ASSESSMENT OF THE DUTIES OF PRINCIPALS IN MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA
This study focused on the Assessment oftherole performance of Principals in the Management of Secondary Schools in Zamfara State, Nigeria. For the purpose of this research, eight research objectives were set to include; role performances of principals on interpersonal relationship, decision making process, communication, supervision, staff development programmes, maintenance of discipline, school-communityrelationship and maintenance offacilities in secondary school management in Zamfara State. Also, research questions were asked and hypotheses formulated in line with the objectives of the study. Descriptive survey research design was used for the study and data were collected using constructed questionnaire which was prepared and validated by experts in Educational Administration. The population of the study involved 4996 teachers, 191 principals and 149 Ministry of Education officials. However, a total of 370 teachers, 65 principals and, 65 MOE officials served as asample of study. The reliability coefficient was obtained at 0.79 using Cronbach’s Alpha statistical technique. The data collected were presented by the use of frequency counts and percentages. The formulated hypotheses of the research were tested using Analysis of Variance at 0.05 level of significance. The findings revealed among others that role performance of principals on interpersonal relationship stabilized interaction between teachers, students andother non-teaching staff in secondary schools in Zamfara State. Also, role performance of principals encouraged participation of parents, teachers and other stakeholders in decision making process as well as intensified effective communication between teachers, parents, NGOs and the Ministry of Education and secondary schools in Zamfara State. Thus, it was recommended among others that all principals should be administratively democratic by ensuring wholistic interpersonal relationship among various stakeholders in secondary schools inZamfara State; they should be socially and politically flexible by involving parents, teachers, students, clubs and societies in decision making as well as communicate well to the entire stakeholders such as teachers, parents Ministry of Education officials, students among others in secondary schools in Zamfara State, Nigeria.
1.1 Background to the Study
School management involves managing, administering the curriculum and teaching, pastoral care, discipline, assessment, evaluation, examinations, resource allocation, costing and forward planning as well as staff appraisal relationship with the community. Management also deals with use of the practical skills necessary for surviving the policies of organization such as decision-making, negotiation, bargaining, communication, conflict handling, running meetings and so forth. Thus, sustainable management in secondary education is a continuous process of the best practices in the management and utilization of human and material resources, facilities, finance, and development of positive corporate culture and strategic supervision of teaching and learning activities for the realization of the set goals in schools. Hence, effective management in education is also made it possible whenevery member of the institution contributes his/her quota to the quality process (Venkaiah, Zuhari and Suparman, 2002). All these are required to ensure a complete well-rounded education and production of quality students, and consistent improvement in secondary school system.
The roles of principals in secondary education sustainability cannot be overemphasized. The principal as a leader of group of teachers in the school system has the function of interacting with them in order to improve teaching and learning situation for the students through instructional supervision. Instructional inspection is one process by whichschool principals attempt to achieve acceptable standards performance and results. It is the tool of quality improvement in the school system and a phase school administration which focuses primarily upon the achievement of appropriate expectation of educational system (Peretomode, 2004). All these tasks can be achieved through planning, organizing, directing, coordinating, and evaluating the school services as a social system. These activities are those of the school principal who must ensure they are all directed towards efficient and effective teaching and learning in the school so as to be able to produce quality outputs. By implication, the principal of a school is a planner, director, controller, coordinator, organizer, adviser and a problem-solver (Maduabum, 2002).
The principal is a person on whose shoulders rest the entire administration, success or failure of the school. The principal identifies the set goals and objectives of the school, which of course, must be in line with the national objectives, analyses tasks and share responsibilities of the staff according to specialization and expertise (Uyanga, 2008). Quality education provides students with the knowledge, skills, attitudes and creativity needed to solve problems locally and globally, and actively contributes to the sustainable and democratic development of societies. Thus, our aspirations for quality education must go beyond narrow learning outcomes. Limiting the outcomes of education may encourage teachers to education had the potential of
sustainability that links economic well-being with respect for cultural diversity, the earth and its resources (UNESCO, 2007).
The Principal has overall authority for the day to day management of secondary school. The Principal controls the internal organization, management, supervision and discipline of the school, including the assignment of duties to members of the teaching and non-teaching staff. Like a manager in other business arenas, school principals are leaders of employees. They must motivate and monitor the performance of teachers and office staffs. Principals typically participate in the hiring process for new teachers and are part of their orientation to the building and classroom. Each teacher is alsonormally evaluated even few years to ensure competent classroom performance.
