination 2018, it was revealed that less than 46% had credit in English language.

The West African Examiner Chief report as captured by the Daily Trust Newspaper 16th August, 2018. showed that most of the students have difficulties in understanding the subjects, poor teaching, method lack of instructional materials as well as lack of teaching skills by the English language teachers, were among the reasons for these poor results, primary and secondary levels of education besides admission into higher institutions and professional institutions. English Language students in senior secondary schools find it difficult to perform tasks that require high cognitive thinking. Specifically, they find it difficult to perform well in tasks that require them to apply, analyze, synthesize and evaluate within the context of Blooms (1956) taxonomy of educational objectives. This learning difficulty was also evident in problem solving skills as demonstrated by their consistent poor performance in English Language test. It is against this background that the researcher investigates the effect of interactive teaching techniques on student‟s academic performance in senior secondary school in English Language in Bauchi State, Nigeria.

 

 

1.3         Objectives of the Study

The following are objectives of the study to:

  1. determine the effects of shared discussion technique on the pre-test and post- test performance of students taught English language in senior secondary school in Bauchi state, and those taught using conventional method.
  2. examine the effects of brainstorming technique on the pre-test and post- test performance of students taught  English Language in senior secondary school in Bauchi State and those taught using conventional method.
  3. examine the effects of cooperative learning technique on the pre-test and post- test performance of students taught English Language in senior secondary school in Bauchi State and those taught using conventional method.
  4. determine the effects of penpals technique on the pre-test and post- test performance of students taught English Language in senior secondary school in Bauchi State and those taught with conventional method.
  5. compare the pre-test and post- test performance of students taught English language using shared discussion, brainstorming, and those taught using cooperative learning and penpals techniques.

1.4          Research Questions

The study has the following research questions:

  1. What is the effect of shared discussion technique on the pre-test and post- test performance of students taught English Language in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state and those taught using conventional method?
  2. What is the effect of brainstorming technique on the pre-test and post- test performance of students taught English Language in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state and those taught using conventional method?
  3. What is the effect of cooperative learning technique on the pre-test and post- test performance of students taught English Language in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state and those taught using conventional method?
  4. What is the effect of penpals technique on the pre-test and post- test performance of students taught English Language in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state and those taught using conventional method?
  5. What is the differences in the pre-test and post- test performance of students taught English language using shared discussion, brainstorming, and those taught using cooperative learning and penpals techniques in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state,

Nigeria?

1.5          Research Hypotheses

The following Null hypotheses were postulated for this study:

H01: there is no significant difference in the pre-test and post-test performance of students taught English Language using shared discussion technique and those taught using conventional method in senior secondary schools of Bauchi State.

H02: there is no significant difference in the pre-test and post- test performance of students taught English language using brainstorming technique and those taught using conventional method in senior secondary schools of Bauchi State.

H03: there is no significant difference in pre-test and post- test performance of students taught English Language using cooperative learning technique and those taught using conventional method in senior Secondary Schools of Bauchi State.
H04: there is no significant difference in pre-test and post- test performance of students taught English Language using penpals technique and those taught using conventional method in senior Secondary Schools of Bauchi State.   .
H05: there is no significant difference in the pre-test and post- test performance of students taught English Language using shared discussion, brainstorming, and those taught using cooperative learning and penpals techniques in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state.
1.6 Significance of the Study
  The findings of this study would benefit the following stakeholders: such as colleges and

universities, professional bodies, examination bodies, Curriculum planners, Experts in curriculum, researchers, English language teachers, Ministries of Education amongst others.

Colleges and universities preparing teachers can benefit from the findings of this study.

These institutions can become aware of factors that inhibit effective learning of the English Language, and put pedagogical structures in place to do encourage teachers in training to teaching using these techniques.

Professional bodies such as the English Language Teachers Association (ELTA), States

Educational Resource Centres (SERC), Nigeria Educational and Research Development Council (NERDC) can benefit by considering the findings of this study in developing instructional methods and therefore become aware of the variables to manipulate in order to enhance teaching and learning.

The findings of the research will be of great significance to curriculum planners, as they can plan the curriculum bearing these interactive techniques in mind, so that the curriculum will be more of activity based.

The findings will help teachers in choosing appropriate instructional materials capable of releasing students‟ tension towards the subject. It will motivate teachers to develop interest towards utilizing instructional materials, and selecting suitable teaching methods towards effective teaching and learning of the English Language. It will equally help teachers to develop suitable methods for assessing students‟ academic performance in English Language. The

findings will sensitize English language teachers on the benefits of the use of local resources as a strategy for teaching and it will have greater effect on the academic performance of the students. The research findings will as well form another dimension of innovations in the teaching and learning of English Language.

Curriculum experts  will also benefit from the study since, the results of the study will assist in curriculum planning such as giving information relating to the teaching and learning of English Language, curriculum planners will have knowledge of interaction between gender and instructional approach on student‟ performance in English Language.

Findings from this research will be significant to the authors and publishers of English Language textbooks as it will expose them to the importance of interactive techniques in the teaching and learning of English Language in senior secondary schools in States and Bauchi state in particular. It will also make them realize that the interactive techniques are a wonderful curriculum laboratory which can provide extremely dynamic and interesting real life

opportunities for leaning.

The Ministry of Education officials will benefit from the study by having knowledge of different instruction facilities that can be used in schools, it will serve as an input for effective law making and the legal framework guiding its activities. It will enable them to work harmoniously with the schools and on how to use these interactive techniques so as to enhance the performance of English Language students.

1.7         Scope of the Study

This research focuses on the assessment of the effects of Interactive Teaching Techniques on the Performance of Students in English Language in senior secondary schools in Bauchi state, Nigeria. The study focused on senior secondary schools 11 (SS II). There are two hundred and fourteen senior secondary schools in Bauchi state across the major educational zones in the state, comprising of: Bauchi zone, Katagum zone, and Central zone. Report from Bauchi State

Ministry of Education 2018.

ASSESSMENT OF THE EFFECTS OF INTERACTIVE PRACTICES ON THE PERFORMANCE OF LEARNERS IN ENGLISH LANGUAGE IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN BAUCHI STATE, NIGERIA

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