For instance, educational management is an activity of collaboration and sharing of responsibilities among various stakeholders; it is not an activity of isolation. Stakeholders’ participation can be achieved through good interpersonal relationship that will lead to a collective decision-making for a positive impact upon quality of education. Cohen (2008) asserted that members’ involvement in decision-making has positive impact on academic achievements of students on one hand and overall success of schools on another. In Zamfara State, the process of stakeholders’ participation in decision-making seem to be poor, hence, role of school principal in improving and strengthening such participation has been also weaken. Although, there is a little bit interpersonal relationship between among others parents, teachers and students (Sirvani, 2007).
It was assumed that school principal serves as a link between the inter-related components of the school as a social system. He acts as a sustainer for effective, school communication. Thus, communication is simply means the act of transferring information from one place to another. It is the duty of an active principal to inflow and maintains lines of communication within and outside the school organization. It was stated that communication is the life blood of any organization without which no activity of an organization will be possible (Yabo, 2007).
Likewise, the role of the school principal as a supervisor includes obtaining and making available materials for teachers in all educational information, visiting classrooms often to observe his teachers’ activities; basic supervision of teachers lesson notes and class registers, diaries and teaching aids and offering them professional advice for their: proper improvement of teaching and learning in the system whereas he can act as a change facilitator. Marlow and Minehira (2011) viewed that school principals must possess a wide array of competencies in order to lead schools effectively towards the accomplishment of educational goals, which has led to changing expectations of what leaders need to know and must be able to do.
Staff training and development are processes of improving the knowledge and skills of employees through regular training and re-training for effective productivity and service delivery within an organization. It is the duty of an active principal to ensure capacity building to his teaching and non-teaching staff by encouraging them for regular attending workshops, seminars, in-service training and other educational conferences. As regard to this issue, Tiberodwa (2000) observed that staff development programmes are set to improve staff skills and productivity through in-service training, attendance of seminars, workshops, conference and short courses within and outside the institution as well as sabbatical leave. Thus, principals play a major role in developing professional competences of teachers who guide one another in improving instruction.
Also, community participation in education has positive effects upon quality of education. It also leads to students’ better academic achievements and overall success of school. Community involvement in education not only improves the academic performance of students but also motivates schools to show better results which increases trust and confidence of parents in schools. The role of principal is foremost in the development of positive school community relationship (Van Velsor and Orozco, 2006). It is the role of school principals to continually bridge a communication gap and connect school and community as well. This is crucial both for students’ development and success of schools (Payne, 2006). In government schooling,due to bureaucratic culture the community involvement in the education process could be promoted.
Principals play a role in the school discipline in their schools. This includes educating students, and often parents, on behavioral conduct codes. Principals also develop a system of consequences for misbehavior that is in line with school district policies and may include detentions and suspension. In .some schools, the principal also plays a lead role in implementing discipline. If a student gets into trouble in a class, he/she is sent to the principal’s office. The principal discusses the behavior, explains any potential consequences and contacts parents in some circumstances. In extreme cases of violence or illegal activities, the principal may refer a student to the school board for possible expulsion. Principals also help supervise sports and extracurricular activities held at the school. This role involves monitoring of those in attendance and addressing any problems.
Additionally, principals must be fully concerned with the physical environment and other facilities around the school corners. Dilapidated buildings, leaking roofs, abandoned projects, over-grown trees and lawns, dingy and dark buildings that were abandoned by the previous government, etc. have demoralizing effects of people, especially the adolescents (Obidoa, 2006). As a result, the principal have the responsibilities of ensuring that these facilities are in good shape. Even with the meager resources at their disposal, they have the responsibility of providing teachers and other instructional staff with necessary resources for effective teaching (Babayemi, 2006). Principal is expected to wear many hats, he/she must be a manager, administrator, supervisor, instructional, accounting, officer and curriculum leader.
According to Phillips (2012) argues that even though instructional leadership is critical in the realization of effective schools, because it is seldom practiced.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The study assessed the role performance of principals in the management of secondary schools in Zamfara state, Nigeria. School as a social organization involves various inter-related components and individuals working together toward the same goals with different thinking, capability and ideas. The Principal is responsible for the management and day-to-day operations and business of the school. The authority to exercise managerial powers is delegated from the
Teachers Service Board, which retains responsibility for the overall governance of the School. The Principal oversees the educational programs and developments in the school and in the broader educational community. For such kinds of institutions to be successfully operated, it is important that the roles, responsibilities, delegations and authority of the principal are clearly defined and understood, principals and teachers must have an effective working relationship and collaborative ideas. Teachers must understand the role of the principal and vice-versa.
Every principal is different, but not genuinely want to work with teachers to maximize the overall learning taking place within each classroom. Teachers must have a clear understanding of their principal’s expectations. Also, the principals must know that education administration is an activity of collaboration and sharing of responsibilities; it is not an activity of isolation. For instance, poor interpersonal relationship among the school personnels may lead to controversial decision-making process, which in turn creates destructions and school conflicts through among others rumour mongering, gossip, backbiting among students, teachers and other community members which will lead to non-achievement of educational objectives. According to Cohen (2008), poor cordial relationship among the employees affects the working together to identify, define and solve common problems in the school. In respect of decision making in schools, poor performances of principal in democratizing the school leadership through decision making leads to development of conflicts between the school management and teachers, school and community or between school and Ministry of Education Officials. As stated by Yabo (2007), that “communication is the life blood of any organization without which no activity of an organization will be possible. Thus, inability of principal to maintain and sustain lines of communication in a school, educational goals can hardly to be achieved.
Also, the principal served as an immediate school supervisor who always directs, assists, and guides the school services towards the achievement of desired objectives; poor performance of principal in supervision may lead to falling standard teaching and learning in school which in turn lead to the poor students’ academic performances. According to Uko (2001), the successful school supervisions depend on effective management of a school which requires knowledge, skill and expertise in handling different facets of the school system. At a time, poor students’ academic performance has been related to inability of principals to effectively managed their duty stations, this may be due to lack of skills, competence and productivity which may require’ regular training and retraining for staff and administrators Ozigi (1977) concluded that, “indeed this category of teachers, who are conservative and complacent as well as to the unqualified teachers in the profession constitute one of the factors responsible for the falling standard of education”. Thus, reputable principal is the one who encourages regular training and retraining
for staff in school organization.
School discipline is one of the most important roles of principal in school management. Whenever principal and other management team failed to maintain discipline in the school, the school may be characterized with many obstacles and students’ misbehave which must affect teaching- and learning processes. Haidt (2005) asserted that students’ indiscipline interrupts the smooth running of teaching and learning process as well as general stability of school programmes.
The school principals must work together with the school community to ensure smooth running of school. For instance, Parent Teachers’ Association and school based management committee plays vital roles in school planning, evaluation and development. Inability of a principal toward the improvement cordial school community relationship will consequently lead to school-community conflicts. Sharma (1992) Poor school community relationship has been attributed to inability of the principals to carry out their duties efficiently. Apart from this, maintenance of school facilities become the responsibility t>f a school principal as an overall head of the school charged with the responsibility of coordinating, planning and maintenance of all school properties. Obidoa (2006) stated that the principals have the responsibilities of ensuring that these facilities are in good shape. Even with the meager resources at their disposal, they have the responsibility of providing teachers and other instructional staff with necessary resources for effective teaching and learning process.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The study was set to achieve the following objectives:
- examine the role performance of principals on interpersonal relationship in secondaryschools in Zamfara State;
- ascertain the role performance of principals on decision making process in secondaryschools in Zamfara State;
- determine the role performance of principals on communication in secondary schoolsin Zamfara State;
- evaluate the role performance of principals on supervision in secondary schools in
- ascertain the role performance of principals on staff development in secondary schools in Zamfara State;
- assess the role performance of principals on discipline in secondary schools in
- examine the role performance of principals on school community relationship in secondary schools in Zamfara State; and
- determine the role performance of principals on maintenance of facilities in secondary schools in Zamfara State.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were asked to guide the study:
- How do principals perform their role on interpersonal relationship in secondary schools in Zamfara State?
- How do principals perform their role on decision making process in secondary schools in Zamfara State?
- How do principals perform their role on communication in secondary schools in
- What are the role performances of principals on supervision in secondary schools inZamfara State?
- What are the role performances of principals on staff development in secondary schools in Zamfara State?
- How do principals perform their roleon discipline in secondary schools in ZamfaraState?
- How do principals perform their role on school community relationship in secondary schools in Zamfara State?
- How do principals perform their role on maintenance of facilities in secondary schools in Zamfara State?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
In line with research objectives, hypotheses were formulated as follows:
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of teachers, principals and Ministryof Education officials on the role performance of principals on interpersonalrelationship in secondary schools in Zamfara State;
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the role performance of principals on decision making process in secondary schools in
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the role performance of principals on communication in secondary schools in Zamfara State;
- There is no significant’ difference in the opinions of respondents on the role performance of principals on supervision in secondary schools in Zamfara State;
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the role performance of principals on staff development in secondary schools in Zamfara
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the role performance of principals on discipline in secondary schools in Zamfara State;
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the role performance of principals on school community relationship in secondary schools in Zamfara State; and
- There is no significant difference in the opinions of respondents on the: role performance of principals on maintenance of facilities in secondary schools in
1.6 Basic Assumptions
The research was based on the following basic assumptions:
- Role performance of principals on interpersonal relationship improves teaching andlearning process which in turn prevail climatic condition of service in secondaryschools in Zamfara State;
- Democratization of decision making process by the principal enhances stability andunderstanding in the management of secondary schools in Zamfara State;
- Ability of principals to inflow and sustain a line of schools communication harmonizes delegation of authority and division of labours in secondary schools inn Zamfara State;
- Supervisory role of principals encourages the implementation of instructions in secondary schools in Zamfara State;
- Roles performance of principals encourages regular staff development programmes through in-service training, seminars, workshops and conferences in secondary schools in Zamfara State;
- The effort of principals on maintenance of discipline enables school to achieve the predetermined objectives in secondary schools in Zamfara State;
- Role of principals on substantiating cordial school community relationship prevents school-community conflicts and encourages parent to contribute their quarter in school development plan in secondary schools in Zamfara State; and
- Active and expertise principal ensures regular maintenance of school facilities in secondary schools in Zamfara State.
1.7 Significance of the Study
The study assesses the role performance of principals in the management of secondary schools in Zamfara State. The outcomes of the study in one way or the other will be of benefits to both teaching and non-teaching staff of the Ministry of Education in Zamfara State. For instance, the study will be of benefits to the principals by encouraging them to work hard in discharging their managerial duties in the institutions of learning. The study will also be of great benefit to the principals because it will enable them know the appropriate method to use towards the achievement of desired objectives. By this therefore, itis expected that principals will have a clearer pictures of the area that needs more attention tobe used in development plan.
The research work findings will provide the Zamfara State Ministry of Education with the reliable information on managerial issues related to human, material, financial and time resources for sustainability and attainment to educational objectives. The findings of the study will also be of great importance to parents and other stakeholders. It will further open the doors for positive interpersonal relationship in the school. The findings will clarify the strength and weakness of the school principals in the encouragement of staff development programmes in secondary schools in Zamfara state.
The study will equip the principals and teachers with importance of cordial relationship between school and the community. It stress the supervisory roles of principals in ensuring disciplines, school maintenance and general instructions the as executive administrators of secondary schools in Zamfara state. Finally, it is hope that the outcomes of the study will pave way for further research into different aspects of principals’ role performance s in the administration of secondary school for being the documents additional reference for further academic research.
1.8 Scope of the Study
The study was limited to the assessment” of the role performance of principals in themanagement of secondary schools in Zamfara State, Nigeria. The study covered all publicsecondary schools teachers, principals and Ministry of Education officials of- the fourEducational Zones of 14 Local Governments in Zamfara State. It was also limited to identifying the various roles and responsibilities of school principals in the management ofsecondary school with particular reference to Zamfara State, Nigeria. This confinement is necessary due to the work difficulties in term of among others financial resources to cover expenses of the research work, the time frame within which the research is to be completed, the enormity of the task of obtaining information and collecting data for the research work and the geographical spread coupled with lack of experience to cope with a research of such wide magnitude. Also, these categories are the immediate stakeholders responsible for managing human, material, financial and timing resources in secondary education in Nigeria.
ASSESSMENT OF THE DUTIES OF PRINCIPALS IN MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOLS IN ZAMFARA STATE, NIGERIA